Rule-based Language Modeling

Resources:

finite state network (FSN) | hierarchical tree modeling approach | integrated language models | morpheme lexicon | phrasal patterns | semantic constraint


Incorporating language constraints in sub-word based speech recognition H Erdogan, O Buyuk… – … Speech Recognition and …, 2005 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … lattices. 1. INTRODUCTION Hidden Markov Models are used in modern speech recognition systems for acoustic modelling. Statistical or rule-based language models can be used in order to represent the recognized language. If … Cited by 27 – Related articles

[PDF] Tagging romanian texts: a case study for qtag, a language independent probabilistic tagger [PDF] from racai.ro D Tufis… – … of the First International Conference on …, 1998 – tutankhamon.racai.ro … A rule-based language model can be created by a human using linguistic knowledge, but it is not reasonable to hand-coded a probabilistic language model. These models are generally created from training data, ie they are learnt from examples. … Cited by 75 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 8 versions

[PDF] A rule-based language model for reading recognition [PDF] from bham.ac.uk J Cheng… – SLaTE 2009, 2009 – eee.bham.ac.uk Abstract Systems for assessing and tutoring reading skills place unique requirements on  underlying ASR technologies. Most responses to a “read out loud” task can be handled with  a low perplexity language model, but the educational setting of the task calls for diagnostic … Cited by 5 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 2 versions

Method and system for building a domain specific statistical language model from rule based grammar specifications Y Zhao, Y Yan, Z Lin – US Patent 7,346,495, 2008 – Google Patents … specifications. The language model is generated by obtaining a statistical representation of a rule-based language model and combining it with a statistical representation of a statistical language model for use as a final language model. … Cited by 5 – Related articles – All 2 versions

Design and construction of a binary-tree system for language modelling LR Bahl, PF Brown, RL Mercer – US Patent 4,852,173, 1989 – Google Patents … Page 7. 4,852,173 1 2 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A BINARY-TREE SYSTEM FOR LANGUAGE MODELLING BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to the automatic determination of a rule-based language model for speech recognition and, more … Cited by 28 – Related articles – All 3 versions

Hybrid natural language generation for spoken dialogue systems [PDF] from mirlab.org M Galley, E Fosler-Lussier… – … European Conference on …, 2001 – isca-speech.org … of complex rule-based NLG systems. 4.1. Rule-based Language Model Phrasal patterns contain non-terminal symbols, which correspond to concepts in the application domain. These symbols are recursively expanded by … Cited by 15 – Related articles – All 19 versions

[CITATION] Association Rule based Language Models for Discovering Long Distance Dependency in Chinese JT Chien… – Proceedings of Research on Computational Linguistics … Cited by 3 – Related articles

Adaptive user preference modeling and its application to in-flight entertainment [PDF] from tue.nl H Liu, B Salem… – … of the 3rd international conference on …, 2008 – dl.acm.org … delivery systems could fall into two categories: (1) hierarchical tree modeling approach where the user preference is modeled by dimensions (eg, sports, reading), each dimension can be further refined with sub dimensions [5]; (2) rule-based language modeling approach where … Cited by 11 – Related articles – All 5 versions

[CITATION] The EngCG-2 tagger in outline A Voutilainen – Department of Linguistics, University of Helsinki, …, 1997 Cited by 7 – Related articles – All 3 versions

Estimating probability of correctness for ASR N-Best lists [PDF] from psu.edu JD Williams… – … of the SIGDIAL 2009 Conference: The …, 2009 – dl.acm.org … acous- tic models for high-quality audio. Configuration B uses a rule-based language model consisting of all city/state pairs in the USA, and acoustic models for telephone-quality audio. Configuration A was ap- plied to corpora … Cited by 8 – Related articles – All 17 versions

Design and construction of a binary-tree system for language modelling LR Bahl, PF Brown, PV Desouza… – EP Patent …, 1994 – freepatentsonline.com … Description: This invention relates to the automatic determination of a rule-based language model for speech recognition and, more specifically, refers to the generation of a decision tree for predicting the next word uttered based upon the previously spoken words. … Cited by 6 – Related articles – Cached

[PDF] Language Technology A First Overview [PDF] from rug.nl H Uszkoreit – The German Research Center for, 1997 – odur.let.rug.nl … and intonation. Corpora and Corpus Tools Large collections of application-specific or generic collections of spoken and written language are exploited for the acquisition and testing of statistical or rule-based language models. Cited by 8 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 17 versions

The Application of Ancient Chinese language Models in the Studies of Ancient Works [J] YHC Hua – Journal of City Polytechnic Zhuhai, 2008 – en.cnki.com.cn … language model in the studies of Chinese ancient works. ?Key Words?: statistical language models rule-based language models ancient works machine translation ?CateGory Index?: H1 ?DOI?: CNKI:SUN:ZHCZ.0.2008-04-009. … Cited by 2 – Related articles – Cached

[PDF] Comparison of Grammar-Based and Statistical Language Models Trained on the Same Data [PDF] from psu.edu BA Hockey… – Proceedings of the the AAAI Workshop on …, 2005 – Citeseer … While these factors biased us in favor of the rule-based language modeling approach that theClarissa system uses for speech recognition, we wanted to implement a frame- work which would allow us to compare our methods against more standard approaches based on class … Cited by 2 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 14 versions

[PDF] Probabilistic tagging in a multi-lingual environment: Making an English tagger understand Romanian [PDF] from racai.ro O Mason… – Third European TELRI Seminar, Montecatini, Italy, 1997 – racai.ro … Page 2. A rule-based language model can be created by a human using linguistic knowledge, but it is not possible to `hand-code’ a probabilistic language model. These models are generally created from training data, ie they learn by example. This is the way QTAG works. … Cited by 6 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 3 versions

Modeling pronunciation variations and coarticulation with finite-state transducers in CSR [PS] from ethz.ch S Safra, G Lehtinen… – Modeling Pronunciation Variation …, 1998 – isca-speech.org … On this lattice a parser operates to search for the best-scored global hypothesis fitting the rule-based language model. The parser used in ARCOS is a chart-parser trimmed to handle uncertain 1 We use the terms “observation unit” and “language symbol” to be illustrative. … Cited by 5 – Related articles – All 6 versions

Generic and reflective graph transformations for the checking and enforcement of modeling guidelines C Amelunxen, E Legros… – Visual Languages and …, 2008 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … The new version of SDM is the only visual rule-based language (model transformation language) we are aware of that offers both support for the visual declarative definition of generic as well as reflective transformation operations. … Cited by 5 – Related articles – All 4 versions

[PDF] ENHANCING PHONEME RECOGNIZER PERFORMANCE WITH A SIMPLE RULE-BASED LANGUAGE MODEL [PDF] from psu.edu P Väyrynen, J Peltola… – STeP 2000-Finnish Artificial …, 2000 – Citeseer The phoneme classification inaccuracy at the acoustic phonetic level is a major weakness in  most speech recognition systems. However, the inaccuracy will violate phonotactic  constraints at the acoustic phonetic level. A better performance is expected if a language … Cited by 1 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 5 versions

Statistical language models for Chinese recognition: speech and character [PDF] from hku.hk P Wong… – HKU Theses Online (HKUTO), 1998 – hub.hku.hk … over edge pixels only 17 2.7.4 Experiments and results 17 2.7.5 Discussions 17 2.8 Experimental Results of the Character Recognizer 19 Chapter 3 A Large Vocabulary Lexicon and a Huge Text Corpus 20 3.1 Introduction 20 3.2 Rule based Language Models and Statistics … Cited by 2 – Related articles – All 5 versions

In-Flight Entertainment System: State of the Art and Research Directions [PDF] from tue.nl H Liu – Semantic Media Adaptation and Personalization, …, 2007 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … these applications could fall into two categories: (1) hierarchical tree modeling approach where the user is modeled by dimensions (eg, knowledge, or interest), each dimension can be further refined with sub dimensions [20]; (2) rule-based language modeling approach where … Cited by 7 – Related articles – All 7 versions

[CITATION] Signal processing for speech and audio P Kellermann – Lehrstuhl fuer Multimediakommunikation und …, 2010 Cited by 2 – Related articles – All 2 versions

Towards accurate recognition for children’s oral reading fluency J Cheng… – Spoken Language Technology Workshop ( …, 2010 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … are discussed in detail. We show that using a set of linguistic rules learned from a collection of transcriptions, the proposed rule-based language model [1] outperformed traditional n-gram language models. Combined with a … Cited by 2 – Related articles

[PDF] Language modeling structures in audio transcription for retrieval of historical speeches [PDF] from eurasip.org M Kurimo, B Zhou, R Huang… – Proc. 12th Eur. Signal …, 2004 – eurasip.org … vocabulary (OOV) words very difficult to recognize. For very large vocabulary tasks most of the rule-based language models are impractical and higher-order n-gram models must rely heavily on smoothing. Because of the di- versity of … Cited by 2 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 12 versions

[PDF] A probabilistic model of human/computer dialogue with application to a partially observable Markov decision process [PDF] from cam.ac.uk J Williams – PhD first year report. Department of Engineering, …, 2003 – mi.eng.cam.ac.uk … The parser may also return additional information such as a parse confidence score, or a coverage score. 2 For rule-based language models, parsing and recognizing may be collapsed to one step. Page 12. Jason D. Williams 6 … Cited by 5 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 3 versions

[PDF] Stability and accuracy in incremental speech recognition [PDF] from aclweb.org EO Selfridge, I Arizmendi, PA Heeman… – Proceedings of the …, 2011 – aclweb.org … Two useful but different forms of language models are commonly used in spoken dialogue systems. A Rule-based Language Model (RLM) specifies a list of valid sentences which may be recognized, usually via expansion rules. … Cited by 3 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 8 versions

Effectiveness of combined features for machine learning based question classification M Skowron… – Information and Media Technologies, 2006 – J-STAGE … 464 3 Previous Method The approaches to question classification can be discriminated into the following three main groups: rule-based, language modeling and machine learning based 1 . In the rule based approach, hand-written grammar rules and a set of regular expression … Cited by 2 – Related articles – All 3 versions

Automatic language model update MH Cohen, S Baluja, PJ Moreno – US Patent 7,756,708, 2010 – Google Patents … models. Language models may be rule-based, statistical models, or both. A rule based language model may have a set of explicit rules describing a 15 limited set of word strings that a user is likely to say in a defined context. For … Cited by 1 – Related articles – All 5 versions

A new linguistic decoding method for online handwritten Chinese character recognition [PDF] from ict.ac.cn Z Xu… – Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2000 – Springer … Generally speaking, language models are divided into two classes: statistical language model and rule-based language model [1'2]. N-gram language model currently dominates statistical language modeling, which has been widely applied to many fields, such as speech … Cited by 1 – Related articles – BL Direct – All 5 versions

[PDF] Case Transfer pattern from Hindi to Tamil MT [PDF] from au-kbc.org P Pralayankar, V Kavitha… – PIMT Journal of Research, 2008 – nlp.au-kbc.org … Abstract Rule based language modeling of grammar is one of the important components of Natural Language processing in general and Machine Translation (MT) in particular. In this paper, rule based formulation of Hindi-Tamil case marking pattern for MT are discussed. … Cited by 1 – Related articles – View as HTML

[PDF] Sub-word language modeling for Turkish speech recognition [PDF] from boun.edu.tr O Büyük – 2005 – busim.ee.boun.edu.tr … Hidden Markov Models are used in modern speech recognition systems for acoustic modelling. Statistical or rule-based language models can be used in order to represent the recognized language. If the speech recognition application permits the use … Cited by 1 – Related articles – View as HTML – Library Search – All 4 versions

Time scale modification and vocal tract length normalization for improving the performance of Tamil speech recognition system implemented using language … S Saraswathi… – International Journal of Speech Technology, 2006 – Springer Page 1. Int J Speech Technol (2006) 9: 151-163 DOI 10.1007/s10772-007-9004-y Time scale modification and vocal tract length normalization for improving the performance of Tamil speech recognition system implemented using language independent segmentation algorithm … Cited by 1 – Related articles – All 3 versions

A Mongolian speech recognition system based on HMM G Gao… – Computational Intelligence, 2006 – Springer … And we generate the decision tree in this way. 4 Language Model Language model consists of rule-based language model and statistical language model. By training language model, we could get the syntax and semantic parsing. … Cited by 1 – Related articles – BL Direct – All 4 versions

[PDF] Voice search an introduction [PDF] from microsoft.com Y Wang, D Yu, Y Ju… – IEEE Signal Processing …, 2008 – research.microsoft.com … 59.8%. Language Modeling: Early DA systems compiled directory entries into a finite-state grammar as the language model for ASR. This rule-based language model does not scale up well with directory size due to increased perplexity. … Cited by 1 – Related articles – View as HTML

[PDF] Survey on Swedish language resources [PDF] from uu.se K Elenius, E Forsbom… – ØØÔ”" ÛÛÛº× Ô º Ø º×” …, 2008 – numerus.ling.uu.se Page 1. Survey on Swedish Language Resources Kjell Elenius 1 Eva Forsbom 2 Beáta Megyesi 2 1 Speech, Music and Hearing School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH Sweden 2 Department of Linguistics and Philology Uppsala University Sweden 2008-03-14 … Cited by 2 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 10 versions

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR BUILDING A DOMAIN SPECIFIC STATISTICAL LANGUAGE MODEL FROM RULE-BASED GRAMMAR SPECIFICATIONS Y ZHAO, Y YAN… – WO Patent WO/2002/029,613, 2002 – wipo.int … specifications. The language model is generated by obtaining a statistical representation of a rule-based language model and combining it with a statistical representation of a statistical language model for use as a final language model. … Cached – All 2 versions

[PDF] A rule-based language model for speech recognition [PDF] from ethz.ch T Kaufmann – 2009 – e-collection.library.ethz.ch However, n-grams fail to capture many dependencies that are present in natural language.  In our experimental data, the n-gram language model prefers the incorrect transcription  “einer, der sich für die Umwelt einsetzen”. This transcription is ungrammatical because the … Related articles – View as HTML – Library Search – All 12 versions

[PDF] SELECTION OF DIFFERENT LANGUAGE MODEL USING DIALOGUE STATE [PDF] from colips.org Y WANG, J HAN… – colips.org … training material, the trained statistical language models are often not robust, which will make the system performance bad[2]. Generally, there are two kinds of language models in various speech application systems: statistical language model and rule- based language model. … Related articles – View as HTML – All 3 versions

Lattice Parsing and Application of Integrated Language Models for Speech Recognition GJF Jones, H Lloyd-Thomas… – … European Conference on …, 1995 – isca-speech.org … address this issue is to decouple the initial recognition from the application of more complex acoustic and linguistic models by the use of word lattices [1] (or word graphs [2]). This method of search-space reduction is attractive for the incorporation of rule-based language models … Related articles

Open Microphone Speech Understanding: Correct Discrimination of in Domain Speech J Hieronymus, J Dowding – Acoustics, Speech and Signal …, 2006 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … 2. RULE BASED LANGUAGE MODELS Most of the present dialogue systems use either n-gram grammars or hand built finite state grammars for speech recognition. N-gram grammars require large amounts of transcribed speech data in order to train accurate models. … Related articles

05382 Executive Summary–Efficient Text Entry} [PDF] from dagstuhl.de K Harbusch, KJ Raiha, K Tanaka-Ishii… – Efficient Text …, 2006 – drops.dagstuhl.de … expanded into complete sentences). At their core, these methods rely on statistical and to a lesser extent rule-based language models to predict and complete the user input and thus save keystrokes. Unlike in speech recognition … All 4 versions

Relation discovery by named entity recognition from Tibetan websites H Yu, T Jiang, B Zhang… – Web Society, 2009. SWS’09. …, 2009 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … So combining the lexicon contains 3530 [5] the most commonly used Tibetan person name and the case-auxiliary words information, we propose a rule-based language model to recognize person name from Tibetan Web pages. … Related articles

Speech Recognition J Billa – Encyclopedia of Telecommunications – Wiley Online Library … statistical. Rule-based language models are used when there is a rigid structure to the spoken sentence, such as a credit card number spoken by a person, and are created by writing explicit rules that specify allowable sentences. … Related articles – All 2 versions

Väyrynen P, Peltola J & Seppänen T (2000) MT Spirit – mediateam.oulu.fi Publications, << Back to list. Väyrynen P, Peltola J & Seppänen T (2000) Enhancing phoneme recogniser performance with a simple rule-based language model. Proc. STeP 2000 – Finnish Artificial Intelligence Days, Espoo, Finland, 171 – 178. … Cached – All 2 versions

[PDF] Efficient development of grammars for multilingual rule-based applications [PDF] from unige.ch ME Santaholma – 2010 – archive-ouverte.unige.ch Page 1. Thesis Reference Efficient development of grammars for multilingual rule-based applications SANTAHOLMA, Marianne Elina Abstract Les applications de traitement automatique des langues (TALN) fondées sur des … Related articles – View as HTML – All 2 versions

[PDF] Handling Pronunciation Variants and Co-articulation with Finite State Transducers [PDF] from psu.edu TIK Schamai Safra – Citeseer … extraction 1 Page 2. of subword/submorpheme segments from the acoustic speech signal and on a rule-based language model (ie unification-based sentence and word grammar together with a morpheme lexicon). This approach … Related articles – View as HTML – All 6 versions

[PDF] Positive Results on the LIMSI Broadcast News Data [PDF] from ethz.ch T Kaufmann – 2007 – tik.ee.ethz.ch Page 1. Positive Results on the LIMSI Broadcast News Data Interim Report for SNF Project 105211-112133: Rule-Based Language Model for Speech Recognition Tobias Kaufmann Institut für Technische Informatik und Kommunikationsnetze July 2007 Page 2. Contents … Related articles – View as HTML – All 2 versions

Hierarchical Language Modeling for One-Stage Stochastic Interpretation of Natural Speech [PDF] from uoa.gr M Thomae – 2006 – deposit.ddb.de … 66 5 Hierarchical Language Models (HLM) 69 5.1 Mathematical Formulation . . . . . 71 5.2 Rule-Based Language Modeling . . . . . 74 5.3 Data-Driven Language Modeling . . . . . … Related articles – Library Search – All 7 versions

SPEECH UNDERSTANDING SYSTEM USING AN EXAMPLE-BASED SEMANTIC REPRESENTATION PATTERN S Yun, SH Kim, J Park, JS Kim, I Lee… – US Patent App. 12/ …, 2009 – Google Patents … This is basically due to limitations in speech recognition technol- ogy- [0006] Especially, a language modeling technology applied to connected speech recognition can be divided into a rule-based language model, such as a finite state network (FSN) or a context-free grammar … All 2 versions

[PDF] Named Entity Recognition for Tibetan Texts Using Case-auxiliary Grammars [PDF] from iaeng.org H Yu, T Jiang… – … of the International MultiConference of Engineers …, 2010 – iaeng.org … a fixed list of person name. Then combining the name lexicon and the feature of the boundary words, we propose a rule-based language model for person name recognition in Tibetan texts. A. Name Lexicon There are three … Related articles – View as HTML – All 3 versions

Automatic Language Model Update MH Cohen, S Baluja… – US Patent App. 12/786,102, 2010 – Google Patents … models. Language models may be rule-based, statistical models, or both. A rule based language model may have a set of explicit rules describing a limited set of word strings that a user is likely to say in a defined context. For … All 2 versions

Mining the whole set of person names from the Tibetan Web T Jiang… – … Technology, 2009. ICCSIT 2009. 2nd IEEE …, 2009 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … maintain a fixed list of person name. So combining the lexicon and the case-auxiliary words information, we propose a rule-based language model for person name extraction from Tibetan Web. The algorithm is as follow: • Step … Related articles – All 2 versions

[PDF] Experiments on the LIMSI Broadcast News Data [PDF] from ethz.ch T Kaufmann – 2007 – tik.ee.ethz.ch Page 1. Experiments on the LIMSI Broadcast News Data Interim Report for SNF Project 105211-112133: Rule-Based Language Model for Speech Recognition Tobias Kaufmann Institut für Technische Informatik und Kommunikationsnetze February 2007 Page 2. … Related articles – View as HTML

[PDF] State of the Art Report: In-flight Entertainment System [PDF] from tue.nl H Liu – seat.id.tue.nl … these applications could fall into two categories: (1) hierarchical tree modeling approach where the user is modeled by dimensions (eg, knowledge, or interest), each dimension can be further refined with sub dimensions [20]; (2) rule-based language modeling approach where … Related articles – View as HTML

Reviewer S Khan – Cambridge Univ Press … The book by Rayner, Hockey and Bouillon introduces and advocates a radically different approach: rule-based language modelling, employing a linguistically motivated grammar to produce accurate models based on context-free grammars. …

[PDF] Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich Switzerland [PDF] from psu.edu S Safra, G Lehtinen… – Citeseer … hypotheses. On this lattice a parser operates to search for the best-scored global hypoth- esis tting the rule-based language model. The parser used 1We use the terms observation unit” and language symbol” to be illustrative. … Related articles – View as HTML – All 2 versions

Application of English CALL system in the robot MERO J Youn, J Choi, K Kim, CG Kim… – … Robotics and its …, 2010 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … REFERENCES [1] Jian Cheng, Brent Townshend, IA Rule-Based Language Model for Reading Recognition,” in SLaTE, 2009. [2] Xiaoming Xi, Derrick Higgins, IAutomated Scoring of Spontaneous Speech Using SpeechRater v1.0(Report Style),” in ETS, 2008. … Related articles

[PS] E cient Semantic Constraint for Speech Recognition [PS] from kyoto-u.ac.jp Y Niimi… – winnie.kuis.kyoto-u.ac.jp … concept hierarchy was not used. 1 Introduction In this paper we present a method for describing semantic constraint in a speech understanding system using the rule-based language model. By the rule-based language model … Related articles – View as HTML

[CITATION] Automatic Assessment of Prosody in High-Stakes English Tests J Cheng – 2011 Related articles

HYBRID MACHINE TRANSLATION H Sawaf, M Shihadah… – US Patent App. 12/606,110, 2009 – Google Patents … The system may include at least one database, a rule based translation module, a statistical translation module and a hybrid machine translation engine. The database(s) store source and target text and rule based language models and statistical language models. … All 2 versions

Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading J Balogh, J Bernstein, J Cheng… – Educational and …, 2011 – epm.sagepub.com Page 1. Educational and Psychological Measurement XX(X) 1 -18 (c) The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permission: sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/0013164411412590 http://epm.sagepub.com Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading …

Evaluation of the new feature types for question classification with support vector machines [PDF] from hokudai.ac.jp M Skowron… – Communications and Information …, 2004 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … Iv. APPROACHES TO THE QUESTION CLASSIFICATION The approaches to question classification can be discriminated into the following, three main groups: rule-based, language modeling and machine learning based. … Related articles – All 4 versions

Performance of automated scoring for children’s oral reading [PDF] from aclweb.org R Downey, D Rubin, J Cheng… – Proceedings of the 6th …, 2011 – dl.acm.org … human scores. A novel aspect of the present study is that text-independent rule-based language models were employed (Cheng and Townshend, 2009) to score reading passages that the system had never seen before. Oral … Related articles – All 13 versions

[PDF] A survey on user profile modeling for personalized service delivery systems [PDF] from tue.nl H Liu, B Salem… – 2009 – idemployee.id.tue.nl … For the dynamic information elements such as user’s context-aware preference items which depend on the context of use, they are usually modeled with rule-based language modeling approach where the delivery of services relates to the context of use with if-then logic. … Related articles – View as HTML – All 4 versions

Voice Search YY Wang, D Yu, YC Ju… – Spoken Language …, 2009 – Wiley Online Library … 5.2.1.3 Language Modeling Early DA systems compiled directory entries into a finite-state grammar as the language model for ASR. This rule-based language model does not scale up well with the directory size due to the increased perplexity. … Related articles – All 4 versions

[PDF] THE FORMAL DESCRIPTION OF AEROBIC DANCE EXERCISE: A CORPUS-BASED COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS APPROACH [PDF] from outerthoughts.com A Bull – 1996 – outerthoughts.com … Page 24. – 11 – CHAPTER 2 : Background Knowledge formalised rule-based language models. NLP tends to be more application specific, however, whereas Computational Linguistics is concerned more with language theory for its own sake. … View as HTML – All 3 versions

Information state based speech recognition [PDF] from gu.se R Jonson – rapport nr.: Gothenburg Monographs in Linguistics 41, 2010 – gupea.ub.gu.se Page 1. Information State Based Speech Recognition Page 2. Page 3. GOTHENBURG MONOGRAPHS IN LINGUISTICS 41 Information State Based Speech Recognition Rebecca Jonson Page 4. Doctoral dissertation in Linguistics, University of Gothenburg … Related articles – Library Search – All 7 versions

[PDF] Improving Speech Recognition through Linguistic Knowledge [PDF] from psu.edu R Beutler – 2007 – Citeseer Page 1. Diss. ETH No. 17039 Improving Speech Recognition through Linguistic Knowledge A dissertation submitted to the SWISS FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ZURICH for the degree of DOCTOR OF TECHNICAL SCIENCES presented by RENÉ BEUTLER Dipl. … Cited by 2 – Related articles – View as HTML – Library Search – All 10 versions

[BOOK] Handling emotions in human-computer dialogues J Pittermann, A Pittermann… – 2009 – books.google.com … As the complexity of a rule-based language model, and thus the effort to manually create such a model, increases significantly with the vocabulary size, statistical language models are used in large-vocabulary continuous speech recognition and dictation systems. … Cited by 8 – Related articles – Library Search – All 4 versions

[PDF] Rule-based Person Name Recognition for Xinjiang Minority Languages [PDF] from psu.edu G Altenbek – Journal of Chinese Language and Computing, 2005 – Citeseer … Therefore, there is usually a word segmentation process before NE identification. We integrate word segmentation[11] and NE identification using a rule-based language model for Uighur and Kazak person name recogntition. … Cited by 1 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 3 versions

Reconnaissance automatique de la parole non native [PDF] from archives-ouvertes.fr T Tien Ping – 2008 – tel.archives-ouvertes.fr Page 1. UNIVERSITÉ JOSEPH FOURIER – GRENOBLE 1 N 0 attribué par la bibliothèque /__/__/__/__/__/__/__/__/__/__/ THÈSE pour obtenir le grade de DOCTEUR DE L’UNIVERSITÉ JOSEPH FOURIER – GRENOBLE 1 Discipline : Informatique … Related articles – All 4 versions

[CITATION] Evaluation von Grammatikformalismen in Hinblick auf die Anwendung in der Spracherkennung T Kaufmann – Zwischenbericht zum Nationalfonds-Projekt, 2005 Cited by 1 – Related articles – All 2 versions

[PDF] Rule-based Person-name Recognition for Uighur Texts [PDF] from colips.org G Adongbieke – colips.org … We integrate word segmentation[10] and NE identification using a rule-based language model for a Uighur person’s name. Root-affix and syllable segmentation of Uighur word bring great facilities in multi Natural language Processing. … Related articles – View as HTML – All 2 versions

[PDF] ?????????????????????????? [PDF] from aclweb.org ???… – aclweb.org Page 1. 1 ???????????????? ?????????? Association Rule Based Language Models for Discovering Long Distance Dependency in Chinese ?????? ???????????? Email:jtchien@mail.ncku.edu.tw ?? … Related articles – View as HTML – All 9 versions

[CITATION] News Information Retrieval Based on Probabilistic Mixture Model CC Lee – 2002 Related articles – All 2 versions

[PDF] Boundary Infrastructures for IBIS Federation: Design Rationale, Implementation, and Evaluation [PDF] from open.ac.uk J Park – 2010 – kmi.open.ac.uk Page 1. 1 Boundary Infrastructures for IBIS Federation: Design Rationale, Implementation, and Evaluation Technical Report KMI-10-01 January 2010 Jack Park Park, J. (2010). Boundary Infrastructures for IBIS Federation: Design Rationale, Implementation, and Evaluation. … Cited by 4 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 2 versions

[HTML] Type [HTML] from oulu.fi SIP Peer-to-Peer… – Computer – mediateam.oulu.fi MediaTeam Oulu is a research group of some 40 employees, and it operates at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering in the University of Oulu. MediaTeam is a member of Infotech Oulu. Cached – All 2 versions

[PDF] Wort-und Satzakzentuierung gemischtsprachiger Texte für die Sprachsynthese [PDF] from ethz.ch M Weiß – tik.ee.ethz.ch Page 1. Institut für Technische Informatik und Kommunikationsnetze Diplomarbeit Wort- und Satzakzentuierung gemischtsprachiger Texte für die Sprachsynthese Manuel Weiß Sommersemester 2006 3. April – 2. Oktober 2006 Diplomarbeit DA-2006-08 … Related articles – View as HTML – All 5 versions