Semantic Textual Similarity 2015


Notes:

Semantic textual similarity measures the degree of semantic equivalence between two texts.

  • Corpus similarity
  • Document similarity
  • Semantic similarity
  • Text similarity
  • Textual similarity

Wikipedia:

See also:

Cosine Similarity & Dialog Systems 2015Semantic Textual Similarity 2014


Semantic Textual Similarity M Parikh – pdfs.semanticscholar.org Abstract Through this project, we will explore Semantic Textual Similarity-a shared task in Sem Eval 2012. The problem involves comparing a pair of sentences for semantic equivalence, reporting the equivalence on a scale of 0 5 with 0 meaning no equivalence

Semeval-2015 task 2: Semantic textual similarity, english, spanish and pilot on interpretability E Agirrea, C Baneab, C Cardiec, D Cerd… – … workshop on semantic …, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract In semantic textual similarity (STS), systems rate the degree of semantic equivalence between two text snippets. This year, the participants were challenged with new datasets in English and Spanish. The annotations for both subtasks leveraged Cited by 74 Related articles All 12 versions

Miniexperts: An svm approach for measuring semantic textual similarity H Béchara, H Costa, S Taslimipoora… – … on Semantic …, 2015 – anthology.aclweb.org Abstract This paper describes the system submitted by the University of Wolverhampton and the University of Malaga for SemEval-2015 Task 2: Semantic Textual Similarity. The system uses a Supported Vector Machine approach based on a number of linguistically motivated Cited by 9 Related articles All 17 versions

Large scale needs-based open innovation via automated semantic textual similarity analysis CR Schaffhausen… – ASME 2015 …, 2015 – … .asmedigitalcollection.asme.org abstract Open innovation often enjoys large quantities of submitted content. Yet the need to effectively process such large quantities of content impede the widespread use of open innovation in practice. This article presents an exploration of needs-based open innovation Cited by 4 Related articles

Dcu: Using distributional semantics and domain adaptation for the semantic textual similarity semeval-2015 task 2 P Arora, C Hokamp, J Foster, GJF Jones – … Workshop on Semantic …, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract We describe the work carried out by the DCU team on the Semantic Textual Similarity task at SemEval-2015. We learn a regression model to predict a semantic similarity score between a sentence pair. Our system exploits distributional semantics in Cited by 4 Related articles All 10 versions

ExB Themis: Extensive feature extraction from word alignments for semantic textual similarity C Hänig, R Remus, X De La Puente – SemEval-2015, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract We present ExB Themis–a word alignmentbased semantic textual similarity system developed for SemEval-2015 Task 2: Semantic Textual Similarity. It combines both string and semantic similarity measures as well as alignment features using Support Vector Cited by 12 Related articles All 10 versions

A semantic logic-based approach to determine textual similarity E Blanco, D Moldovan – IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract—This paper presents a semantic logic-based approach to determine textual similarity. Three logic form transformations taking into account semantic structure of sentences are proposed. Logic proofs are obtained using an adapted resolution step that Cited by 2 Related articles All 3 versions

Analytical Tools For Visualisation Of Interactions In Online E-Learning Activities On Lms And Semantic Similarity Measures On Text. Y AL-ASHMOERY, R MESSOUSSI… – Journal of Theoretical and …, 2015 – jatit.org ABSTRACT This paper aims to build an analytical tools system for Learning Management Systems (LMS) that will aid and support teachers and administrators to understand and analyse interaction patterns and knowledge constructions of the participants involved in Cited by 4 Related articles All 2 versions

FBK-HLT: A new framework for semantic textual similarity NPA Vo, S Magnolini, O Popescu – SemEval-2015, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract This paper reports the description and performance of our system, FBK-HLT, participating in the SemEval 2015, Task# 2 “Semantic Textual Similarity”, English subtask. We submitted three runs with different hypothesis in combining typical features (lexical Cited by 2 Related articles All 11 versions

yiGou: A Semantic Text Similarity Computing System Based on SVM Y Liu, C Sun, L Lin, X Wang – SemEval-2015, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract This paper describes the yiGou system we developed to compute the semantic similarity of two English sentences, which we submitted to the SemEval 2015 Task 2 (English subtask). The system uses a support vector machine model with literal similarity, Cited by 2 Related articles All 10 versions

A preliminary evaluation of the impact of syntactic structure in semantic textual similarity and semantic relatedness tasks NPA Vo, O Popescu – NAACL-HLT 2015 Student Research Workshop ( …, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract The well related tasks of evaluating the Semantic Textual Similarity and Semantic Relatedness have been under a special attention in NLP community. Many different approaches have been proposed, implemented and evaluated at different levels, such as Cited by 1 Related articles All 8 versions

Identifying prominent arguments in online debates using semantic textual similarity F Boltuzic, J Šnajder – Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on …, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract Online debates sparkle argumentative discussions from which generally accepted arguments often emerge. We consider the task of unsupervised identification of prominent argument in online debates. As a first step, in this paper we perform a cluster analysis using Cited by 6 Related articles All 10 versions

UBC: Cubes for English Semantic Textual Similarity and Supervised Approaches for Interpretable STS E Agirre, A Gonzalez-Agirre, I Lopez-Gazpio… – SemEval-2015, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract In Semantic Textual Similarity, systems rate the degree of semantic equivalence on a graded scale from 0 to 5, with 5 being the most similar. For the English subtask, we present a system which relies on several resources for token-to-token and phrase-to-phrase Cited by 2 Related articles All 11 versions

NeRoSim: A System for Measuring and Interpreting Semantic Textual Similarity R Banjade, NB Niraula, N Maharjan, V Rus… – SemEval-2015, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract We present in this paper our system developed for SemEval 2015 Shared Task 2 (2a-English Semantic Textual Similarity, STS, and 2c-Interpretable Similarity) and the results of the submitted runs. For the English STS subtask, we used regression models combining a Cited by 9 Related articles All 9 versions

FBK-HLT: An application of semantic textual similarity for answer selection in community question answering NPA Vo, S Magnolini, O Popescu – SemEval-2015, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract This paper reports the description and performance of our system, FBK-HLT, participating in the SemEval 2015, Task# 3″ Answer Selection in Community Question Answering” for English, for both subtasks. We submit two runs with different classifiers in Cited by 2 Related articles All 10 versions

SOPA: Random Forests Regression for the Semantic Textual Similarity task D Buscaldi, JJG Flores, IV Meza, I Rodr?guez – SemEval-2015, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract This paper describes the system used by the LIPN-IIMAS team in the Task 2, Semantic Textual Similarity, at SemEval 2015, in both the English and Spanish sub-tasks. We included some features based on alignment measures and we tested different learning Cited by 3 Related articles All 10 versions

MeSHSim: An R/Bioconductor package for measuring semantic similarity over MeSH headings and MEDLINE documents J Zhou, Y Shui, S Peng, X Li… – … of bioinformatics and …, 2015 – World Scientific Currently, all MEDLINE documents are indexed by medical subject headings (MeSH). Computing semantic similarity between two MeSH headings as well as two documents has become very important for many biomedical text mining applications. We develop an R Cited by 2 Related articles All 3 versions

Establishing Semantic Similarity of the Cluster Documents and Extracting Key Entities in the Problem of the Semantic Analysis of News Texts AN Soloshenko, YA Orlova, VL Rozaliev… – Modern Applied …, 2015 – ccsenet.org Abstract This paper is dedicated to the problem of establishing semantic similarity for the documents of the news cluster and extracting key entities from the article’s text. The existing methods and algorithms for fuzzy duplicate detection texts are briefly reviewed and Cited by 2 Related articles All 4 versions

Texts in, meaning out: neural language models in semantic similarity task for Russian A Kutuzov, I Andreev – arXiv preprint arXiv:1504.08183, 2015 – arxiv.org Abstract: Distributed vector representations for natural language vocabulary get a lot of attention in contemporary computational linguistics. This paper summarizes the experience of applying neural network language models to the task of calculating semantic similarity for Cited by 5 Related articles All 3 versions

Wikipedia-Based Semantic Similarity Measurements for Noisy Short Texts Using Extended Naive Bayes M Shirakawa, K Nakayama, T Hara… – IEEE Transactions on …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org ABSTRACT This paper proposes a Wikipedia-based semantic similarity measurement method that is intended for real-world noisy short texts. Our method is a kind of explicit semantic analysis (ESA), which adds a bag of Wikipedia entities (Wikipedia pages) to a text Cited by 4 Related articles All 4 versions

From senses to texts: An all-in-one graph-based approach for measuring semantic similarity MT Pilehvar, R Navigli – Artificial Intelligence, 2015 – Elsevier Abstract Quantifying semantic similarity between linguistic items lies at the core of many applications in Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence. It has therefore received a considerable amount of research interest, which in its turn has led to a wide Cited by 12 Related articles All 6 versions

Semantic Similarity Frontiers: From Concepts to Documents D Jurgens, MT Pilehvar – Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural …, 2015 – cs.cmu.edu Semantic similarity forms a central component in many NLP systems, from lexical semantics, to part of speech tagging, to social media analysis. Recent years have seen a renewed interest in developing new similarity techniques, buoyed in part by work on embeddings and Cited by 1 Related articles

Using Part-of-Speech Tags as Deep-Syntax Indicators in Determining Short-Text Semantic Similarity V Batanovi?, D Boji? – Computer Science and Information Systems, 2015 – elib.mi.sanu.ac.rs Abstract. This paper presents POST STSS, a method of determining short-text semantic similarity in which part-of-speech tags are used as indicators of the deeper syntactic information usually extracted by more advanced tools like parsers and semantic role Cited by 1 Related articles All 6 versions

Pattern and semantic similarity based automatic extraction of hyponym-hypernym relation from Turkish corpus G Sahin, B Diri, T Y?ld?z – 2015 23nd Signal Processing and …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract—Extraction of semantic relations from various resources (Wikipedia, Web, corpus etc.) is an important issue in natural language processing. In this paper, automatic extraction of hyponym-hypernym pairs from Turkish corpus is aimed. For extraction of hyponym- Cited by 4 Related articles

Semantic similarity-based clustering of web documents using fuzzy c-means J Avanija, K Ramar – International Journal of Computational …, 2015 – World Scientific With the massive growth and large volume of the web it is very difficult to recover results based on the user preferences. The next generation web architecture, semantic web reduces the burden of the user by performing search based on semantics instead of Cited by 1 Related articles

Similarity-Based Query-Focused Multi-document Summarization Using Crowdsourced and Manually-built Lexical-Semantic Resources MA Mohamed, M Oussalah – Trustcom/BigDataSE/ISPA, 2015 …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract—In this paper we present an approach for an extractive query focused multi- document summarization which stands on an enhanced knowledge-based short text semantic similarity measures. We incorporate WordNet Taxonomy with Categorial Variation Cited by 2 Related articles All 3 versions

On retrieving intelligently plagiarized documents using semantic similarity SF Hussain, A Suryani – Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 2015 – Elsevier Abstract Plagiarism in text documents can be done in many ways. The most common form of plagiarizing a text document is to copy a chunk of text and alter it intelligently, thereby making it look original. Such cases are hard to detect since they require semantic analysis of Cited by 2 Related articles All 3 versions

Phrase-Based Semantic Textual Similarity for Linking Researchers M Bravo, OE Padilla – 2015 26th International Workshop on …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract—Researchers need to establish networks with colleagues that work similar topics, frequently; they are looking similar works by exploring free text in scientific publications in order to update them with the recent state of the art. They read the abstracts and decide Related articles

TATO: Leveraging on Multiple Strategies for Semantic Textual Similarity TT Vu, QH Tran, SB Pham – SemEval-2015, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract In this paper, we describe the TATO system which participated in the SemEval-2015 Task 2a:“Semantic Textual Similarity (STS) for English”. Our system is trained on published datasets from the previous competitions. Based on some machine learning techniques, it Cited by 1 Related articles All 10 versions

SemantiKLUE: Semantic Textual Similarity with Maximum Weight Matching N Plotnikova, G Lapesa, T Proisl, S Evert – SemEval-2015, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract This paper describes the SemantiKLUE system (Proisl et al., 2014) used for the SemEval-2015 shared task on Semantic Textual Similarity (STS) for English. The system was developed for SemEval-2013 and extended for SemEval-2014, where it participated in Related articles All 12 versions

FCICU: The Integration between Sense-Based Kernel and Surface-Based Methods to Measure Semantic Textual Similarity B Hassan, S AbdelRahman, R Bahgat – SemEval-2015, 2015 – anthology.aclweb.org Abstract This paper describes FCICU team participation in SemEval 2015 for Semantic Textual Similarity challenge. Our main contribution is to propose a word-sense similarity method using BabelNet relationships. In the English subtask challenge, we submitted three Related articles All 9 versions

Computing Semantic Text Similarity Using Rich Features Y Liu, C Sun, L Lin, Y Zhao, X Wang – 2015 – anthology.aclweb.org Abstract Semantic text similarity (STS) is an essential problem in many Natural Language Processing tasks, which has drawn a considerable amount of attention by research community in recent years. In this paper, our work focused on computing semantic similarity Cited by 2 Related articles All 8 versions

Computing Semantic Textual Similarity Based on Partial Textual Entailment M V?ta – researchgate.net Abstract: With a rapidly growing amount of textual data, the task of discovering semantically similar documents is becoming more and more important. This general task is being solved in a wide range of practical applications ranging from recommender systems to plagiarism Related articles

Samsung: Align-and-Differentiate Approach to Semantic Textual Similarity L Han, J Martineau, D Cheng, C Thomas – SemEval-2015, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract This paper describes our Align-and-Differentiate approach to the SemEval 2015 Task 2 competition for English Semantic Textual Similarity (STS) systems. Our submission achieved the top place on two of the five evaluation datasets. Our team placed 3rd among Cited by 5 Related articles All 10 versions

Learning the Impact and Behavior of Syntactic Structure: A Case Study in Semantic Textual Similarity NPA Vo, O Popescu – RECENT ADVANCES IN – aclweb.org Abstract We present a case study on the role of syntactic structures towards resolving the Semantic Textual Similarity (STS) task. Although various approaches have been proposed, the research of using syntactic information to determine the semantic similarity is a relatively Related articles All 9 versions

Genetic algorithm based feature selection and parameter optimization for support vector regression applied to semantic textual similarity B Su, Y Wang – Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science), 2015 – Springer Abstract Semantic textual similarity (STS) is a common task in natural language processing (NLP). STS measures the degree of semantic equivalence of two textual snippets. Recently, machine learning methods have been applied to this task, including methods based on Related articles All 6 versions

USAAR-SHEFFIELD: Semantic Textual Similarity with Deep Regression and Machine Translation Evaluation Metrics L Tan?, C Scarton?, L Specia?, J Van Genabith? – SemEval-2015, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract This paper describes the USAARSHEFFIELD systems that participated in the Semantic Textual Similarity (STS) English task of SemEval-2015. We extend the work on using machine translation evaluation metrics in the STS task. Different from previous Related articles All 10 versions

Learning the Impact of Machine Translation Evaluation Metrics for Semantic Textual Similarity S Magnolini, NPA Vo, O Popescu – RECENT ADVANCES IN – eprints.whiterose.ac.uk Abstract We present a work to evaluate the hypothesis that automatic evaluation metrics developed for Machine Translation (MT) systems have significant impact on predicting semantic similarity scores in Semantic Textual Similarity (STS) task for English, in light of Related articles All 9 versions

ECNU: Using Traditional Similarity Measurements and Word Embedding for Semantic Textual Similarity Estimation J Zhao, M Lan, JF Tian – SemEval-2015, 2015 – anthology.aclweb.org Abstract This paper reports our submissions to semantic textual similarity task, ie, task 2 in Semantic Evaluation 2015. We built our systems using various traditional features, such as string-based, corpus-based and syntactic similarity metrics, as well as novel similarity Related articles All 10 versions

UQeResearch: Semantic Textual Similarity Quantification H Hassanzadeh, T Groza, A Nguyen, J Hunter – SemEval-2015, 2015 – aclweb.org Abstract This paper presents an approach for estimating the Semantic Textual Similarity of full English sentences as specified in Shared Task 2 of SemEval-2015. The semantic similarity of sentence pairs is quantified from three perspectives-structural, syntactical, and Related articles All 11 versions

Calculation of Textual Similarity Using Semantic Relatedness Functions AR Kairaldeen, G Ercan – International Conference on Intelligent Text …, 2015 – Springer Abstract Semantic similarity between two sentences is concerned with measuring how much two sentences share the same or related meaning. Two methods in the literature for measuring sentence similarity are cosine similarity and overall similarity. In this work we Related articles All 2 versions

Semantic Similarity Measures Between Words within a Document using WordNet SH Kang, JM Park – Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial …, 2015 – koreascience.or.kr Abstract Semantic similarity between words can be applied in many fields including computational linguistics, artificial intelligence, and information retrieval. In this paper, we present weighted method for measuring a semantic similarity between words in a document.

Semantic Similarity of Documents Using Latent Semantic Analysis C Boling, K Das – 2014 NCUR, 2015 – ncurproceedings.org Abstract Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is a technique that analyzes relationships between documents and its terms, and it discovers a data representation that has a lower dimension than the original semantic space. Essentially, the reduced dimensionality preserves the most Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Semantic Textual Similarity in Machine Translation Evaluation H Béchara – Hernani Costa, Anna Zaretskaya, Gloria Corpas Pastor – researchgate.net Abstract Comparative assessment of machine translation tools often relies on automatic metrics to evaluate systems. However, most automatic metrics still fail to correlate to human judgement. In an attempt to focus further on the adequacy and informativeness of Related articles All 6 versions

Relation based Measuring of Semantic Similarity for Web Documents P Chahal, M Singh, S Kumar – International Journal of …, 2015 – search.proquest.com Abstract The World Wide Web (WWW) is the information resource centre in which information exists in the structure of web pages which are interlinked with each other. From the huge amount of information present on WWW it has been found difficult to extract the Related articles All 5 versions

Learning Semantic Similarity for Very Short Texts C De Boom, S Van Canneyt, S Bohez… – … Conference on Data …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract—Levering data on social media, such as Twitter and Facebook, requires information retrieval algorithms to become able to relate very short text fragments to each other. Traditional text similarity methods such as tf-idf cosinesimilarity, based on word Cited by 4 Related articles All 10 versions

Document similarity analysis via involving both explicit and implicit semantic couplings Q Chen, L Hu, J Xu, W Liu, L Cao – Data Science and Advanced …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract—Document similarity analysis is increasingly critical since roughly 80% of big data is unstructured. Accordingly, semantic couplings (relatedness) have been recognized valuable for capturing the relationships between terms (words or phrases). Existing work Cited by 1 Related articles

Short text similarity algorithm based on term mapping with semantic X HUANG, J ZHANG, Y LIU, M ZHAO – Computer Engineering and …, 2015 – en.cnki.com.cn The accuracy of text similarity calculation is greatly restricted because of the limited amount of terms included in HowNet semantic library. A way of term mapping with semantic space was proposed, where short text was divided into several terms according to part of speech,

Designing a Semantic Similarity Measure for Biomedical Document Clustering S Logeswari, P Kandhasamy – Journal of Medical Imaging and …, 2015 – ingentaconnect.com Document clustering is important for a variety of information needs and applications such as collection management, summary and analysis. Especially, mining biomedical texts for knowledge discovery and hypothesis generation has become a very active field due to the Related articles

Document Classification Using N-gram and Word Semantic Similarity M Ren, S Kang – International Journal of u-and e-Service, Science and …, 2015 – sersc.org Abstract This paper mainly conducted two series of experiments. One is investigation between language dependent and language independent features. Bi-grams in Korean experiments and uni-grams in Chinese contributed most as basic features. And another one Related articles All 2 versions

Adopting Semantic Similarity for Utterance Candidates Discovery from Human-to-Human Dialogue Corpus RY Shtykh, M Makita – International Workshop on Future and Emergent …, 2015 – Springer Abstract Having appropriate utterances in response to user input is an essential element to sustain the flow of conversation in dialogue systems, and a basic and fundamental element for maintaining such conversation coherence is an adjacency pair. To find appropriate Related articles All 4 versions

Leveraging Semantic Similarity in Parallel Corpora for Natural Language Processing S Wu – 2015 – gradworks.umi.com Abstract: This thesis introduces a word alignment based approach for mapping PropBank predicate-argument structures across languages. We used Chinese and English as the language pair for the study and found our approach was able to reliably predict alignments

Pseudo Relevance Feedback technique and Semantic Similarity for Corpus-based Expansion M Mohd, J Atwan, K Shirai – Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract: The adaptation of a Query Expansion (QE) approach for Arabic documents may produce the worst rankings or irrelevant results. Therefore, we have introduced a technique, which is to utilise the Arabic WordNet in the corpus and query expansion level. A Point-wise

A comparison of semantic similarity techniques for a corpus of CSCL chats MG Gutu, T Rebedea… – 2015 14th RoEduNet …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract?This paper analyzes the results obtained by computing the semantic similarity score between pairs of words using different WordNet-based and corpus-based techniques for a custom-built corpus of documents. The authors computed semantic similarity scores for Related articles All 2 versions

Using Semantic Similarity for Identifying Relevant Page Numbers for Indexed Term of Textual Book D Siahaan, S Christina – … on Soft Computing, Intelligence Systems, and …, 2015 – Springer Abstract Back-of-book index page is one of navigation tools for reader. It helps reader to immediately jump to a page that contains relevant information regarding a specific term. It helps reader to retrieve information about specific topics in mind without having to read the Related articles All 2 versions

Semantic Similarity-Enhanced Topic Models for Document Analysis Y Gao, D Wen – Smart Learning Environments, 2015 – Springer Abstract In e-learning environment, more and more larger-scale text resources are generated by teaching–learning interactions. Finding latent topics in these resources can help us understand the teaching contents and the learners’ interests and focuses. Latent Related articles All 3 versions

Semantic Analysis for Document Similarity and Search Queries C Cassar, S Ahmadi – Research and Development in Intelligent Systems …, 2015 – Springer Abstract Document similarity is a popular topic in natural language processing fields, especially in areas of Information Retrieval. Current systems are often limited to keyword search due to the complexities of handling free text search. Accurate results are rarely Related articles All 4 versions

MeSHSim: An R/Bioconductor package for measuring semantic similarity over MeSH headings and MEDLINE documents Z Jing, S Yuxuan, P Shengwen, L Xuhui… – … (CCC), 2015 34th …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract: All recent MEDLINE documents are indexed by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Computing semantic similarity between two MeSH headings as well as two documents has become very important for many biomedical text mining applications. We develop an R Related articles

Efficient Topic Evolution Discovery in a Corpus using Semantic Similarity and Citation Graph V Subramanya, PS Thilagam, S Kote, S Kumar – Citeseer Abstract—A topic evolution graph enables one to get a quick overview of the knowledge body and its growth. Hence, discovery of topic evolution over time in a scientific corpus is an important problem. We propose a technique that uses the content of documents to discover

Synchronizing Text Documents using Semantic Similarity for Topic Mining S Jain, V Raghuwanshi, A Jain – Citeseer Abstract: Mining is a process of knowledge extraction with some meaningful information. Topic Mining also enables extraction of information from the set of text documents. Topic mining is a new way of categorizing text documents which are specially used in Big

Using Textual Semantic Similarity to Improve Clustering Quality of Web Video Search Results PQ Nguyen, AT Nguyen-Thi, TD Ngo… – … (KSE), 2015 Seventh …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract—Clustering Web video search results is to help users locating videos of interest in more effective manner. To cluster returned videos, existing works proposed to use textual and visual similarity of videos. However, one of their limitations is that semantic similarity of Cited by 2 Related articles