Semantic Web Services


Semantic Web Services (2011) .. by Ioan Toma etc


Contents

Part I Scientific and Technological Foundations of Semantic Web Services

1 Introduction . . . 3

2 Web Science . . . 9

2.1 Motivation . . . 9

2.2 Technical Solution . . . 10

2.2.1 History of the Web . . . 10

2.2.2 Building the Web . . . 12

2.2.3 Web in Society . . . 16

2.2.4 Operationalizing the Web Science for a World of International Commerce . . . 18

2.2.5 Analyzing the Web . . . 21

2.3 Web 2.0 . . . 22

2.4 Conclusions . . . 22

References . . . 23

3 Service Science . . . 25

3.1 Motivation . . . 25

3.2 What Is a Service? . . . 26

3.3 Service Analysis, Design, Development and Testing . . . 27

3.4 Service Orchestration, Composition and Delivery . . . 29

3.5 Service Innovation . . . 30

3.6 Service Design Approach . . . 31

3.7 Service Pricing Method and Economics . . . 32

3.8 Service Quality Measurement . . . 32

3.9 Service Technologies . . . 33

3.10 Service Application . . . 34

3.11 Conclusions . . . 34

References . . . 35

4 Web Services . . . 37

4.1 Motivation . . . 37

4.1.1 Service Oriented Computing (SOC) . . . 38

4.1.2 Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) . . . 39

4.2 Technical Solution . . . 40

4.2.1 Defining Web Services . . . 41

4.2.2 Web Service Technologies . . . 42

4.3 Illustration by a Larger Example . . . 55

4.4 Summary . . . 56

4.5 Exercises . . . 60

References . . . 64

5 Web 2.0 and RESTful Services . . . 67

5.1 Motivation . . . 67

5.2 Technical Solution . . . 68

5.2.1 REST. . . 69

5.2.2 Describing RESTful Services . . . 69

5.2.3 Data Exchange for RESTful Services . . . 72

5.2.4 AJAX APIs . . . 77

5.2.5 Examples of RESTful Services . . . 78

5.3 Illustration by a Larger Example . . . 80

5.4 Summary . . . 83

5.5 Exercises . . . 84

References . . . 85

6 Semantic Web . . . 87

6.1 Motivation . . . 87

6.2 Technical Solution . . . 89

6.3 Extensions . . . 98

6.4 Summary . . . 101

6.5 Exercises . . . 102

References . . . 103

Part II Web Service Modeling Ontology Approach

7 Web Service Modeling Ontology . . . 107

7.1 Motivation . . . 107

7.2 Technical Solution . . . 108

7.2.1 Ontologies . . . 110

7.2.2 Web Services . . . 113

7.2.3 Goals . . . 116

7.2.4 Mediators . . . 116

7.3 Extensions . . . 118

7.4 Illustration by a Larger Example . . . 119

7.4.1 Ontologies . . . 119

7.4.2 Goals . . . 120

7.4.3 Web Services . . . 120

7.4.4 Mediators . . . 124

7.5 Summary . . . 124

7.6 Exercises . . . 128

References . . . 129

8 The Web Service Modeling Language . . . 131

8.1 Motivation . . . 131

8.1.1 Principles of WSMO. . . 131

8.1.2 Logics Families and Semantic Web Services . . . 132

8.2 Technical Solution . . . 134

8.2.1 WSML Language Variants . . . 134

8.2.2 WSML Basis . . . 136

8.2.3 Ontologies in WSML . . . 139

8.2.4 Web Services in WSML . . . 145

8.2.5 Goals in WSML . . . 149

8.2.6 Mediators in WSML . . . 152

8.2.7 Technologies for Using WSML . . . 152

8.3 Extensions . . . 153

8.4 Illustration by a Larger Example . . . 155

8.4.1 Travel Ontology . . . 155

8.4.2 Services . . . 157

8.4.3 Goal . . . 157

8.5 Summary . . . 158

8.6 Exercises . . . 158

References . . . 160

9 The Web Service Execution Environment . . . 163

9.1 Motivation . . . 163

9.1.1 Service Orientation . . . 164

9.1.2 Execution Environment for Semantic Web Services . . . 168

9.1.3 Governing Principles . . . 168

9.2 Technical Solution . . . 169

9.2.1 SESA Vision . . . 169

9.2.2 SESA Middleware . . . 175

9.2.3 SESA Execution Semantics . . . 191

9.3 Illustration by a Larger Example . . . 200

9.3.1 Modeling of Business Services . . . 202

9.3.2 Execution of Services . . . 206

9.4 Possible Extensions . . . 210

9.4.1 Goal Subscription . . . 210

9.5 Summary . . . 213

9.6 Exercises . . . 213

References . . . 215

Part III Complementary Approaches for Web Service Modeling Ontology

10 Triple Space Computing for Semantic Web Services . . . 219

10.1 Motivation . . . 219

10.2 Technical Solution . . . 221

10.2.1 Tuplespace Computing . . . 221

10.2.2 Triple Space Computing . . . 223

10.2.3 Triple Space Conceptual Models . . . 224

10.2.4 Triple Space Architecture . . . 229

10.2.5 Triple Space and Semantic Web Services . . . 231

10.2.6 Triple Space and Semantic SOA . . . 238

10.3 Illustration by a Larger Example . . . 242

10.4 Summary . . . 247

References . . . 248

11 OWL-S and Other Approaches . . . 251

11.1 Motivation . . . 251

11.2 OWL-S . . . 252

11.2.1 Service Profile . . . 252

11.2.2 Service Grounding . . . 254

11.2.3 Service Model . . . 256

11.2.4 An Extension to OWL-S . . . 259

11.2.5 Tool Support . . . 261

11.2.6 OWL-S Summary . . . 263

11.3 METEOR-S . . . 263

11.3.1 Semantic Annotation of Web services . . . 264

11.3.2 Semantics-Based Discovery of Web Services . . . 267

11.3.3 Composition of Web Services . . . 268

11.3.4 METEOR-S Summary . . . 269

11.4 IRS-III . . . 270

11.4.1 Discovery, Selection and Mediation . . . 273

11.4.2 Communication . . . 274

11.4.3 Choreography and Orchestration . . . 275

11.5 Summary . . . 276

11.6 Exercises . . . 277

References . . . 277

12 Lightweight Semantic Web Service Descriptions . . . 279

12.1 Motivation . . . 279

12.2 Technical Solution . . . 280

12.2.1 SAWSDL . . . 281

12.2.2 WSMO-Lite Service Semantics . . . 283

12.2.3 WSMO-Lite in SAWSDL . . . 288

12.2.4 WSMO-Lite for RESTful Services . . . 289

12.3 Extensions . . . 292

12.4 Summary . . . 295

12.5 Exercises . . . 295

References . . . 295

Part IV Real-World Adoption of Semantic Web Services

13 What Are SWS Good for? DIP, SUPER, and SOA4All Use Cases . . 299

13.1 Motivation . . . 299

13.2 Data, Information, and Process Integration with Semantic Web Services (DIP) . . . 300

13.2.1 Motivation . . . 300

13.2.2 Technical Solution . . . 301

13.2.3 Use Cases . . . 302

13.3 Semantics Utilized for Process Management Within and Between Enterprises (SUPER) . . . 304

13.3.1 Motivation . . . 305

13.3.2 Technical Solution . . . 307

13.3.3 Use Cases . . . 311

13.4 Service Oriented Architectures for All (SOA4All) . . . 311

13.4.1 Motivation . . . 312

13.4.2 Technical Solution . . . 313

13.4.3 Use Cases . . . 318

13.5 Summary . . . 323

References . . . 323

14 Seekda: The Business Point of View . . . 325

14.1 Motivation . . . 325

14.2 Technical Solution . . . 326

14.2.1 Crawler . . . 327

14.2.2 Search Engine . . . 333

14.2.3 Bundle Configurator and Assistant . . . 333

14.3 Illustration by a Larger Example . . . 342

14.4 Summary . . . 349

14.5 Exercises . . . 351

References . . . 351

Index . . . 353