AST (Abstract Syntax Tree) & Dialog Systems


Abstract Syntax Tree

Notes:

Grammars of natural languages are needed in programs like natural language interfaces and dialogue systems, but also more generally, in software localization. An abstract syntax also defines functions, which are used for constructing objects in the domain – called abstract syntax trees. The abstract syntax tree represents the Object structure. An abstract syntax tree is formed by applying the functions obeying their typings, as in simply typed lambda calculus. Thus different string configurations can be mapped into the same abstract syntax trees. For instance, travel information can be retrieved from the web service response and the corresponding abstract syntax tree is generated and linearized to a natural language answer. Abstract syntax trees may also be known as “abstract library objects”. The abstract syntax can be formalized as a system of datatypes, where the data objects are abstract syntax trees. The first phase of the compiler is parsing, which converts the source code string into an abstract syntax tree. Another utility of the abstract syntax comes in when all that is changed is the noun, and the regenerated concrete syntax string automatically obeys all the agreement rules. Abstract syntax trees that represent semantic structures are usually the most interesting choice if the goal is to translate between languages. The abstract syntax describes the categories and functions of a grammar and how they are combined together to form abstract syntax trees. A generated abstract syntax tree a the document may be linearised by a GF (Grammatical Framework) lineariser. L-attributed grammars allow the attributes to be evaluated in one left-to-right traversal of the abstract syntax tree. The left-recursion elimination step makes it somewhat challenging to produce correct abstract syntax trees. Grammars themselves are purely declarative; they can be used both for linearizing abstract syntax trees and for parsing strings. The abstract grammar, the concrete grammar and an abstract syntax tree tells us in which order the grammatical rules shall be applied to generate text. OCL (Object Constraint Language) has an abstract syntax tree with an implemented a visitor (pattern) that produces Java expressions; in this concrete syntax, the abstract syntax tree pred john walk is linearized to the string “John walks”. A run-time grammar in GF is a grammar used for parsing and generation, as well as for type checking abstract syntax trees. NLP annotations can be used to find the structures defined by the Rabbit grammar using JAPE (Java Annotation Patterns Engine) transducers, resulting in a Rabbit AST (abstract syntax tree). One such toolkit has been enhanced with templates for developing speech translation systems and dialogue systems, which makes it possible to get back the GF abstract syntax tree, when using Regulus (or Nuance) for parsing the grammar. Building a knowledge diagram in the WYSIWYM (What You See Is What You Mean) corresponds to the construction of an abstract syntax tree in GF. Parsing takes a string into a set of abstract syntax trees. In another step, the partial abstract syntax tree is type checked to verify that there are no semantic violations. Since the proof in GF for any theorem is just an abstract syntax tree, it can just as well be linearized; then, a single data structure similar to an abstract syntax tree is constructed, containing the complete application. A single data structure similar to an abstract syntax tree containing the whole application data can be constructed. Using a GF syntax editor, the abstract syntax trees can be edited for letters which are mostly used in morphological analysis, but has been generalized to dialogue systems. In some dialog systems, there is only one level of syntax rules, defining both the abstract syntax trees and the concrete language. For example, TreeFace is an abstract syntax tree manager that maintains the evolving source code. A Modelica parser reads the Modelica source code and produces an abstract syntax tree (AST) that represents the Modelica model, used in the formal specification of XML languages, that is, sets of abstract syntax trees, and default insertion mechanisms for common tree transformations needed by application programmers.

See also:

CLE (Core Language Engine) | DARE (Domain Analysis and Reuse Environment) | LALR Parser | Paraphrasing & Dialog Systems 2011 | Parse Tree & Dialog Systems 2011


Implementing controlled languages in GF K Angelov, A Ranta – Controlled Natural Language, 2010 – Springer … For example, in a dialogue system for a travel agency, the seman- tic representation of the sentence I want to fly from Paris to Rome should … It declares the three categories of problems, propositions, and ex- pressions, as well as six functions for constructing abstract syntax trees. … Cited by 27 Related articles All 6 versions Cite

The GF Grammar Resource Library A Ranta – LiLT, 2009 – citeulike.org … Individual languages are obtained via compositional mappingsfrom abstract syntax trees to feature structures speci?c to each … processing tasks, such astranslation, multilingual generation, software localization, natural languageinterfaces, and spoken dialogue systems. … Cite More

[PDF] from chalmers.se PGF: A Portable Run-Time Format for Type-Theoretical Grammars K Angelov, B Bringert, A Ranta – Journal of Logic, Language and …, 2010 – Springer … phrase. cat S; NP; VP fun Pred : (NP, VP) ? S fun John : () ? NP fun Walk : () ? VP An abstract syntax tree (briefly, tree) is formed by applying the functions obey- ing their typings, as in simply typed lambda calculus. Thus, for … Cited by 17 Related articles All 9 versions Cite

[PDF] from aclweb.org Grammar development in GF A Ranta, K Angelov, B Bringert – Proceedings of the 12th Conference of …, 2009 – dl.acm.org … Since grammars are often parts of larger language-processing systems (such as translation tools or dialogue systems), their interoperability with other components is an important issue. … Thus different string configura- tions can be mapped into the same abstract syntax trees. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 17 versions Cite

[PDF] from chalmers.se [BOOK] Grammatical Framework: Programming with Multilingual Grammars A Ranta – 2011 – csmisc14.cs.chalmers.se … operations on abstract syntax trees. In tools like YACC, this is fused with parsing rules: Exp ::= Exp “+” Exp {return $1 + $3} The semantic action is in curly brackets: compute the sum. In general: any program, such as • answer a question • consult a database • dialogue system … Cited by 45 Related articles All 5 versions Cite More

[PDF] from uzh.ch An Adaptation Technique for GF-Based Dialogue Systems F Hasibi – Controlled Natural Language, 2012 – Springer … Page 3. An Adaptation Technique for GF-Based Dialogue Systems 97 2 The Baseline System … After that, travel information is retrieved from the web service response and the corresponding abstract syntax tree is generated and linearized to a natural language answer. Fig. … Related articles All 2 versions Cite

[PDF] from chalmers.se [PDF] Grammars as software libraries A Ranta – Y. Bertot, G. Huet, J.-J. Lévy, and G. Plotkin, eds., From …, 2009 – cse.chalmers.se … `a la mémoire de Gilles Kahn Abstract Grammars of natural languages are needed in programs like natural language interfaces and dialogue systems, but also more generally, in soft- ware localization. … abstract library objects = abstract syntax trees 5 Page 6. … Cited by 19 Related articles All 11 versions Cite More

Developing and exploiting a multilingual grammar for human-computer interaction X Zhang, R Andrich, D Rösner – Human-Computer Interaction. Interaction …, 2011 – Springer … of developing a grammar that is powerful enough to parse as many as possible naturally occurring utterances that are frequently used by subjects in a domain-specific spoken dialogue system. … 2. Concrete syntax: Concrete syntax maps abstract syntax trees into linguistic objects … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions Cite

[PDF] from aclweb.org [PDF] Tools for multilingual grammar-based translation on the web A Ranta, K Angelov, T Hallgren – Proc. of the ACL, 2010 – newdesign.aclweb.org … This is where another utility of the abstract syntax comes in: in the abstract syntax tree, all that is changed is the noun, and the regener- ated concrete syntax string automatically obeys all the agreement rules. … Dialogue System Localization with the GF Resource Grammar Library … Cited by 4 Related articles All 13 versions Cite More

GF: A Multilingual Grammar Formalism A Ranta – Language and Linguistics Compass, 2009 – Wiley Online Library … They are also a powerful tool for natural language engineering, used for applications ranging from a translator of mathematical exercises to a dialogue system usable for talking with … Figure 2. A parse tree and an abstract syntax tree for the sentence every man loves a woman. … Cited by 6 Related articles All 3 versions Cite

[PDF] from chalmers.se Interactive Multilingual Web Applications with Grammatical Framework M Meza Moreno, B Bringert – Advances in Natural Language Processing, 2008 – Springer … create the abstract syntax trees described by a GF grammar through the use of special purpose editing actions, while showing linearizations of the trees in multiple … Springer, Heidelberg (2003) 6. Bringert, B.: Rapid Development of Dialogue Systems by Grammar Compilation. … Cited by 11 Related articles All 11 versions Cite

[PDF] from elanguage.net The GF resource grammar library A Ranta – Linguistic Issues in Language Technology, 2009 – elanguage.net … Individual languages are obtained via compositional mappings from abstract syntax trees to feature structures specific to each … processing tasks, such as translation, multilingual generation, software localization, natural language interfaces, and spoken dialogue systems. … Cited by 42 Related articles All 20 versions Cite

[PDF] from molto-project.eu Typeful ontologies with direct multilingual verbalization K Angelov, R Enache – Controlled Natural Language, 2012 – Springer … GF has been used in various large-scale projects such as the dialogue system research project TALK [10], the educational project WebALT [11 … The translated ontol- ogy is checked for consistency and is used for making inferences on the abstract syntax trees or natural language … Cited by 4 Related articles All 3 versions Cite

[PDF] from chalmers.se Translating between language and logic: what is easy and what is difficult A Ranta – Automated Deduction–CADE-23, 2011 – Springer … an illustration of the technique of embedded grammars, where a GF grammars can be combined with host language programs ([13], Chapter 7). Thus the overall system written in Haskell pro- vides linearization and parsing via the GF grammar, and abstract syntax trees can be … Cited by 3 Related articles All 6 versions Cite

[PDF] from mimuw.edu.pl Machine Translation and Type Theory A Ranta – Epistemology versus Ontology, 2012 – Springer … 1998). The abstract syntax can be formalized as a system of datatypes, where the data objects are abstract syntax trees. The first phase of the compiler is parsing, which converts the source code string into an abstract syntax tree. … Related articles All 2 versions Cite

[PDF] from chalmers.se [PDF] Rapid development of dialogue systems by grammar compilation B Bringert – Proceedings of the 8th SIGdial Workshop on Discourse …, 2007 – cse.chalmers.se … The form then traverses the abstract syntax tree, and refines any metavariables by subdia- logue calls to the forms for the appropriate categories. Dialogue systems built using our approach can be run in a standards-compliant VoiceXML interpreter, or with a web browser which … Cited by 8 Related articles All 13 versions Cite More

[PDF] from anr-prelude.fr [PDF] Dialogue Systems and Type Theory A Ranta, LE Continuations – 2008 – anr-prelude.fr … Single-source production of dialogue system components Page 14. GF = Grammatical Framework grammar = abstract syntax + concrete syntax(es) abstract syntax = theory, in the sense of ALF logical framework abstract syntax tree = lambda term … Related articles All 5 versions Cite More

[PDF] from loria.fr [PDF] Multimodal dialogue system grammars B Bringert, R Cooper, P Ljunglöf… – Proceedings of DIALOR’ …, 2005 – dialor05.loria.fr … As an example of a GF representation, the following abstract syntax tree represents a possible user input in our example dialogue system. GoFromTo (PStop Chalmers) (PStop Valand) The English concrete syntax relates the query to the string … Cited by 20 Related articles All 16 versions Cite More

[PDF] from gu.se [PDF] Discourse Generation from Formal Specifications Using the Grammatical Framework, GF D Dannélls – Special issue: Natural Language Processing and its …, 2010 – spraakdata.gu.se … The grammar has been exploited in many natural language processing applications such as spoken dialogue systems [13], controlled lan- guages [14 … of the rhetorical predicate Identification–Property presented in section 4.3.7 Figure 2 illustrates the abstract syntax tree of … Cited by 2 Related articles All 7 versions Cite More

[PDF] from uni-magdeburg.de Modular grammar engineering in GF A Ranta – Research on Language & Computation, 2007 – Springer … if A and B then B and A 2.3 Linguistically Motivated Abstract Syntax Abstract syntax trees that represent semantic structures are usually the most interesting choice if the goal is to translate between languages. … Fig. 4 Multiple inheritance in a dialogue system … Cited by 28 Related articles BL Direct All 12 versions Cite

[PDF] from kindsoftware.com [PDF] Automatic static class generation from informal BON class charts to formal textual BON notation. A Morrissey – 2010 – kindsoftware.com … It has been used for building text translators, multilingual web gadgets, dialogue systems and many more language based systems. … The abstract syntax describes the categories and functions of a grammar and how they are combined together to form abstract syntax trees. … All 14 versions Cite More

[PDF] from chalmers.se Natural language generation from class diagrams H Burden, R Heldal – Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on …, 2011 – dl.acm.org … 3.3 GF to Text The generated abstract syntax tree for the document is linearised by the GF lineariser. … GF is currently used in collaboration with industry for multilingual translation in the MOLTO-project [19] and has previously been used for multi-modal dialogue systems [4, 35 … Related articles All 6 versions Cite

[PDF] from chalmers.se [BOOK] GF Runtime System K Angelov – 2009 – cse.chalmers.se … John is given as an example of a noun phrase and Walk of a verb phrase. cat S;NP;VP fun Pred :(NP,VP) ? S fun John :() ? NP fun Walk:() ? VP An abstract syntax tree (briefly, tree) is formed by applying the functions obey- ing their typings, as in simply typed lambda calculus. … Related articles All 6 versions Cite More

[PDF] from gatech.edu [PDF] Attribute grammars for validating chunk-based binary file formats W Underwood, S Laib – 2011 – perpos.gtri.gatech.edu … L-attributed grammars allow the attributes to be evaluated in one left-to-right traversal of the abstract syntax tree. … Natural language understanding components of dialog systems face a similar need to produce a semantic representation that is appropriate to the dialogue task. … Cited by 1 Related articles Cite More

[PDF] from upenn.edu [PDF] Speech recognition grammar compilation in Grammatical Framework B Bringert – Proceedings of the Workshop on Grammar-Based …, 2007 – acl.ldc.upenn.edu … We conclude by giving references to a number of experimental dialogue systems which already use our grammar compiler for generating speech recog- nition grammars. … The left-recursion elimination step makes it somewhat challenging to produce correct abstract syntax trees. … Cited by 15 Related articles All 34 versions Cite More

[PDF] from uni-magdeburg.de [PDF] Natural languages as collections of resources R Cooper, A Ranta – 14, 2008 – edu.cs.uni-magdeburg.de … This syntax is a part of a dialogue system developed within the European TALK project1 and is described in more detail by Perera and Ranta (2007). … An abstract syntax also defines functions, which are used for constructing objects in the domain – called abstract syntax trees. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 4 versions Cite More

[PDF] from chalmers.se Multilingual Grammar-Based Language Training: Computational Methods and Tools E ABOLAHRAR – 2011 – publications.lib.chalmers.se … Although GF 13 Page 21. grammars themselves are purely declarative, they can be used both for linearizing abstract syntax trees and for parsing strings. Additionally both formal and natural languages can be described in GF. … Related articles All 2 versions Cite

[PDF] from chalmers.se [PDF] Three Studies on Model Transformations-Parsing, Generation and Ease of Use H Burden – 2012 – cse.chalmers.se … This transformation is both automatic and unidirectional with one input model and three output models; the abstract grammar, the concrete grammar and an abstract syntax tree that tells us in which order the grammatical rules shall be applied to generate our text. … Related articles All 3 versions Cite More

[PDF] from brandeis.edu [PDF] Generating tailored texts for museum exhibits D Dannélls – The 2nd Workshop on Language Technology for …, 2008 – cs.brandeis.edu … The Authoring Environment Figure 3 illustrates the source authoring environment. The left-side window shows the abstract syntax tree, which rep- resents the Object structure. … In Knowl- edge and Reasoning in Practical Dialogue Systems IJCAI-2003, pages 58–63. G. Wilcock. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 11 versions Cite More

Model-Driven web form validation with UML and OCL E Escott, P Strooper, P King, I Hayes – Current Trends in Web Engineering, 2012 – Springer … OCL has an abstract syntax tree and we have implemented a visitor (pattern) that produces Java expressions. … 1939, pp. 410–424. Springer, Heidelberg (2000) 9. Bolchini, D., Garzotto, F.: Designing Multichannel Web Applications as “Dialogue Systems”: the IDM Model. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 3 versions Cite

[PDF] from gu.se [BOOK] Programming Language Techniques for Natural Language Applications B Bringert – 2008 – gupea.ub.gu.se … This section gives a short introduction to GF, with a small example grammar for a dialogue system. … In this concrete syntax, the abstract syntax tree pred john walk is linearized to the string “John walks”. each construct in the abstract syntax. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 16 versions Cite More

[PDF] from tcd.ie [PDF] The GF Grammar Compiler A Ranta – ESSLLI 2007, 2007 – cs.tcd.ie … Page 15. The GF Grammar Compiler 7 A run-time grammar in GF is a grammar used for parsing and generation, as well as for type checking abstract syntax trees. … This is an example of how GF was used in the TALK project for building dialogue systems [14]. … Related articles All 12 versions Cite More

Multilingual syntax editing in GF J Khegai, B Nordström, A Ranta – Computational linguistics and intelligent …, 2003 – Springer … outside mathematics was made in the Multilingual Document Authoring project at Xerox [3]. In continued work, GF has been used in areas like software specifications [4], instruction texts [6], and dialogue systems [17]. … Fig. 2. The Abstract Syntax tree represents the letter structure … Cited by 33 Related articles BL Direct All 17 versions Cite

[PDF] from websemanticsjournal.org Supporting domain experts to construct conceptual ontologies: A holistic approach R Denaux, C Dolbear, G Hart, V Dimitrova… – Web Semantics: Science, …, 2011 – Elsevier … eg “has part” and “have parts”). We use the NLP annotations to find the structures defined by the Rabbit grammar using JAPE 5 transducers, resulting in a Rabbit AST(abstract syntax tree). Finally, the Rabbit AST can be used … Cited by 10 Related articles All 12 versions Cite

[PDF] from gu.se [PDF] GF Japanese Resource Grammar E Zimina – 2012 – ling.gu.se … The opposite, producing an abstract syntax tree (or several, if the grammar is ambiguous) from a string is called parsing … for language processing tasks, such as translation, multilingual generation, software localization, natural lan- guage interfaces, and spoken dialogue systems. … Related articles Cite More

[PDF] from upenn.edu [PDF] Converting Grammatical Framework to Regulus P Ljunglöf – Proceedings of SPEECHGRAM, 2007 – acl.ldc.upenn.edu … The toolkit has been en- hanced with templates for developing eg, speech translation systems and dialogue systems. … This makes it pos- sible to get back the GF abstract syntax tree, when using Regulus (or Nuance) for parsing the grammar. … Cited by 1 Related articles All 37 versions Cite More

[PDF] from mt-archive.info [PDF] Grammatical Framework (GF) for MT in sublanguage domains J Khegai – Proceedings of EAMT-2006, 11th Annual conference of …, 2006 – mt-archive.info … Respectively, building a knowledge dia- gram in the WYSIWYM corresponds to the construction of an abstract syntax tree in GF. … so far comprise mul- tilingual authoring tools (Hähnle, Johan- nisson, & Ranta, 2002; Caprotti, 2006) and multimodal dialog systems (Cooper & Ranta … Cited by 4 Related articles All 6 versions Cite More

[PDF] from chalmers.se [PDF] Compiling Grammar-based Speech Application Components B Bringert – 2007 – cse.chalmers.se … 5. Paper II: Multimodal Dialogue System Grammars 13 … The paper “A Pattern for Almost Compositional Functions” introduces a method for simplifying a common class of functions over rich tree-like data types, such as abstract syntax trees in compilers or natural language … Cited by 1 Related articles All 11 versions Cite More

[PDF] from revues.org Type Theory and Universal Grammar A Ranta – … Scientiæ. Travaux d’histoire et de …, 2006 – philosophiascientiae.revues.org … Parsing takes a string into a set of abstract syntax trees (empty set: parsing fails; more than one element: the string is ambiguous). … Ranta, A. & Cooper, R. 2004 Dialogue Systems as Proof Editors, Journal of Logic, Language and Information, 13, 225–240. … Cited by 3 Related articles All 9 versions Cite

[PDF] from chalmers.se [PDF] Embedded grammars B Bringert – Master’s, 2005 – cse.chalmers.se … It is then shown how these tools and methods can be used to build multilingual multi- modal dialog systems and precise domain-specific machine translation systems for both spoken and written language. 2 Page 3. Acknowledgments … 21 2.8 Typed Abstract Syntax Trees . . . . … Cited by 10 Related articles All 10 versions Cite More

[PDF] from chalmers.se [PDF] The Mechanics of the Grammatical Framework K Angelov – 2011 – cse.chalmers.se … In the second step, the partial abstract syntax tree is type checked to verify that there are no semantic violations. … gt -cat=”HasMeasure Wine Litre” to_Litre Wine wine_bottle Since the proof in GF for any theorem is just an abstract syntax tree, we can just as well linearize it. … Cited by 5 Related articles All 3 versions Cite More

[PDF] from pitt.edu [PDF] Towards VoiceXML compilation for portable embedded applications in ubiquitous environments D Bühler, SW Hamerich – Proceedings of Interspeech, 2005 – cs.pitt.edu … There- fore usual speech dialogue systems in cars have to be really modest in their memory usage, having only 128 KB available is a usual thing. 2.1. … 2. Next, a single data structure similar to an abstract syntax tree is constructed, containing the complete application. … Cited by 10 Related articles All 6 versions Cite

[PDF] from gu.se [PDF] The TALK grammar library: an integration of GF with TrindiKit P Ljunglöf, B Bringert, R Cooper, AC Forslund, D Hjelm… – Deliverable D1, 2005 – ling.gu.se … Björn Bringert, Robin Cooper, Ann- Charlotte Forslund, David Hjelm, Rebecca Jonsson, Staffan Larsson and Aarne Ranta EC Project Officer Evangelia Markidou Keywords grammar, multilingual, dialogue systems, Grammatical Framework … 10 2.2.5 Typed Abstract Syntax Trees . … Cited by 8 Related articles All 12 versions Cite More

[PDF] from ed.ac.uk [PDF] Multimodal grammar library P Ljunglöf, G Amores, R Cooper, D Hjelm… – TALK. Talk and Look …, 2006 – groups.inf.ed.ac.uk … http://www.cs.chalmers.se/~aarne/GF/ 1.2.1 Multimodal dialogue system grammars Asynchronous syntax in GF … abstract syntax trees ?? concrete syntax objects When modelling context-free grammar in GF, the concrete syntax objects are just strings. … Cited by 8 Related articles All 14 versions Cite More

[TXT] from utlib.ee Merging business process models R Uba – 2011 – dspace.utlib.ee … The last two use the graph-based techniques for 43 2.3 Related Work clone detection – more precisely the abstract syntax tree (AST) [Baxt 98] comparison and program dependence graphs (PDG) comparison [Krin 01] accordingly. … Clone Detection Using Abstract Syntax Trees. … All 2 versions Cite

[PDF] from chalmers.se [PDF] Enhanced multimodal grammar library P Ljunglöf, G Amores, H Burden, P Manchón… – Deliverable …, 2006 – cse.chalmers.se … We also show that all domain-specific utterances in a domain for the GoDiS dialogue system can be specified as a single ontology. By representing the utterances as abstract syntax trees in a Grammatical Framework (GF) resource grammar, the representation of utterances is … Cited by 2 Related articles All 12 versions Cite More

[PDF] from hamerich.de [PDF] Towards embedding VoiceXML applications through compilation D Bühler, SW Hamerich – Proceedings of the’Berliner XML-Tage 2004, 2004 – hamerich.de … limited. For example, speech dialogue systems in cars (see eg [He01, Ha04]) are embedded solutions. … well. 2. Next, a single data structure similar to an abstract syntax tree containing the whole application data is constructed. … Cited by 13 Related articles All 7 versions Cite More

[PDF] from psu.edu [PDF] From grammars to gramlets K Johannisson, J Khegai, M Forsberg… – The Joint Winter Meeting of …, 2003 – Citeseer … Using the GF syntax editor, we can then edit abstract syntax trees for letters. … Although not currently gramlets-based, there is ongoing work to integrate GF with the KeY system, (imple- mented in Java) [6], [3] and the GoDiS dialogue system (implemented in Prolog) [5]. … Cited by 6 Related articles All 3 versions Cite More

[PDF] from psu.edu [PDF] D5. 1: Software Infrastructure O Lemon, G Pérez, K Weilhammer – 2007 – Citeseer … This concerns two important aspects: i) the provision of an appropriate common software infrastructure framework for efficient inter-modular data communication (ie middleware) to be used for the various multimodal dialogue systems implemented in the project, and ii) the … Related articles All 4 versions Cite More

[PDF] from usc.edu [PDF] Natural Language Descriptions of Emotion A Kazemzadeh – 2011 – sail.usc.edu … Activation is one component in the model described in 3.3, which also includes valence and dominance. Furthermore, evaluation of a user’s satisfaction when using a dialog system often uses a Likert scale survey. User satisfaction can be seen as a measure of valence. … Related articles All 2 versions Cite More

[PDF] from chalmers.se [PDF] Development of multimodal and multilingual grammars: viability and motivation B Bringert, R Cooper, P Ljunglöf… – Deliverable D1. 2a, TALK …, 2004 – cse.chalmers.se … similar to transducers (Karttunen et al., 1996; Mohri, 1997) which are mostly used in morphological analysis, but has been generalized to dialogue systems by Lager and … There is only one level of syntax rules, defining both the abstract syntax trees and the concrete language. … Cited by 3 Related articles All 10 versions Cite More

[PDF] from utah.edu [PDF] USING A “WIZARD OF OZ” STUDY TO INVESTIGATE ISSUES RELATED TO A SPOKEN LANGUAGE INTERFACE FOR PROGRAMMING DE Price – 2007 – cs.utah.edu … language processing system; (2) PRISM, a knowledge-based module that interprets user requests; and (3) TreeFace, an abstract syntax tree manager that maintains the evolving source code. … 3 ification operations from the case frames. A Java abstract syntax tree manager, … Related articles All 3 versions Cite More

[PDF] from psu.edu [BOOK] Language Engineering in Grammatical Framework (GF) J Khegai – 2006 – Citeseer … This reflects the idea of so-called multilingual authoring. Unlike translation that processes complete natural language strings, syntax editor works with Abstract Syntax Trees (ASTs) and can handle incomplete objects by using temporary place-holders (meta-variables). … Cited by 4 Related articles BL Direct All 11 versions Cite More

[PDF] from psu.edu Realization of natural language interfaces using lazy functional programming RA Frost – ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 2006 – dl.acm.org Page 1. Realization of Natural Language Interfaces Using Lazy Functional Programming Richard A. Frost University of Windsor The construction of natural language interfaces to computers continues to be a major challenge. … Cited by 20 Related articles BL Direct All 13 versions Cite

[PDF] from chalmers.se Implementing an open source amharic resource grammar in GF M Kassa Gobena – 2011 – publications.lib.chalmers.se … are also a good number of applications that use GF which include the verification tool KeY 1 , the dialogue system research project … A concrete syntax is given by a method of linearization, which translates abstract syntax trees into strings (more generally, into records of strings … Related articles All 2 versions Cite

[PDF] from 184.182.233.192 [PDF] D5. 1.1: Infrastructure T Becker, P Poller, S Larsson, B Bringert, H Burden… – 2005 – 184.182.233.192 … This report details work done in the first year of the TALK project to establish an appropriate software infrastructure for multimodal dialogue systems and their components, with respect to the TALK project research goals. … 3.2.4 USE Dialogue System Components … Related articles All 7 versions Cite

[PDF] from psu.edu [BOOK] Expressivity and complexity of the Grammatical Framework P Ljunglöf – 2004 – Citeseer … grammar level with the abstract syntax of another level. As an example we could have a spoken dialogue system with a semantical, a syntactical, a morphological and a phonological level. This sys- tem has to define three mappings … Cited by 40 Related articles All 19 versions Cite More

[PDF] from diva-portal.org Automatic Parallelization using Pipelining for Equation-Based Simulation Languages H Lundvall – 2008 – uu.diva-portal.org … In this section we provide a short overview of the different compiler phases involved when compiling a Modelica model, see also Figure 2-1. First a Modelica parser reads the Modelica source code and produces an abstract syntax tree (AST) that represents the Modelica model. … Cited by 8 Related articles All 10 versions Cite More

[PDF] from brics.dk The DSD schema language N Klarlund, A Møller, MI Schwartzbach – Automated Software Engineering, 2002 – Springer … problems. Specifically, we study the formal specification of XML languages, that is, sets of abstract syntax trees, and default insertion mechanisms for common tree transformations needed by application program- mers. Both … Cited by 31 Related articles BL Direct All 14 versions Cite