## Logical Forms & Alignment 2019

Notes:

Logical forms (LFs) are graph structures that describe labeled dependencies among content words. The logical form alignment algorithm first establishes tentative lexical correspondences between nodes in the source and target LFs using translation pairs from a bilingual lexicon.

• Logical form alignment

References:

Semantics

X-SQL: reinforce schema representation with context
P He, Y Mao, K Chakrabarti, W Chen – arXiv preprint arXiv:1908.08113, 2019 – arxiv.org
… The alignment model sit tells how well t-th token of column i matches the global … Equation 1, this computation is done separately for each sub-task, to better align the schema … Both logical form accuracy (exact match of SQL queries) and execution accuracy (ra- tio of predicted …

Teaching pretrained models with commonsense reasoning: A preliminary kb-based approach
S Li, J Chen, D Yu – arXiv preprint arXiv:1909.09743, 2019 – arxiv.org
… Very recently, [20] propose to align triples to Wikipedia sentences to form natural language questions … The structured knowledge in KB allows us to construct various logical forms, and then generate multiple-choice questions that require commonsense logical reasoning …

Building an Application Independent Natural Language Interface
S Mazumder, B Liu, S Wang, S Esmaeilpour – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2019 – arxiv.org
… key advantages: (1) Due to the NL2NL matching, we no longer need a semantic parser to convert the user command to a logical form (or action formalism) or to write a program to translate the logical form to an API call. This makes the design of natural language interfaces much …

Answering Conversational Questions on Structured Data without Logical Forms
T Müller, F Piccinno, M Nicosia, P Shaw… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2019 – arxiv.org
… We align question tokens with column names and cell text using the Levenshtein edit distance between n … Through the alignment, the cell is connected to all the to- kens of the matching span and the … In our work, we do not use logical forms or RL, which can be hard to train, but …

Natural Language Interfaces for Semi-structured Web Pages
P Pasupat – 2019 – ppasupat.github.io
… Examples of knowledge- based QA systems include natural language interfaces to databases mentioned in the previous section, which use … 1996; Zettlemoyer and Collins, 2007; Liang et al., 2011), which convert questions into compositional and executable logical forms …

Combining knowledge hunting and neural language models to solve the Winograd schema challenge
A Prakash, A Sharma, A Mitra, C Baral – … of the 57th Annual Meeting of …, 2019 – aclweb.org
… to solve a WSC problem of the form W first convert K and S into a logical form and then … of such a scenario is the existence of the entities in a knowledge text which align with at … the alignments generated only with respect to these three cases as an output of the alignment module …

Compositional pre-training for neural semantic parsing
A Ziai – arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.11531, 2019 – arxiv.org
… demonstrate that training using this setup can improve the accuracy in domains with smaller labeled datasets [8]. This approach is aligned with one … This lack of alignment makes it difficult for the model to switch attention between tokens in deeply nested logical forms as most …

Fast developing of a Natural Language Interface for a Portuguese Wordnet: Leveraging on Sentence Embeddings
… synset (sen2) is a hyponym of another PWN synset (sen1) that is aligned with an … But the development of natural language interfaces (NLIs) for databases has also been a research topic … 2013) maps words to predicates and then com- bines the predicates to the final logical form …

Technical Report, SC-TR-00029 Applied Natural Language Relationships
JJ Simpson, MJ Simpson – researchgate.net
… An example of a poorly-aligned version of the ISM is that proposed by DV … can be used to transform specific natural language relationships into valid logical forms were discussed … Augmented human intelligence is the proper alignment of computer-based resources focused on …

Pre-learning environment representations for data-efficient neural instruction following
D Gaddy, D Klein – arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.09671, 2019 – arxiv.org
… These tasks can be formal- ized as learning a mapping M(s, c) ?? s/, where c is a command in natural language, s is an … procedure in sections 5 and 6. In Section 7, we show that our pre-training discovers representa- tions that align well with logical forms when they are …

Tackling complex queries to relational databases
O Popescu, NPA Vo, V Sheinin, E Khorashani… – Asian Conference on …, 2019 – Springer
… All the modules have an off-line component, where the deep natural language understanding models are … need to be trained either with the direct supervision such as logical forms [3] or … a dependency tree, $${r_n}_{=1..N}$$ computes the following functions: \begin{aligned} r_{n … Predicting state changes in procedural text using analogical question answering D Ribeiro, T Hinrichs, M Crouse… – … on Advances in …, 2019 – qrg.cs.northwestern.edu … is not the first instance of analogical reasoning being used to interpret and answer natural language questions … The alignment method used during the training portion of AQA is intended to find a mapping from the outputs of a semantic parser to some task-specific logical form … Searching Software Knowledge Graph with Question M Wang, Y Zou, Y Cao, B Xie – International Conference on Software and …, 2019 – Springer … begin{aligned} Score_{complex} = \omega _{complex} \times (|E(G)| + |v(G)| – |V(G_{hidden})| – |E(G_{hidden})|) \end{aligned}. (3). In … The basic process is: using the trained semantic parser to parse the input natural language questions into a logical form system, and …

A Multi-Modal Intelligent Agent that Learns from Demonstrations and Natural Language Instructions
TJJ Li – 2019 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
… Demonstrations and Natural Language Instructions Ph.D. Thesis Proposal … SUGILITE uses a multi-modal approach that combines programming by demonstration (PBD) and learning from natural language instructions to support end-user development for intelligent agents …

Tree-structured Decoding for Solving Math Word Problems
Q Liu, W Guan, S Li, D Kawahara – … Methods in Natural Language …, 2019 – aclweb.org
… the task that translates natu- ral language text to formal meaning logical forms or structured … An attention mechanism has shown its effective- ness in various natural language processing tasks … a copy mechanism to generate equation templates in a semantically-aligned man- ner …

BB-KBQA: BERT-based knowledge base question answering
A Liu, Z Huang, H Lu, X Wang, C Yuan – China National Conference on …, 2019 – Springer
… In more detail, the former first converts the natural language question into a structured representation, such as logical forms or SPARQL … fine-tuning, the pre-trained BERT representations can be used in a wide range of natural language processing tasks … begin{aligned} \mathbf H …

Learning to rank query graphs for complex question answering over knowledge graphs
G Maheshwari, P Trivedi, D Lukovnikov… – International Semantic …, 2019 – Springer
… KGQA approaches [2, 5, 7, 8, 19, 22] aim to learn semantic parsers that generate ungrounded logical form expressions from … They compare their results against a local sub-sequence alignment model with cross-attention [16] (originally proposed for … begin{aligned} C^* = \mathop …

O Tafjord, P Clark, M Gardner, W Yih… – Proceedings of the AAAI …, 2019 – aaai.org
… 1 Introduction Many natural language tasks require recognizing and rea- soning with qualitative relationships … line for parse accuracy is near zero given the large space of logical forms, while the … 6During training, using alignment with the annotations, we en- sure the worlds in the …

The DipInfoUniTo Realizer at SRST’19: Learning to Rank and Deep Morphology Prediction for Multilingual Surface Realization
A Mazzei, V Basile – Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Multilingual …, 2019 – aclweb.org
… This architecture models the mono- tonic alignment between the input and output se- quences, allowing the freedom to condition the output on the entire sequence in input … 2015. From Logic to Language : Natural Language Generation from Logical Forms …

DROP: A reading comprehension benchmark requiring discrete reasoning over paragraphs
D Dua, Y Wang, P Dasigi, G Stanovsky, S Singh… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2019 – arxiv.org
… When an answer has multi- ple spans, we first perform a one-to-one alignment greedily based on bag-of-word overlap on … Logical form language Our logical form lan- guage identifies five basic elements in the table rep- resentation: predicate-argument structures (ie, ta- ble rows …

Robust Instruction-Following in a Situated Agent via Transfer-Learning from Text
F Hill, S Mokra, N Wong, T Harley – 2019 – openreview.net
… and robustness (rather than performance when trained on a set of natural language commands) … s SHRDLU, syntactic modules parsed the language input into a logical form, and hand … we provide our dataset of natural instructions and referring expressions aligned to ShapeNet …

Parsing/Theorem-Proving for Logical Grammar CatLog3
G Morrill – Journal of Logic, Language and Information, 2019 – Springer
… Open image in new window. \begin{aligned} X(i) = \left\{ \begin{array}{ll}\top &{} \text{ if } i>0\\ i &{} \text{ if } i\le 0\end{array}\right. \qquad … right. \end{aligned}. where $${\mathcal P}{}$$ is the set of primitive types, $$P\in {\mathcal P}$$; …

Learning to generalize from sparse and underspecified rewards
R Agarwal, C Liang, D Schuurmans… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2019 – arxiv.org
… We consider the problem of learning from sparse and underspecified rewards, where an agent re- ceives a complex input, such as a natural language instruction, and needs to generate a complex re- sponse, such as an action sequence, while only receiving binary success …

Unified visual-semantic embeddings: Bridging vision and language with structured meaning representations
H Wu, J Mao, Y Zhang, Y Jiang, L Li… – Proceedings of the …, 2019 – openaccess.thecvf.com
… our visual-semantic alignment is that: an object appears in a local region of the image, while the aggregation of all local regions should be aligned with the … Global image-level alignment … Thus, we align them with the full image embedding v via bidi- rectional ranking losses as Eq …

If structured propositions are logical procedures then how are procedures individuated?
M Duží – Synthese, 2019 – Springer
… For the purposes of natural language analysis, we are assuming the following base of ground types … Where w ranges over $$\upomega$$ and t over $$\uptau$$, the following logical form essentially characterizes the logical syntax of empirical language: $$\lambda w\lambda t [{\ldots … as the Logic of Scope and Movement C Barker – Journal of Logic, Language and Information, 2019 – Springer … (\hbox {NL}_\lambda$$ as the Logic of Scope and Movement. Authors; Authors and affiliations. Chris Barker Email author. Article First Online: 27 March 2019. 85 Downloads. Abstract. Lambek elegantly characterized part of natural language …

Beyond word embeddings: learning entity and concept representations from large scale knowledge bases
W Shalaby, W Zadrozny, H Jin – Information Retrieval Journal, 2019 – Springer
… string matching between Wikipedia article titles and Probase concept names in order to align the concepts in … $0\; {\textbf{ap0}})\\& ({\text{from}}\; \$0\; {\textbf{ap1}}))\ text{to}}\; \0\; {\textbf{ci0}}))) end{aligned}\) … Right, logical forms before and after argument type identification … Aesop: A visual storytelling platform for conversational ai and common sense grounding TJ Meo, C Kim, A Raghavan, A Tozzo… – AI …, 2019 – content.iospress.com … language parser TRIPS [2]. TRIPS is a broad-coverage domain-general deep semantic parser that produces a Logical Form (LF) grounded in a … Aesop’s response to a change in problem solving state is then passed to a natural language generation module which provides a … Reasoning Between the Lines: a Logic of Relational Propositions A Potter – Dialogue & Discourse, 2019 – dad.uni-bielefeld.de … inference. The resulting logical forms are used to construct logical expressions that map to RST tree structures … defined. The logical forms and their negation rules can be used to examine the flow of reasoning and the effects of incoherence … Creating Data-Driven Ontologies: An Agriculture Use Case MHT de Boer, JPC Verhoosel – … , Spain 24-28 march 2019, 52 …, 2019 – vb.northsearegion.eu … In the field of ontology learning, Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques are used to … terms and relations, conceptual modeling / normalization (differenti- ation, alignment and restructuring … of logical expressions, and populates it by translating sentences to logical form … Thinking is Founded on Models of Possibilities M Ragni – KI-Künstliche Intelligenz, 2019 – Springer … But, once you do that, there’s no need for logical form, because people can reason … t really like these} \\ &{} \quad \hbox {arbitrary categories, Philip.}\\ \end{array} \end{aligned} … Natural language is too ambiguous; the language of ‘thought’ is terra incognita; and neural activity … Particle stranding ellipsis involves PF-deletion Y Sato, M Maeda – Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 2019 – Springer … component (see Mukai 2003 and An 2016), which has the function of aligning the left … proposes to formalize this observation as the byproduct of the interaction of two alignment constraints (Pierrehumbert … is because, in Japanese, the left edge of a syntactic XP is aligned with an … Using FHIR to Construct a Corpus of Clinical Questions Annotated with Logical Forms and Answers S Soni, M Gudala, DZ Wang… – AMIA Annual Symposium …, 2019 – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov … This intervention reduced a significant amount of time for annotating the logical forms in comparison to … this approach is that the annotated concepts in our corpus are well-aligned with concepts … can then be used for building a semantic parser to support natural language queries … Two coordinating particles are better than one: free choice items in Romanian AC Nicolae – snippets – ledonline.it … we conclude that the si morpheme is not vacuous, or else the DiWh and Di- CoWh items should fully align in their … Natural Language Semantics 21: 117–178 … a version of every that quantifies over individual concepts with the lexical entries in (4) and (5), and a logical form for (1 … Negotiating what is said in the face of miscommunication CHF Elder – Philosophical Insights into Pragmatics, 2019 – books.google.com … intended proposition–even when this intended proposition di- verges from the logical form of the … In other words, speakers and hearers need not necessarily align at the level of the … Rather, alignment can occur as long as the relevant background assumptions are accommodated … From Cognitive Structures to Positive and Negative Learning in a Dialogue Semantics Perspective A Lücking – Frontiers and Advances in Positive Learning in the Age …, 2019 – Springer … the inverse scope analysis given in (15.4c), where the sentence final argument is raised to the initial position within logical form … Natural Language Semantics, 8(2), 77–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Johnson-Laird, PN (1989 … Completions, coordination, and alignment in dialogue … From Conceptual Mash-ups to Badass Blends: A Robust Computational Model of Conceptual Blending T Veale – Computational Creativity, 2019 – Springer … It involves mapping, yes, so that The Pirates of the Caribbean is aligned with the attractions of Jurassic … Parsing the second question above, we obtain its logical form … query logs of a search engine like Google, since many users persist in using full natural language questions as … Mastering language and computation: how well is teaching of language technology adapted to student learning? S Dobnik – 2019 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org … Natural Language Processing (both are an advantage), compared with the knowledge and skills of students 1 Page 2 … Constructive alignment is … ods) and the assessment of the teaching are aligned with each other which gives a consistent experience to the students … The first crank of the cultural ratchet: Learning and transmitting concepts through language. S Chopra, MH Tessler, ND Goodman – CogSci, 2019 – cogsci.mindmodeling.org … Participants learned concepts generated by 5 different rules (ie logical forms): Single Feature … find a strong relationship: language seems to yield stronger alignment between students … Recent advances in natural language processing have demonstrated potential in training and … Univse: Robust visual semantic embeddings via structured semantic representations H Wu, J Mao, Y Zhang, Y Jiang, L Li, W Sun… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2019 – arxiv.org … an object appears in a local re- gion of the image, while the aggregation of all local regions should be aligned with the … (1)3. The alignment loss is … We want to highlight that, during training, we separately align the two type of semantic represen- tations of the caption, ie, usent and … Nlprolog: Reasoning with weak unification for question answering in natural language L Weber, P Minervini, J Münchmeyer, U Leser… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2019 – arxiv.org NLProlog: Reasoning with Weak Unification for Question Answering in Natural Language Leon Weber Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin weberple@hu-berlin.de … However, such systems are difficult to apply to prob- lems involving natural language, due to its lin- guistic variability … Metalinguistic conditionals and the role of explicit content CH Elder – Linguistics, 2019 – degruyter.com Jump to Content Jump to Main Navigation Publications. Subjects. Architecture and Design Arts Asian and Pacific Studies Business and Economics Chemistry Classical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies Computer Sciences Cultural … On the Ramsey test analysis of ‘Because’ H Andreas, M Günther – Erkenntnis, 2019 – Springer … It suffices to require that the members of a belief base conform to a specific logical form … Then Rott’s analysis of the natural language ‘because’ is given by \begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} \alpha {\,{}a} {\Rightarrow } \,} \gamma \in K&\;{\text{ iff }}\;\alpha \Rightarrow \gamma … Iterative delexicalization for improved spoken language understanding A Ray, Y Shen, H Jin – arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.07060, 2019 – arxiv.org … L. Dong and M. Lapata. Language to logical form with neural attention. In Proc … J. Juraska, P. Karagiannis, K. Bowden, and MA Walker. A deep ensemble model with slot alignment for sequence-to-sequence natural language generation. In Proc … Deontic Modals are Hyperintensional FLG Faroldi – Hyperintensionality and Normativity, 2019 – Springer … reader preferring descriptive accuracy rather than the unifying regimentation of natural language phenomena I … psi ) \rightarrow \mathcal {P}\phi \wedge \mathcal {P}\psi \end{aligned}. (4.1). But … of ‘ought’ , by taking the argument to have a “non-obvious” logical form (wide scope … On involutive nonassociative Lambek calculus W Buszkowski – Journal of Logic, Language and Information, 2019 – Springer … It cannot discuss in detail applications in natural language processing … Box ^{\downarrow }_{n}\Diamond _{n}np\backslash s)/\Box ^{\downarrow }_{a}\Diamond _{a}np \end{aligned}. to ‘likes’ … Proof nets are interpreted as logical forms of expressions (Moot and Retoré 2012) … Intelligent Multi-Purpose Healthcare Bot Facilitating Shared Decision Making MM Afsar – Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on …, 2019 – ifaamas.org … to receive the request through natural language and show the response in the most logical form … This data is particularly useful when used by Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to … Aligning ethics with medical decision- making: the quest for informed patient choice … Can Pragmatics Fix Parameters? NV Smith – Logical Issues in Language Acquisition, 2019 – books.google.com … This leads directly to the conclusion that there must be an innate language of thought with at least the expressive power of any Natural Language … Smith 1988b; for the position that the Language of Thought is the Natural Language acquired, cf. Smith 1983) … The speech interface as an attack surface: an overview M Bispham, I Agrafiotis, M Goldsmith – International Journal On …, 2019 – ora.ox.ac.uk … the speech interface according to human perceptions of the attacks, whilst also aligning the categories … Natural language understanding in the context of a voice- controlled system is the task of extracting … where a request to cancel a meeting is mapped to a logical form that can … Learning to Answer Ambiguous Questions with Knowledge Graph Y Zhu, J Shen, M Zhang – arXiv preprint arXiv:1912.11668, 2019 – arxiv.org … aim to learn semantic parsers which parse natural language questions into structured queries (eg logical forms) and then … r)=0. Therefore we only need to focus on entities that might be aligned to the … In this work, our entity alignment model uses the recent LSTM-CRF model with … (Non-) exhaustivity in embedded questions: Contextual, lexical and structural factors M Moyer, K Syrett – Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung, 2019 – ojs.ub.uni-konstanz.de … To wit, the truth-value judgment of (1) depends on the alignment between contextually … For them, the logical form allows both exhaustive and non-exhaustive answers and thus imposes … the determining factor and why with rampant domain restriction in natural language (eg, with … Intensional Logic and Semantics for Deontic Modals FLG Faroldi – Hyperintensionality and Normativity, 2019 – Springer … try to work with a general approach which aims for a regimentation of natural language phenomena … P}(\phi \vee \psi ) \rightarrow \mathcal {P}\phi \wedge \mathcal {P}\psi \end{aligned}. (1.1). But … of ‘ought’ , by taking the argument to have a “non-obvious” logical form (wide scope … Image captioning by incorporating affective concepts learned from both visual and textual components J Yang, Y Sun, J Liang, B Ren, SH Lai – Neurocomputing, 2019 – Elsevier … Abstract. Automatically generating a natural sentence describing the content of an image has been extensively researched in artificial intelligence recently, and it bridges the gap between computer vision and natural language processing communities … The Scope of Contrasted Scalar Items and Intermediate Implicatures S Tomioka – English Linguistics, 2019 – researchgate.net … Such operators are free to appear anywhere in a logical form, but context-specific pragmatic … 7It is worth pointing out, however, that Geurts’ analysis does not align well with the … and Paul Portner, eds., Semantics: An International Hand- book of Natural Language Meaning, de … Hybrid Deep Question Answering A Aghaebrahimian – 2019 – dspace.cuni.cz … Martin Holub, Ph.D., Institute of Formal and Applied Lin- guistics Abstract: As one of the oldest tasks of Natural Language Processing, Question … is concerned with building systems that automatically retrieve answers to ques- tions posed by humans in a natural language … Possible predicates and actual properties RT Cook – Synthese, 2019 – Springer … merely serve to emphasize that it is predicates and singular terms (ie expressions of some formal or natural language) that we … we then have: Open image in new window. Let $$\mathcal {F}$$ be the logical operation (determined by the logical form of \(\Phi … begin{aligned} \Sigma … Knowledge harvesting: achievements and challenges G Weikum, J Hoffart, F Suchanek – Computing and Software Science, 2019 – Springer … For connecting to WordNet classes, though, clever alignment and pruning techniques are needed [60 … gathering as many facts as possible), we eventually need to tap into natural language text as … state of the art has major limitations: rules are restricted in their logical form to Horn … AnnaParser: Semantic Parsing for Tabular Data Analysis Y Gao, JG Lou, D Zhang – arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.10363, 2019 – arxiv.org … 1 Introduction Translating natural language questions to SQL queries is an important problem (Gulwani and Marron … operation, we can keep attaching more F onto a head symbol and align semantic composition … Here, {z+ j ,j = 1 …M} are consistent logical forms of xi and {z ? k ,k … 3 Thematic roles AR Davis – Semantics-Lexical Structures and Adjectives, 2019 – books.google.com … This foreshadows the hypotheses of later researchers about argument realization, such as the Universal Alignment Hypothesis (Perlmutter & Postal 1984, Rosen 1984), and the … However, lexical decomposition does reflect the internal complexity of natural language predicators … The achievements of Generative Syntax: a time chart and some reflections R D’Alessandro – Catalan journal of linguistics, 2019 – ddd.uab.cat … 1. QR [The logical scope of natural language quantifiers (over individuals, times or situations/worlds) does not have to match their surface … most likely an interface requirement (for instance, ease of computing a dependency between heads that are harmonically aligned vs heads … Question Answering in Knowledge Bases: A Verification Assisted Model with Iterative Training R Zhang, Y Wang, Y Mao, J Huai – ACM Transactions on Information …, 2019 – dl.acm.org … in Table 1. The first solution is the use of semantic parsing to translate the natural language question into … Columns “Entity Alignment” and “Entity Linking” show how the models address these two subtasks in their … questions are mapped into a language-independent logical form … The lexicon J Pustejovsky, O Batiukova – 2019 – books.google.com … and Modality 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 Overview Events As Arguments of Natural Language Predicates Internal … inheritance hierarchy Ditransitive construction Concept FLOWER The Parallel Architecture of the language faculty Trajector–landmark alignment Vantage point … Executing instructions in situated collaborative interactions A Suhr, C Yan, J Schluger, S Yu, H Khader… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2019 – arxiv.org … Followers mark an instruction as finished before observing the next one. This provides alignment between instructions and follower actions … Let S be the set of all world states, ? be the set of all interac- tion states, and X be the set of all natural language instructions … Semantic monsters B Rabern – philarchive.org … In the natural language setting there is much discussion of the connection between monsters … Those wishing to avoid the conclusion while retaining Kaplan’s alignment between the objects of … or ‘natural logic’ often makes use of interpretation- shifting devices in the logical form … Inverse linking, possessive weak definites and Haddock descriptions: a unified dependent type account J Grudzi?ska, M Zawadowski – Journal of Logic, Language and …, 2019 – Springer … argues that the three puzzling readings (inversely linked interpretations, weak definite readings in possessives and Haddock-type readings) provide another compelling example of application of dependent types to the study of natural language semantics … begin{aligned} \Vert \pi … Givenness marking in a mixed system: Constituent order vs. determiners A Simonenko, A Carlier – pdfs.semanticscholar.org … 2012) argues that in Czech object scrambling is a means of aligning the syntactic … 14) derives this generalisation from the mechanism of given- ness marking in natural language … We assume the Logical Forms of demonstrative, definite, and possessive deter- miners involve a … NICHOLAS K. JONES S HOUSE, CBYJ WOLFF, EBYGUY LONGWORTH – 2019 – aristoteliansociety.org.uk … their role in natural language semantics and apparent quantification over propositions within natural language … a language of theorising which has been regimented so that syntax and semantics align … matter of our beliefs wrong, it’s not even got the logical form required in order … Knowledge of objective modality M Strohminger, J Yli-Vakkuri – Philosophical Studies, 2019 – Springer … & \quad {\text{(`}}r\,{\text{is}}\,{text{the}}\,{text{unique}}\,{text{proposition}}\,{text{with}}\,{text{property }}R{\text{‘}}) end{aligned} … nor Possibility* have any immediate epistemological significance, because the counterfactual reasoning we carry out in natural language and in … Proximate possessors I Nikolaeva, A Bárány – Prominent internal possessors, 2019 – books.google.com Page 243. Proximate possessors IRIN A NIKOLAEVA AND ANDRAS BARANY 8.1 Introduction In this chapter, we motivate the notion of prominent internal possessors (PIPs) for Tundra Nenets (TN), a language of the Samoyedic … Bad company objection to Joongol Kim’s adverbial theory of numbers N Kim – Synthese, 2019 – Springer … text{ of } \text{ pme) }\\ &{} \left( 12\right) &{} \perp &{} \text{7,11 } \& \text{ I } \end{array} \end{aligned}. In words … According to the event-based view, if a sentence includes an adverb, then its logical form includes an extra variable quantifying over events and a predicate attached … XL burgers, shiny pizzas, and ascending drinks: Primary metaphors and conceptual interaction in fast food printed advertising L Pérez-Hernández – Cognitive Linguistics, 2019 – degruyter.com Jump to Content Jump to Main Navigation Publications. Subjects. Architecture and Design Arts Asian and Pacific Studies Business and Economics Chemistry Classical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies Computer Sciences Cultural … When allomorphy meets infixation: Cyclicity and separation L Kalin – laurakalin.com … First are operations that are phonology-free (structure- building, linearization of abstract morphemes) – Next is the morphological operation that inserts phono- logical forms (exponent choice) … Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 37:571–619 … Generalized alignment … EISS 12 E Destruel, JP De Veaugh-Geiss – EISS 12, 2019 – cssp.cnrs.fr … intonation phrase. The c’est-cleft, despite adding syntactic complex- ity, circumvents this prosodic restriction by creating an extra intona- tion boundary that can align with the focused constituent (Hamlaoui 2009). Second and … Strategic conversation: The minimalism/contextualism debate KL Yeung – 2019 – academia.edu … LF logical form MS Model Speaker … Nonetheless, it has been argued (eg Asher and Lascarides 2003, 2013; Stone and Lepore 2014) that Grice’s theory overlooks the fact that the motives of the interlocutors do not necessarily align and that … imperfect natural language … Neural Temporality Adaptation for Document Classification: Diachronic Word Embeddings and Domain Adaptation Models X Huang, M Paul – Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the …, 2019 – aclweb.org … to obtain diachronic word embeddings fall into three main directions: incremental train- ing (Kim et al., 2014), alignment transformation (Kulkarni et al … while the same words with different domain labels will still share close representations because of similar morpho- logical forms … Adverbs of Change T Koev – The Semantics of Plurals, Focus, Degrees, and Times, 2019 – Springer … a fundamental part of the human experience and not surprisingly it is amply represented in natural language … clause; and by the third assumption, the two described events are right-aligned with their … I assume that (43) has the Logical Form in (43a), where SAY is a silent speech … gt 22: Gramática y filosofía FDL Pereyra – migrantes – jornadas.fhuce.edu.uy … Cita ejemplos del inglés como non-aggression, non-aligned y non-belligerent, y cita ejemplos para el francés como non-agression, non … Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 29 (1): 123–167 … Reference and proper names: A theory of n-movement in syntax and logical form … De-syntacticising Syntax?: Concerns on the Architecture of Grammar and the Role of Interface Components A Irurtzun – Catalan journal of linguistics, 2019 – ddd.uab.cat Page 1. Catalan Journal of Linguistics Special Issue, 2019 165-202 ISSN 1695-6885 (in press); 2014-9718 (online) https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/catjl.231 De-syntacticising Syntax? Concerns on the Architecture of Grammar and the Role of Interface Components … Conditional Sentences, Conditional Thoughts CH Elder – Context, Cognition and Conditionals, 2019 – Springer … in terms of probabilities is that they both remove the ‘paradoxes of material implication’ from a theory of natural language conditionals, instead … Many others have followed Stalnaker (1968, 1970) in his attempt to align speakers’ intuitions about probability with a truth-conditional … Beyond the Conditional Sentence and Towards Cognitive Reality CH Elder – Context, Cognition and Conditionals, 2019 – Springer … prioritises ‘what is said’ as a reflection of the ways in which natural language users understand … conditional content has to be attributed to context-sensitive ‘slots’ in the logical form (eg Stanley … This has the aim of ensuring that truth conditions align with speakers’ intuitions, while … Propositions, representation, and truth G Georgi – Synthese, 2019 – Springer … assertion:\begin{aligned}&\hbox {Ed believes every true thing Sara says} \end{aligned}$$. (1).$$\begin{aligned}&\hbox {Sara says that Tally barks} \end{aligned}$$. (2).$$\begin{aligned}&\hbox {That Tally barks is true} \end … Should Intercultural Communication Change the Way We Think About Language? I Kecskes – Further Advances in Pragmatics and Philosophy: Part 2 …, 2019 – Springer … hbox{-} \hbox{-} \hbox{-} \hbox{-} \kern0.5em \mathrm{UNCONVENTIONAL}-\mathrm{ UNPREDICTABLE}\end{aligned}}} … L1 use Fillmore found that “an enormously large amount of natural language is formulaic … a hidden indexical present at the level of the logical form of the … Flowsense: A natural language interface for visual data exploration within a dataflow system B Yu, CT Silva – IEEE transactions on visualization and …, 2019 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … SEMPRE framework employs a modular design in which different types of parsers and logical forms can be … The training cannot address the ambiguity in natural language itself at large … applies a template-based auto-completion, in which the system attempts to align user input … The agreement of structural obliques parameter: pseudopartitives, DOM and partitive articles in Romance MR Manzini – Studies in Polish Linguistics, 2019 – ruj.uj.edu.pl … In ergative align- ments, we observe that absolutive objects agree with the perfect participle, as in Punjabi (15b). However DOM objects do not; a DOM internal argument triggers an invariant (masculine, singular) inflection on the perfect participle, as in (15a) … The language of generalization. MH Tessler, ND Goodman – Psychological review, 2019 – psycnet.apa.org … The language of generalization covers a diverse swath of natural language expressions … 1) would interpret it: The goal of the endorsement model is to align the listener’s a priori … assert the generic; it does so because the listener interpretation would be more aligned with the … Proof Verification Technology and Elementary Physics E Davis – … and Complexity in Mathematics, Epistemology, and …, 2019 – Springer … human being would find it much easier to solve the problem directly from the natural language formulation than to translate the natural language into the … the data; that is, argmax h ? ? P(h|D). So now, as always, we use Bayes’ Law:\$\displaystyle \begin{aligned} \mbox{argmax …

Binding and Coreference in Vietnamese
T Bui – 2019 – scholarworks.umass.edu
… relations in natural language. 1.2 Competition-Based Binding Theory … them from being bound by quantified coarguments. These findings align with the … a pronoun yields the same interpretation as a bound variable logical form (LF). A …

Narrative comprehension through analogy: a study in cognitive modeling and narrative clustering
SA Wilner – 2019 – ideals.illinois.edu
… is: “Given two representations, what is the best coordination (alignment) between the components of … SME uses sub-graph matching to align the largest pieces of potential analogs to … SME’s representation is a symbolic graph encoding based upon the logical form of a statement …

Intervention effects in German: a contiguity approach
V Hehl – 2019 – oastats.mit.edu
… 2001 .. 198. 100- 75- 0 0 0.293355.61258698 1.61814059 1.511 Time (s) Regarding focused constituents, Fry & Kigler (2017: 263) claim that a focused con- stituent tends to be aligned with the right-hand edge of a prosodic phrase (ALGN- Focus-R) (cf …

Composition of event concepts: Evidence for distinct roles for the left and right anterior temporal lobes
S Kim, L Pylkkänen – Brain and language, 2019 – Elsevier
… To align the position of MEG sensors with subjects’ actual head surfaces, digitized head shapes were coregistered with the FreeSurfer average brain (CorTechs Labs Inc., LaJolla, CA). For eight subjects who had a structural MRI scan, those scans were used instead …

Creating and Evaluating Data-Driven Ontologies
MHT de Boer, JPC Verhoosel – … in Software Volume 12, Number 3 …, 2019 – researchgate.net
… for ontology engineering, and includes linguistic analysis with Natural Language Processing (NLP … terms and relations, conceptual modeling /normalization (differentiation, alignment and restructuring … logical expressions, and populates it by translating sentences to logical form …

Korean and Spanish psych-verbs: Interaction of case, theta-roles, linearization, and event structure in HPSG
AM y Priemer, P Fritz-Huechante – Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar – stanford.edu
… paper, we argue that by making a more detailed distinction of theta-roles, while at the same time investigating the correlation of case marking, theta-role assignment, and eventuality types, we can de- scribe different psych-verb subclasses and explain their alignment pat- terns …

9 Linearization When Multiple Orderings Are Possible: Adjective Ordering Restrictions and Focus
K McKinney-Bock – Exploring Interfaces, 2019 – books.google.com
… a cake is aligned horizontally, and the lexical formatives are also aligned horizontally … eg for linearization at Phonological Form (PF) or for scope interpretation at Logical Form (LF … this particular approach also has empirical shortcomings, and show that the alignment of syntactic …

Turkish Sluicing or Stripping? Why Not Both?
L Zidani-Ero?lu – 36th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 2019 – lingref.com
… At least one of the word order alignment, namely where the NPI adverb occurs to the left of the wh- remnant, as in (20a) is incorrectly ruled out given grammatical (18a) and (19a) above … 1995. Sluicing and Logical Form. Natural Language Semantics 3 239-282. Gribanova, Vera …

Modelling Norm Types and their Inter-relationships in EU Directives.
IA Amantea, L Di Caro, L Humphreys, R Nanda… – ASAIL@ ICAIL, 2019 – ceur-ws.org
… KEYWORDS Natural language processing, Law, Machine learning, Recitals, Eu- ropean legislation, purposive interpretation, cosine similarity … line-by-line coding with an open mind, as espoused by grounded theory[11, 12], followed by comparison and alignment with theories …

Inferring meaning from indirect answers to polar questions: The contribution of the rise-fall-rise contour
MC De Marneffe, J Tonhauser – Questions in discourse, 2019 – brill.com

Evolutionary Phonology as Human Behavior
J Blevins – Columbia School Linguistics in the 21st Century, 2019 – books.google.com
… The listener associates a phono- logical form with the utterance which differs from the … positions of neutralization in ex- ceptionless sound patterns do not generally align with information … On the contrary, all natural language phonologies are learned quickly and easily by healthy …

Modernist Temporalities: Figures of Time in the Novels of Virginia Woolf
T Parke – 2019 – scarab.bates.edu
Page 1. Bates College SCARAB Honors Theses Capstone Projects 5-2019 Modernist Temporalities: Figures of Time in the Novels of Virginia Woolf Tyler Parke Bates College, tparke@bates.edu Follow this and additional works at: https://scarab.bates.edu/honorstheses …

Soft Presuppositions as Scalar Implicatures in Signaling Games
M Zhao – Dynamics, Uncertainty and Reasoning, 2019 – Springer
… Game-theoretic pragmatics seeks to apply mathematical models of interactive decision making involving agents to a general framework for representing and solving problems of natural language use and interpretation (see Jäger 2011; van Rooij and … begin{aligned} \mu _{k …

Numerals under negation: Empirical findings
S Solt, B Waldon – Glossa: a journal of general linguistics, 2019 – glossa-journal.org
… negated numerals in the complement position of verbs with inherently comparative meanings (eg The entire planting did not exceed 5,000 bushels), which might be aligned to comparatively … This argues against aligning bare numerals directly to other PPI numerical constructions …

Casual Reasoning: A Social Ecological Look at Human Cognition and Common Sense
R Pesonen – 2019 – trepo.tuni.fi
… However, these two modes of cognitive pro- cessing were not assumed to align with the prevailing distinction between lower and higher cognition … to evaluate the validity of arguments on the basis of the credibility of their conclusion rather than of their logical form (Evans et al …

(In) transitive Verbs: Unergatives and Unaccusatives
A Berro – Basque and Romance, 2019 – brill.com
… intransitive verbs have been variously called: Split S (Dixon 1979, 1994), Split Intransitive (Merlan 1985), Extended Ergative (Dixon 1979; Ortiz de Urbina 1989), Active (Bittner and Hale 1996; see also Sapir 1917), Agentive (Mithun 1991) or Semantically Aligned (Donohue & …

Exploring the Use of Ontologies and Reasonable Ontology Templates (OTTR) within Health Registry Systems
V Varzhel – 2019 – duo.uio.no
… FHHO Family Health History Ontology FMA Foundational Model of Anatomy FOL First Order Language HRV Health Registry Variable MED Medical Entities Dictionary NCI National Cancer Institute NLP Natural Language Processing ODP … Axioms is an assertion in logical form …

13 Cohesion and coherence
A Kehler – Semantics-Sentence and Information Structure, 2019 – books.google.com
… In the Hobbsian conception outlined in the last section, however, the inference process operates on complete logical forms of clauses and sentences … ment of Resemblance relations, but not others, requires that a syntactic VP be accessed in order to identify and align the parallel …

Distributivity in formal semantics
L Champollion – Annual Review of Linguistics, 2019 – annualreviews.org
… Abstract. Distributivity in natural language occurs in sentences such as John and Mary (each) took a deep breath, when a predicate that is combined with a plurality-denoting expression is understood as holding of each of the members of that plurality …

Two ways to want?
E Jerzak – The Journal of Philosophy, 2019 – pdcnet.org
… All along, I believe that whichever wine I buy should align with my comrades’ preferences … although she is concerned there not to give a particularly realistic semantics for natural language desire attributions … here is that (11) and (12) are true, and have the logical form they seem …

Subordinate Unless-Clauses: Croatian and Slovenian in Comparison to English
G Ilc, I Zovko Dinkovi? – Rasprave: ?asopis Instituta za hrvatski jezik i …, 2019 – hrcak.srce.hr
… Building on Kratzer’s original claim that in natural languages there is “no two-place if… then connective in the logical forms” and that “[i]f-clauses are devices for re- stricting the domains of operators” (Kratzer 2012: 106),6 von Fintel (1992: 136) argues that unless is “a subtractive …

Truthmaker Semantics for Deontic Modals
FLG Faroldi – Hyperintensionality and Normativity, 2019 – Springer
… Although it is presented as a merely formal account of the underlying semantic and logical forms, Fine’s is impressive in the degree of unity of treatment between indicatives and imperatives … It is unclear whether natural language ‘ought’ captures the strict or weak meaning …

Preposing in Nominals as Movement into a Theta-Position
K Kim – researchgate.net
… Belletti, Adriana and Luigi Rizzi 1988. Psych Verbs and Theta Theory. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 6:291-352. Bonet, Eullia … 1995. Logical form: from GB to minimalism. Oxford: Blackwell … 1990. Experiencer predicates and universal alignment principle. Ms. MIT …

From natural language text to rules: knowledge acquisition from formal documents for aircraft assembly
N Madhusudanan, B Gurumoorthy… – Journal of Engineering …, 2019 – Taylor & Francis
… Articles. From natural language text to rules: knowledge acquisition from formal documents for aircraft assembly … Articles. From natural language text to rules: knowledge acquisition from formal documents for aircraft assembly …

It’s not what you expected! The surprising nature of cleft alternatives in French and English
E Destruel, DI Beaver, E Coppock – Frontiers in psychology, 2019 – frontiersin.org
… intonation phrase. The c’est-cleft, despite adding syntactic complexity, circumvents this prosodic restriction by creating an extra intonational boundary that can align with the focus constituent (Hamlaoui, 2008). Consequently, the …

Architecture of the mind and libertarian paternalism: is the reversibility of system 1 nudges likely to happen?
R Viale – Mind & Society, 2019 – Springer
… dual-process views fail because “these dimensions are unaligned rather than aligned” (p. 98 … There are semantic networks that are rule-based and their logical form is “if–then … the behaviour of a rule-governed serial processor by encoding natural language sentences expressing …

The *hope-wh puzzle
W Uegaki, Y Sudo – Natural Language Semantics, 2019 – Springer
Natural Language Semantics https://doi.org/10.1007/s11050-019-09156-5 … Our goal is to make observations based on a number of English predicates that align with the hypothe- sis in (4) and to formulate an explicit semantic analysis of the selectional restriction that derives it …

Weak speech reports
MA Zavaleta – Philosophical Studies, 2019 – Springer
… As I argue in this section, none of these views fully accounts for the data. 3.1 Situation semantics. Situation semantics defines the semantic contents of expressions from natural language in terms of possible situations rather than in terms of possible worlds …

DocParser: Hierarchical Structure Parsing of Document Renderings
J Rausch, O Martinez, F Bissig, C Zhang… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2019 – arxiv.org
Page 1. DocParser: Hierarchical Structure Parsing of Document Renderings Johannes Rausch1, Octavio Martinez1, Fabian Bissig1, Ce Zhang1, and Stefan Feuerriegel2 1Department of Computer Science, ETH Zurich 2Department …

Usage-Based Learning in Human Interaction with an Adaptive Virtual Assistant
C Delgrange, JM Dussoux… – IEEE Transactions on …, 2019 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… The system can then derive more complex logical forms from user inputs … one task is to convert information extracted from a camera into a meaning structure linked to natural language … Language allows the developing child to align shared plans with the adult, and to create new …

The DP Hypothesis and (A) Symmetries Between DP and CP
R LARSON – Linguistic Analysis, 2019 – sunysb.edu
… They simply did not align with the broader, developing picture … and are allowed to remain in situ—proper names, pronouns and perhaps certain definite descriptions—are all semantically definite.17 Taking these points together, it follows that at the level of Logical Form, all verbs …

The third construction and strength of C: A gradient harmonic grammar approach1
G Müller – VThe – oletogeby.dk
… Furthermore, as noted by the anonymous reviewer, the approach to differential ar- gument encoding in terms of local conjunction plus harmonic alignment of prominence scales developed in Aissen (2003) may to some extent also be viewed as a predecessor, in the sense that …

Structural priming in production through ‘silence’: An investigation of verb phrase ellipsis and null complement anaphora
M Xiang, J Grove, J Merchant – Glossa: a journal of general …, 2019 – glossa-journal.org
… In a series of acceptability and self-paced reading studies, Kertz (2013) claimed that an information structure alignment constraint may account for a significant amount of the acceptability penalty of voice mismatch, and concluded that it is information structure, rather than …

How perfect are imperfect rhymes? Effects of phonological similarity and verse context on rhyme perception.
CA Knoop, S Blohm, M Kraxenberger… – … , Creativity, and the …, 2019 – psycnet.apa.org
… Similarly, rhyme remains a strong and reliable staple of other thriving con- temporary art forms, most notably the pop song, but also country, reggae, rap, and folk music (Horn, 2010; Mayer, Neumayer, & Rauber, 2008), leading rap artists like 2Pac to align with Dante, Milton, and …

Ineffability and Unexhaustification1
PD ELLIOTT—ZAS, U SAUERLAND—ZAS – semanticsarchive.net
… We propose a fix with two components: (i) Meyer’s (2013) Matrix K operator, and (ii)) a novel principle governing licit Logical Forms – AVOID INEFFABILITY … 2.3. Aligning Global and Local: AVOID INEFFABILITY … and local contexts. Natural Language Seman- tics 19, 149–168 …

Generics, modality, and morality
R Thakral – 2019 – research-repository.st-andrews.ac …
… reside at the intersections of, and relationships between, topics concerning the meaning of generic generalizations, natural language modality, the nature … granting generalizations such as ‘Birds fly’ and ‘Tigers are striped’—involve a covert weak necessity modal at logical form …

The Syntax and Acquisition of Mandarin Sluice-like Constructions
M Liu – 2019 – escholarship.org
Page 1. UCLA UCLA Electronic Theses and Dissertations Title The Syntax and Acquisition of Mandarin Sluice-like Constructions Permalink https://escholarship.org/uc/item/92h772tg Author Liu, Minqi Publication Date 2019 Peer reviewed|Thesis/dissertation eScholarship.org …

Similarity in conceptual analysis and concept as proper function
L Chartrand – 2019 – d-scholarship.pitt.edu
… we have speculated that the lack of computational tools to detect concepts in textual data is one of the reasons why philosophy is lagging behind other disciplines of social science and of the humanities with regards to the penetration of natural language processing and text …

An Experimental Pragmatic Investigation of Depictive Co-Speech Gestures
C Zlogar – 2019 – dash.harvard.edu
… enclosed in square brackets to show the temporal alignment of the gesture with the speech stream … with speech so that the gesture strokes align with prosodically prominent units in speech … logical form (lf) for multimodal discourse including both verbal speech and gesture. They …

Modular norm models: practical representation and analysis of contractual rights and obligations
S Mandal, R Gandhi, H Siy – Requirements Engineering, 2019 – Springer
… Logical forms convert sentences with similar meanings into the same structure [35] and show promise of automatic extraction [40] but do … Similar issues have been reported in prior applications of natural language processing tools to identify Hohfeldian relations from text [38] as …

What Does a Verb-Sensitive Approach to Japanese Ditransitive Constructions Tell Us?
T Ishizuka – 36th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 2019 – lingref.com
… Location is the base-generated order. I would like to add that no.se.ru ‘put’ in fact has an intransitive counterpart nor.u, ‘ride’ whose argument alignment is Theme-Location(-V) (eg, Kodomo-ga uma-ni noru. ‘A child rides on the …

Visual question answering using external knowledge
M Gulganjalli Narasimhan – 2019 – ideals.illinois.edu
… To answer a question, we use the fact that is most aligned with the provided question-image pair. As illustrated in Fig … 2.2 FACT-BASED VISUAL QUESTION ANSWERING Recent research in using external knowledge for natural language comprehension led to …

The Unreasonable Silence of the World: Universal Reason and the Wreck of the Enlightenment Project
G Sauer-Thompson, JW Smith – 2019 – books.google.com
… Husserl identified this universal scientific rationality as a formal-logical form of a mathesis universalis, which he deemed to be a self-sufficient, pure, formal structure.9 He held that ‘a technization takes over all other methods belonging to the natural sciences’, and there is ‘the …

Thematic roles: Core knowledge or linguistic construct?
L Rissman, A Majid – Psychonomic bulletin & review, 2019 – Springer
… thematic role’. Literally dozens have been proposed over the years, and nothing approaching a consensus has been achieved in terms of delineating the set that are needed for natural language semantics” (p. 689). The literature …

Command and Order by Type Substitution: Another Way to Look at Word Order
C Boz?ahin – Word Order in Turkish, 2019 – Springer
… First Online: 21 February 2019. 25 Downloads. Part of the Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic … then all these structures and their computations would have to be aligned somehow as … functions as heads of constructions, it must be through another logical form, one which …

Correlate not optional: PP sprouting and parallelism in “much less” ellipsis
K Carlson, JA Harris – 2019 – scholarworks.moreheadstate.edu
… in terms of a general preference for structurally parallel structures rather than an operation specific to the construction of Logical Form or some … in detail here, the ellipsis account of focus-sensitive coordination structures is supported by many distributional tests that align it with so …

Quirks of subject (non-) extraction in Igbo
M Amaechi, D Georgi – Glossa: a journal of general linguistics, 2019 – glossa-journal.org
… There is, however, no verb–argument agreement in the language. Case distinctions (nominative-accusative alignment) can only be detected in the personal pronoun paradigm for 2nd and 3rd person singular (SG), see (2). 2. (2), Personal pronouns in Igbo: NOM: ACC …

Correlate not optional: PP sprouting and parallelism in “much less” ellipsis
J Harris, K Carlson – Glossa (London), 2019 – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
… in terms of a general preference for structurally parallel structures rather than an operation specific to the construction of Logical Form or some … in detail here, the ellipsis account of focus-sensitive coordination structures is supported by many distributional tests that align it with so …

Testing theories of plural meanings
L Tieu, C Bill, J Romoli, S Crain – 2019 – semanticsarchive.net
Page 1. Testing theories of plural meanings ? Lyn Tieu1, Cory Bill2, Jacopo Romoli3, Stephen Crain4 1Western Sydney University, O ce of the Pro Vice-Chancellor (Research and Innovation), School of Education, MARCS Institute …

Context, content, and the occasional costs of implicature computation
R Singh – Frontiers in Psychology, 2019 – frontiersin.org
… free to choose (Kamp, 1973). The free-choice inference ?p ? ?q does not follow from the logical form ?(p ? q) if “ ? ” is an inclusive disjunction and “?” is an existential quantifier over possible worlds. It has been argued …

Prolegomena to music semantics
P Schlenker – Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 2019 – Springer
… In most cases, the informational content of a musical piece will be far more abstract than information conveyed by natural language sentences … (6) Beginning of Strauss’s Zarathustra, with the visuals of 2001: a Space Odyssey (approximate alignment) …

Linguistics and the explanatory economy
G Dupre – Synthese, 2019 – Springer
… For example, if a sentence S of a natural language L is judged by native speakers to be exactly three-ways ambiguous, then a proposed generative system for L which allows for the generation of exactly three structures pronounced as S, but with distinct interpretations, will be …

Political Constructions: Defoe, Richardson and Sterne in Relation to Hobbes, Hume, and Burke
C Kay – 2019 – books.google.com
Page 1. Political Constructions Defoe, Richardson, & Sterne in Relation to Hobbes, Hume, & Burke by CAROL KAY_ Page 2. Political Constructions Page 3. Page 4. Political Constructions trºº Defoe, Richardson, and Sterne in …

Against the PredP theory of small clauses
O Matushansky – Linguistic Inquiry, 2019 – MIT Press

On Subcategorization and PRIORITY: Evidence from Welsh Allomorphy
ML Brinkerhoff – 2019 – cdr.lib.unc.edu
Page 1. ON SUBCATEGORIZATION AND PRIORITY: EVIDENCE FROM WELSH ALLOMORPHY Mykel Loren Brinkerhoff A thesis submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of …

Hypothetical and Biscuit Conditionals: Redrawing the Boundary
CH Elder – Context, Cognition and Conditionals, 2019 – Springer
… intended meaning of its utterance. That is, the primary meaning may either be of the form ‘if p, q’ or it may not: it may pertain simply to p, to q, or the logical form may be overridden altogether. By juxtaposing these two dimensions …

Exploring Meinong’s jungle and beyond II. Existence and identity when times change
R Routley, V Routley, D Hyde – Noneist Explorations I, 2019 – Springer
… who never existed. Criteria for existence, which are not biassed by the Ontological Assumption, con- verge with common sense and natural language in the main claims made, in particu- lar on E0. For consider what we do say and how we argue (before philosophers and …

Presuppositions, implicatures, and contextual equivalence
P Marty, J Romoli – semanticsarchive.net
… Since Heim’s natural language formulation of this principle, many researchers have con- tributed to describe and re ne the formal aspects of the competition at … First, it does not align with speakers’ intuitions about the meaning of (22-a): speakers accept (22-a) as felicitous in the …

VisFlow: A Web-Based Dataflow Framework for Visual Data Exploration
B Yu – 2019 – search.proquest.com
… applicable to a larger variety of tasks. We develop a natural language interface FlowSense that employs semantic parsing to assist dataflow diagram construction in VisFlow. FlowSense maps the … 63 6 FlowSense: A Natural Language Interface 65 6.1 Related Work …

When Focus Stress Meets Nucleus Stress: A Case Study of the Negative Deontic’V Shenme NP’Construction in Mandarin.
W Changsong, C Wei – Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese …, 2019 – search.ebscohost.com
Page 1. DOI: 10.6503/THJCS.201912_49(4).0005 ???? ? 49 ?? 4 ???? 108 ? 12 ??? 721~763 ? ????????????? ??????????? V ?? NP??? ? ??? ???? ??????????? ? ? …

Learning To Understand Entities In Text
E Choi – 2019 – digital.lib.washington.edu
… social relations. This dissertation studies how machines can read natural language text, gather rich entity information … logical form y. . . . . 27 2.4 Derivation of the analysis for “Former municipalities in Brandenburgh”. This analysis con …

The Many Meanings Of Many: A Pragmatic-Semantic Account Of Ambiguous, Vague Quantifiers With Experimental Support
KK Clothier – 2019 – jscholarship.library.jhu.edu
… Page 2. – – ii Abstract Vagueness and ambiguity in natural language pose a challenge for formal theories of linguistic meaning because by definition they challenge two core assumptions: (i) that formal meanings can be formulated within a classic two-valued logic; and (ii) that an …

Korean syntax and semantics
EH Lee – 2019 – books.google.com
… Syntactic structures consist of Phonological Form (PF) and Semantic/Logical Form (LF), which interact with two interface systems, the Articulatory-Perceptual system (AP), on the one hand, and the Conceptual-Intentional system (CI), on the other …

The Frege-Geach Problem for Normative Propositions
R Anderson – 2019 – opencommons.uconn.edu
Page 1. University of Connecticut OpenCommons@UConn Doctoral Dissertations University of Connecticut Graduate School 8-9-2019 The Frege-Geach Problem for Normative Propositions Richard Anderson University of Connecticut …

Proportional readings of many and few: the case for an underspecified measure function
A Bale, B Schwarz – Linguistics and Philosophy, 2019 – Springer
… For example, the logical forms for the comparative in (17) are expected to be those in (18), which give rise to the non-standard dependent truth conditions in (19). (17) More professors cheated than students … 4 and 6), our own conclusions are broadly aligned with Solt’s …

Human and animal minds: The consciousness questions laid to rest
P Carruthers – 2019 – books.google.com
Page 1. the consciousness questions laid to rest HUMANAN ID AN | MAL MINDS |PELERCARR U? THERS Oºoºº. Page 2. Human and Animal Minds Page 3. Page 4. Human and Animal Minds The Consciousness Questions Laid …

Interperspectival content
P Ludlow – 2019 – books.google.com
… The main idea behind that book was not to stake out a position in the philosophy of time in any case, but rather to illustrate a particular method of doing metaphysics— one in which one tackles issues in the semantics of natural language and metaphysics simultaneously …

Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society: Atlanta, Georgia, 1994
A Ram, K Eiselt – 2019 – books.google.com
… Connectionist Model JK Kruschke and MA Erickson Categorization, Typicality, and Shape Similarity MA Kurbat, EE Smith, and DL Medin Recurrent Natural Language Parsing SC Kwasny, S. Johnson, and BL Kalman Levels of Semantic Constraint and Learning Novel Words JM …

Counterfactuality and past
K von Prince – Linguistics and Philosophy, 2019 – Springer
Page 1. Linguistics and Philosophy https://doi.org/10.1007/s10988-019-09259-6 Counterfactuality and past Kilu von Prince1,2 © The Author(s) 2019 Abstract Many languages have past-and-counterfactuality markers such as English simple past …

Introduction to Existentialism: From Kierkegaard to The Seventh Seal
RL Wicks – 2019 – books.google.com
… humans unavoidably are. Kant maintains classically that humans are essentially rational animals, governed by logical forms and the idea of reason. On his view, we inevitably structure our experience in a logical way. When it …

Being-Together: An Essay on the First-Person Plural
QA Fisher – 2019 – repository.library.georgetown.edu
… I prefer the term “syncategorematic” over the more common “propositional attitude report” for reasons that are made plain in Chapters 1 and 2. Briefly, I argue that the logical form of a syncategorematic first-person claim (singular or plural) is not ?(?,?), where …?__ stands for the …

End of Analysis, Beginning of Explanation: Making the Case for Alethic Primitivism
ME Miyata-Sturm – 2019 – duo.uio.no
Page 1. End of Analysis, Beginning of Explanation Making the Case for Alethic Primitivism by Mariona Eiren Miyata-Sturm Thesis presented for the degree of MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY Supervised by Professor Herman W. Cappelen …

A Systems Approach to Rule-Based Data Cleaning
AH Ebaid – 2019 – hammer.figshare.com
… Although there exist more expressive logical forms (eg, first-order logic) to cover a large group of quality rules, eg, CFDs, MDs or … tional dependencies) to plain natural language rules enforced by code embedded in the application logic itself (as in many practical scenarios) …

vP-fronting with and without remnant movement
G Thoms, G Walkden – Journal of Linguistics, 2019 – cambridge.org
Page 1. J. Linguistics 55 (2019), 161–214. c Cambridge University Press 2018 doi:10.1017/ S002222671800004X First published online 26 February 2018 vP-fronting with and without remnant movement1 GARY THOMS University of Glasgow GEORGE WALKDEN …

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