Intelligence-Based Systems Engineering


Intelligence-Based Systems Engineering (2011) .. A. Tolk & L.C. Jain eds


Contents

Chapter 1

Towards Intelligence-Based Systems Engineering and System of Systems Engineering . . . 1

Andreas Tolk, Kevin MacG. Adams, Charles B. Keating

1 Introduction . . . 1

2 Intelligence-Based Systems . . . 2

2.1 Characteristics of Intelligence-Based Systems . . . 2

2.2 How to Capture Intelligence . . . 4

3 Systems Engineering . . . 6

3.1 Traditional Systems Engineering . . . 7

3.2 System of Systems . . . 8

3.3 System of Systems Engineering. . . 10

3.4 System of Systems Engineering Methodology . . . 11

3.5 Intelligence-Based Systems Engineering . . . 16

4 Contributions to These Topics within This Volume . . . 18

References . . . 20

Chapter 2

Future Directions for Semantic Systems . . . 23

John F. Sowa

1 The Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck . . . 23

2 Natural Language Processing . . . 24

3 Reasoning and Problem Solving . . . 27

4 Semantic Web . . . 30

5 Language Analysis and Reasoning . . . 35

6 Integrating Semantic Systems . . . 43

References . . . 45

Chapter 3

Defining and Validating Semantic Machine to Machine Interoperability . . . 49

Claudia Szabo, Saikou Y. Diallo

1 Introduction . . . 49

2 State of the Art in Interoperability . . . 50

2.1 Semantics of Data for a Machine . . . 53

2.2 Formal Representation of Data for a Machine . . . 55

2.3 Semantic Machine to Machine Interoperability . . . 58

3 Formal Validation of Interoperable Federations . . . 63

3.1 Knowledge Representation. . . 66

3.2 Formal Validation of Model Execution . . . 68

3.3 Reference Model . . . 68

3.4 Formal Validation Process . . . 69

4 Summary and Recommendations . . . 72

References . . . 72

Chapter 4

An Approach to Knowledge Integration Applied to a Configuration Problem . . . 75

Maria Vargas-Vera, Miklos Nagy, Dietmar Jannach

1 Introduction . . . 75

2 Related Work . . . 77

2.1 Expert Systems – Knowledge Bases . . . 77

2.2 Ontologies View. . . 78

2.3 Databases . . . 80

2.4 Knowledge Management. . . 80

3 Scenario . . . 81

3.1 Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) . . . 82

3.2 Case Study: Computer Configuration Problem . . . 83

3.3 Constraint Graph . . . 84

4 Mapping Process . . . 84

5 Knowledge Integration Framework . . . 92

5.1 Algorithms for Detecting and Correcting Overlappings . . . 94

6 Evaluation. . . 97

6.1 Mapping Quality . . . 99

6.2 Configuration Quality . . . 100

7 Conclusions . . . 102

References . . . 103

Chapter 5

Simulation-Based Systems Design in Multi-actor Environments . . . 107

Michele Fumarola, Mamadou D. Seck, Alexander Verbraeck

1 Introduction . . . 107

1.1 Outline of the Chapter . . . 108

2 Designing Systems . . . 108

3 Systems Approaches . . . 111

3.1 Systems Simulation in Design . . . 112

3.2 Soft Systems Methodology. . . 113

4 Designing a Multimethodological Approach . . . 118

4.1 Component Based Modeling . . . 118

4.2 Different Levels of Abstraction . . . 119

4.3 Structing Alternatives . . . 121

4.4 Participatory Design . . . 123

5 Conclusion . . . 123

References . . . 124

Chapter 6

Distributed Simulation Using RESTful Interoperability Simulation Environment (RISE) Middleware . . . 129

Khaldoon Al-Zoubi, Gabriel Wainer

1 Introduction . . . 129

2 Background on Distributed Simulation . . . 132

3 RISE Middleware API . . . 136

4 RISE-based Distributed CD++ Simulation Algorithms . . . 137

4.1 Distributed CD++ (DCD++) Architecture . . . 139

4.2 DCD++ Simulation Synchronization Algorithms . . . 143

5 Distributed Simulation Interoperability Standards . . . 148

References . . . 155

Chapter 7

Agile Net-Centric Systems Using DEVS Unified Process . . . 159

Saurabh Mittal

1 Introduction . . . 160

2 Related Technologies . . . 162

3 DEVS Unified Process with DEVS/SOA . . . 163

3.1 Discrete Event Systems Specification. . . 163

3.2 Web Services and Interoperability Using XML . . . 165

3.3 An Abstract DEVS Service Agent . . . 166

3.4 DEVS/SOA Framework for Net-Centric Modeling and Simulation. . . 166

3.5 DEVS Unified Process a.k.a DUNIP . . . 169

4 Multi-layered Agent-Based Test Instrumentation System Using GIG/SOA . . . 171

4.1 Deploying Test Agents over the GIG/SOA. . . 172

4.2 Implementation of Test Federations . . . 173

5 Abstract DEVS Service Wrapper . . . 174

6 Workflow Composition and DoDAF-Based Mission Threads . . . 175

6.1 Web Service Work Flow Formalism . . . 177

6.2 Mapping of DEVS, BPEL and DoDAF Artifacts with WSWF Formalism . . . 180

7 Case Study . . . 182

7.1 DEVS Wrapper Agent . . . 182

7.2 Workflow Design, Analysis and Execution . . . 185

8 Agility in DEVS Unified Process . . . 191

9 Conclusions and Future Work . . . 193

10 Acronyms . . . 196

References . . . 197

Chapter 8

Systems Engineering and Conversational Agents . . . 201

James O’Shea, Zuhair Bandar, Keeley Crockett

1 Introduction . . . 201

2 The Scope of CAs . . . 202

2.1 Spoken Dialogue Systems. . . 202

2.2 Chatterbots . . . 203

2.3 Natural Language Processing Based Dialogue Management Systems . . . 203

2.4 Goal-Oriented CAs . . . 204

2.5 Embodied CAs . . . 206

3 Practical Applications of CAs . . . 207

3.1 CAs for Selling . . . 207

3.2 A GO-CA Student Debt Advisor . . . 210

4 Design Methodology for GO-CAs . . . 212

4.1 Knowledge Engineering . . . 212

4.2 Implementation . . . 213

4.3 Scripting Language . . . 214

4.4 Evaluation . . . 217

4.5 Maintenance . . . 219

5 Novel Algorithms – Short Text Semantic Similarity . . . 221

5.1 The STASIS Algorithm . . . 222

5.2 Latent Semantic Analysis. . . 224

6 Research Opportunities . . . 225

7 Conclusions . . . 226

References . . . 227

Chapter 9

Advanced Concepts and Generative Simulation Formalisms for Creative Discovery Systems Engineering . . . 233

Levent Yilmaz, C. Anthony Hunt

1 Introduction . . . 233

1.1 Motivation . . . 236

1.2 Scientific Problem Solving with Computational Models . . . 236

2 Models and Principles of Creative Problem Solving . . . 239

2.1 Background . . . 239

2.2 Models of Creative Cognition . . . 240

3 Generative Parallax Simulation: Basic Concepts . . . 242

3.1 An Abstract Model of Creative Cognition . . . 242

3.2 Abstract Specification of the Structure and Dynamics of GPS . . . 243

3.3 Implications of the Ecological Perspective . . . 246

4 Meta-simulation of GPS . . . 246

4.1 Conceptual Model for GPS Simulator . . . 246

4.2 Meta-simulation Parameters . . . 249

4.3 Qualitative Analysis of Results and Discussion . . . 249

5 Discussion and Future Work . . . 255

5.1 Improving Autonomy in Schema Evolution and Diffusion . . . 255

5.2 Toward Adaptive Growth of Analogue Ensembles for Creative Discovery Systems . . . 256

5.3 Strategic and Context Sensitive Exploration . . . 256

6 Conclusions . . . 257

References . . . 257

Chapter 10

Establishing a Theoretical Baseline: Using Agent-Based Modeling to Create Knowledge . . . 259

Jose J. Padilla, Saikou Y. Diallo, Andres A. Sousa-Poza

1 Introduction . . . 259

2 Systems Engineering and Its Challenges . . . 260

3 Theory and Theory Creation. . . 263

4 Building Theory through M&S . . . 266

4.1 Existing M&S Methodologies/Methods for Theory Building . . . 270

4.2 A Methodology for Theory Building Using M&S . . . 274

4.3 Selecting the Modeling Paradigm. . . 275

5 Test Case: Building a Theory of Understanding Using Agents . . . 276

5.1 Brief on ABM and Its Relevance on Theory Building . . . 276

5.2 Importance of Understanding to Problem Situations . . . 277

5.3 Implementing the Methodology for Theory Building Using M&S . . . 277

6 Final Remarks and Conclusion . . . 281

7 List of Acronyms . . . 282

References . . . 282

Chapter 11

“The User Around the Marketplace”: Automatic Engineering of Interactive E-commerce Applications . . . 285

Mart´in L´opez-Nores, Yolanda Blanco-Fern´andez, Jos´e J. Pazos-Arias

1 Introduction . . . 285

2 Background. . . 287

3 Elements to Engineer Personalized Interactive Applications . . . 290

4 The Personalization Procedures . . . 293

4.1 Reasoning-Driven Recommendation of Items . . . 293

4.2 Composition of Interactive Commercial Applications . . . 295

4.3 Feedback . . . 296

5 Our Proposal in DTV Advertising . . . 297

5.1 A Simple Example. . . 298

5.2 Experimental Evaluation . . . 300

6 Conclusion . . . 303

References . . . 303

Chapter 12

Wireless Sensor Network Anomalies: Diagnosis and Detection Strategies . . . 309

Raja Jurdak, X. Rosalind Wang, Oliver Obst, and Philip Valencia

1 Introduction . . . 309

2 Types of WSN Anomalies . . . 310

2.1 Network Anomalies . . . 313

2.2 Node Anomalies . . . 315

2.3 Data Anomalies . . . 316

2.4 Other Anomalies . . . 318

3 Anomaly Detection Strategies . . . 318

3.1 Architecture . . . 320

3.2 Usability . . . 321

4 Design Guidelines and Conclusions . . . 323

References . . . 324

Chapter 13

Enterprise Ontologies – Better Models of Business . . . 327

Ian Bailey

1 Introduction – Intelligence-Led Systems Engineering . . . 327

1.1 Introduction – Business Ontologies . . . 329

1.2 Information System Requirements Gathering . . . 329

1.3 Driving-Out Complexity . . . 331

1.4 Stovepipes . . . 331

2 What Is Needed for Better Information Systems? . . . 332

2.1 Better Analysis – Getting Your Hands Dirty . . . 333

2.2 Flexibility – Using the Full Range of Logic . . . 334

2.3 Consistency – Sophisticated, Repeatable Analysis . . . 335

2.4 Implementation – New Ways of Storing . . . 335

3 A New Approach to Information Systems Development . . . 336

3.1 Introducing the BORO Method . . . 336

3.2 Managing Time . . . 337

4 Addressing Arguments against Ontology . . . 340

5 Conclusions . . . 341

5.1 Literature Search . . . 341

References . . . 341

Author Index . . . 343