Advances in Commercial Deployment of Spoken Dialog Systems


Advances in Commercial Deployment of Spoken Dialog Systems (2011) .. by David Suendermann


Contents

1 Deployed vs. Academic Spoken Dialog Systems . . . 1

1.1 At-a-Glance . . . 1

1.2 Census, Internet, and a Lot of Numbers . . . 2

1.3 The Two Worlds . . . 7

2 Paradigms for Deployed Spoken Dialog Systems . . . 9

2.1 A Few Remarks on History . . . 9

2.2 Components of Spoken Dialog Systems . . . 11

2.3 Speech Recognition and Understanding . . . 12

2.3.1 Rule-Based Grammars. . . 12

2.3.2 Statistical Language Models and Classifiers . . . 13

2.3.3 Robustness . . . 14

2.4 Dialog Management . . . 25

2.5 Language and Speech Generation .. . . 27

2.6 Voice Browsing . . . 30

2.7 Deployed Spoken Dialog Systems are Real-Time Systems . . . 33

3 Measuring Performance of Spoken Dialog Systems . . . 39

3.1 Observable vs. Hidden . . . 39

3.2 Speech Performance Analysis Metrics . . . 42

3.3 Objective vs. Subjective . . . 46

3.4 Evaluation Infrastructure . . . 48

4 Deployed Spoken Dialog Systems’ Alpha and Omega: Adaptation and Optimization . . . 49

4.1 Speech Recognition and Understanding . . . 50

4.2 Dialog Management . . . 55

4.2.1 Escalator . . . 55

4.2.2 Engager . . . 56

4.2.3 Contender . . . 59

References . . . 63