Domain-Level Reasoning for Spoken Dialogue Systems


Domain-Level Reasoning for Spoken Dialogue Systems (2011) Buehler & Minker


Contents
1 Introduction . . . 1
1.1 Spoken-Language Dialogue Systems . . . 2
1.2 Problem Setting . . . 6
1.3 Proposed Solution – A Logic-Based Framework . . . 8
1.4 Document Structure . . . 11
2 Fundamentals of Dialogue Systems . . . 15
2.1 Introduction . . . 15
2.2 The Structure of Discourse . . . 17
2.3 A Hierarchical Model of Intentions . . . 19
2.4 Collaborative Negotiation . . . 21
2.5 Dialogue Scripts and Voice Browsers . . . 22
2.6 Information States and Dialogue Moves . . . 24
2.7 Concepts and Terminology. . . 26
2.8 Systems and Architectures . . . 27
2.8.1 Circuit Fix-It Shop . . . 28
2.8.2 TRAINS and TRIPS . . . 30
2.8.3 COLLAGEN. . . 33
2.8.4 SmartKom . . . 34
2.8.5 D’HOMME . . . 36
2.9 Discussion . . . 37
3 First-Order Logic . . . 41
3.1 Introduction . . . 41
3.2 First-Order Languages . . . 42
3.3 Deduction . . . 44
3.4 Model-Theoretic Semantics . . . 45
3.5 Modelling Actions and Events in Logic . . . 47
3.6 Finite Model Generation Using Tableaux . . . 49
3.7 Discussion . . . 52
4 Logic-Based Domain Modelling . . . 55
4.1 Introduction . . . 55
4.2 Modelling Structural Information . . . 56
4.3 Modelling Dynamic Properties . . . 57
4.4 A Library of Reusable Domain Theories . . . 63
4.4.1 Basic Arithmetics . . . 63
4.4.2 Temporal Structure . . . 65
4.4.3 Lists . . . 66
4.4.4 Events . . . 68
4.4.5 Fluent Change Events . . . 69
4.4.6 Locations . . . 70
4.4.7 Relational Databases . . . 71
4.4.8 Application Domains . . . 73
4.5 Modelling the TRAINS Domain . . . 75
4.6 Discussion . . . 80
5 Interactive Model Generation. . . 83
5.1 Introduction . . . 83
5.2 Model Generation as a Reasoning Procedure . . . 84
5.3 The Core Reasoning Process . . . 86
5.3.1 Data Structures . . . 87
5.3.2 The Reasoner State . . . 88
5.3.3 The Iterative Reasoning Function . . . 90
5.3.4 Rules of Inference . . . 92
5.3.5 Handling Equality . . . 94
5.3.6 Optimisation Techniques . . . 95
5.4 The Interactive Protocol . . . 97
5.4.1 Accessing the Proof Database . . . 98
5.4.2 Managing Concurrent Reasoning Processes . . . 98
5.4.3 Controlling the Reasoning Process . . . 99
5.4.4 Accessing External Data Sources . . . 100
5.4.5 Adapting the Search Strategy . . . 101
5.4.6 Implementation . . . 102
5.5 Development and Testing . . . 102
5.5.1 Performance Tests . . . 104
5.5.2 Test Cases . . . 106
5.5.3 Enumerating TRAINS Models . . . 108
5.5.4 A Sample TRAINS Test Case . . . 109
5.5.5 A Distributed Batch Processing Architecture . . . 112
5.5.6 Interactive Testing . . . 113
5.6 Discussion . . . 113
6 A Prototype Based on VoiceXML . . . 115
6.1 Introduction . . . 115
6.2 VoiceXML Platform . . . 116
6.3 Accessing the Reasoning Engine from VoiceXML . . . 117
6.4 Application Domain . . . 119
6.5 Dialogue Design . . . 120
6.5.1 Form Structure . . . 121
6.5.2 A Sample Interaction . . . 122
6.6 Discussion . . . 124
7 Information State-Based Dialogue Management . . . 127
7.1 Introduction . . . 127
7.2 Collaborating on Requirements and Inferences . . . 128
7.2.1 A Generic System Strategy . . . 129
7.2.2 Dialogue Moves . . . 131
7.2.3 Information State . . . 132
7.3 Processing User Requirements. . . 135
7.4 Answering User Questions . . . 137
7.5 Providing Inferences . . . 139
7.5.1 Resolving Conflicts . . . 140
7.5.2 Dealing with System Suggestions and Alternatives . . . 141
7.5.3 Retracting Inferences . . . 142
7.6 Using Hypothetical Reasoning. . . 142
7.7 Discussion . . . 144
8 Revised Prototype and System Architecture . . . 147
8.1 Introduction . . . 147
8.2 Architecture Considerations. . . 148
8.3 A Basic Black-Board Infrastructure . . . 149
8.4 Frame-Based Surface Level . . . 150
8.5 Refining the System Strategy . . . 152
8.6 The Revised Prototype . . . 153
8.6.1 Application Domain . . . 154
8.6.2 Natural Language Understanding . . . 155
8.6.3 Natural Language Output . . . 156
8.7 Discussion . . . 159
9 Conclusions and Future Directions . . . 161
9.1 Summary. . . 161
9.1.1 Dialogue Management Approach . . . 163
9.1.2 Interactive Reasoning . . . 164
9.1.3 Architecture Prototypes . . . 165
9.2 Future Work . . . 166
10 Additions . . . 171
10.1 Description Logics . . . 171
10.2 SHRDLU. . . 172
10.3 Dialogue Systems As Proof Editors . . . 172
10.4 Closed World Assumption . . . 173
References . . . 175
Index . . . 183