Advanced Computational Intelligence Paradigms in Healthcare 6


Advanced Computational Intelligence Paradigms in Healthcare: Volume 6 (2011) .. Brahnam etc eds


Contents

1 Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy, Rehabilitation, and Neurological Assessment . . . 1
Sheryl Brahnam, Lakhmi C. Jain

1 Introduction . . . 1
2 Synopsis of the Chapters in This Book . . . 2
3 Conclusion . . . 7
References . . . 7

Part 1: Virtual Reality and Psychotherapy

2 Virtual Reality Supporting Psychological Health . . . 13
MAJ Melba C. Stetz, Richard I. Ries, Raymond A. Folen

1 Health Care in the USA . . . 13
2 Health and Stress . . . 14
3 Stress and Mental Health. . . 15
3.1 Stress and Anxiety Mental Health Disorders . . . 15
3.2 Combat Stress and Combat Stress Prevalence
Rates . . . 16
3.3 Stress and Neurophysiology . . . 17
4 Psychotherapy for Stress Problems . . . 18
4.1 Chemical Approaches . . . 18
4.2 Behavioral Approaches . . . 19
4.3 Biofeedback . . . 21
4.4 Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy . . . 22
5 Discussion . . . 27
References . . . 27

3 Current Trends and Future Directions for Virtual Reality

Enhanced Psychotherapy . . . 31
Marilyn P. Safir, Helene S. Wallach

1 Current Trends and Future Directions for Virtual Reality Enhanced Psychotherapy . . . 31
2 VRCBT for Specific Phobias . . . 32
2.1 Fear of Flying. . . 32
2.2 Claustrophobia. . . 32
2.3 Acrophobia . . . 32
2.4 Panic Disorder Combined with Agoraphobia . . . 33
2.5 Arachnophobia . . . 34
2.6 Social Phobia . . . 34
2.7 Post Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) . . . 35
3 New Developments in VR Applications . . . 37
3.1 Pain Management . . . 37
3.2 Eating Disorders . . . 37
3.3 Sexual Dysfunction . . . 38
3.4 Training New Therapists . . . 39
References . . . 39

4 Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: The State of the Art . . . 47
Katharina Meyerbr¨oker, Paul M.G. Emmelkamp

1 Introduction . . . 47
2 The Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy . . . 48
2.1 Specific Phobias . . . 48
2.2 Specific Phobias: Acrophobia (Fear of Heights) . . . 49
2.3 Specific Phobias: Fear of Flying . . . 50
2.4 Social Phobia . . . 52
2.5 Panic Disorder . . . 53
2.6 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. . . 55
2.7 Meta-analyses. . . 56
2.8 Concluding Remarks . . . 56
3 The Role of Presence . . . 56
3.1 Technical Aspects . . . 57
3.2 Personality Characteristics . . . 57
4 Process of VRET. . . 58
4.1 Psychophysiology in the Process of VRET . . . 58
4.2 Cognitive Mechanisms in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. . . 58
4.3 Therapeutic Relationship. . . 58
5 Concluding Remarks . . . 59
References . . . 59

5 Virtual Reality as a Tool for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review . . . 63
Simona Scozzari, Luciano Gamberini

1 Introduction . . . 63
2 Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Phobia . . . 64
2.1 Exposure Therapy . . . 64
2.2 Arachnophobia . . . 66
2.3 Acrophobia . . . 68
2.4 Fear of Flying. . . 69
2.5 Social Phobia . . . 72
2.6 Panic and Agoraphobia . . . 74
2.7 Advantages of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy vs. Other Exposure Treatments for Phobias . . . 76
3 Other Employments of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. . . 77
3.1 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder . . . 77
3.2 Stress Inoculation Training . . . 80
4 Other Virtual Reality-Based Exposure Techniques . . . 81
4.1 Virtual Reality Cue Exposure Treatment for Substance Abuse . . . 81
4.2 Virtual Reality in Eating Disorders Treatment . . . 83
5 Virtual Reality Interventions for Pain Control . . . 85
5.1 Virtual Reality Analgesia for Pediatric Patients . . . 86
5.2 Virtual Reality Analgesia for Adult Patients . . . 87
5.3 Hypnosis Induction by Means of Virtual Reality . . . 90
5.4 Studies on Virtual Reality Analgesia Mechanisms . . . 91
6 Conclusion . . . 92
References . . . 93

6 Virtual Reality and the Training of Military Personnel to Cope with Acute Stressors . . . 109
Stephane Bouchard, Tanya Guitard, Francois Bernier, Genevieve Robillard

1 Introduction . . . 109
2 Stress Management Techniques for Military Personnel . . . 110
3 Virtual Reality and Its Potential to Induce Anxiety . . . 112
4 VR in the Treatment of PTSD . . . 114
5 The Use of VR in Stress Management Training . . . 115
6 The Feeling of Presence . . . 119
7 Conclusion . . . 123
References . . . 124

7 How Can Presence in Psychotherapy Employing VR Be Increased? . . . 129
Helene S. Wallach, Marilyn P. Safir, Roy Samana, Idan Almog, Reut Horef

1 Introduction . . . 129
2 Presence . . . 130
3 Variables Which Affect Presence . . . 130
3.1 Technological Variables . . . 131
3.2 User Variables . . . 132
3.3 Interaction Variables . . . 140
4 Summary. . . 141
References . . . 142

8 The Healing Potential of Online Virtual Worlds . . . 149
Jacquelyn Ford Morie

1 Introduction: Social Networks and Virtual Worlds . . . 149
1.1 Creating, Existing and Participating in the Virtual World. . . 150
1.2 An Idea to Support a Need . . . 152
1.3 Benefits of the Virtual World . . . 153
2 Virtual Solutions to Health Care . . . 154
2.1 Designing the Veterans’ Healing Center . . . 154
2.2 Focus Therapies . . . 156
2.3 Supporting Research for Virtual World Effectiveness . . . 157
2.4 Other Activities and Intelligent Agents . . . 157
2.5 Expected Results . . . 160
2.6 Other Health Examples from the Virtual World . . . 161
3 Issues and Concerns . . . 161
4 Conclusion . . . 163
References . . . 163

Part 2: Virtual Reality and Rehabilitation

9 Virtual Reality and Serious Games in Healthcare . . . 169
Minhua Ma and Huiru Zheng

1 Introduction . . . 169
2 VR Devices . . . 171
2.1 Haptic Force Feedback Devices . . . 171
2.2 Tracking Devices . . . 173
3 VR Games for Healthcare . . . 176
3.1 Dynamic Simulation . . . 176
3.2 Serious Games for Healthcare . . . 177
3.3 Flow and Its Application to Serious Games . . . 180
3.4 Train a User by Modeling Him—User Profiling . . . 182
4 Experiments and Results of Using VR in Stroke Rehabilitation. . . 185
4.1 SMART Rehabilitation. . . 186
4.2 VR Game Intervention for Movement Therapy . . . 187
5 Conclusions and Future Work . . . 189
References . . . 189

10 Development and Evaluation of a Mixed Reality System for Stroke Rehabilitation . . . 193
Dave Hilton, Sue Cobb, Tony Pridmore, John Gladman, Judi Edmans

1 Introduction . . . 193
1.1 Stroke . . . 194
1.2 Applications of Virtual Reality for Rehabilitation and Therapy. . . 196
2 The Design and Development Process . . . 197
2.1 User Centred Design . . . 197
2.2 Consultation Phase . . . 198
2.3 Virtual Environment Development Phase . . . 200
2.4 The Design of a Mixed Reality System . . . 208
3 Discussion . . . 220
4 Summary. . . 224
References . . . 225

11 Design and Development of a Virtual-Reality Based System for Improving Vision in Children with Amblyopia . . . 229
Paula Waddingham, Richard Eastgate, and Sue Cobb

1 Introduction . . . 229
2 Amblyopia and Eye Treatment . . . 231
2.1 Diagnosis of Amblyopia . . . 231
2.2 Classification of Amblyopia . . . 231
2.3 Treatment of Amblyopia . . . 232
3 Virtual Reality and Display Technologies . . . 232
3.1 Virtual Reality (VR) . . . 232
3.2 VR in Healthcare . . . 235
4 Development of the I-BiT. System for Treatment of Amblyopia. . . 235
4.1 The I-BiT. System Multi-disciplinary Development Team . . . 237
4.2 I-BiT. Interactive Treatment Mode: Game Design . . . 238
4.3 I-BiT. Passive Treatment Mode: Using Movie Clips . . . 239
4.4 Development of the I-BiT. System Research Prototype . . . 240
4.5 Usability Evaluation of the I-BiT. System Research Prototype . . . 241
4.6 Development of Prototype #1 . . . 242
4.7 Usability Evaluation of I-BiT. Prototype #1. . . 243
4.8 Development of I-BiT. Prototype #2 . . . 245
4.9 Usability Evaluation of I-BiT. Prototype #2. . . 247
5 Clinical Evaluation Trials . . . 247
5.1 Study Results . . . 248
5.2 Study Outcomes . . . 248
6 Discussion . . . 249
References . . . 250

12 Doing Play in a Virtual Environment . . . 253
Denise Reid

1 Introduction . . . 253
1.1 Play as Occupation . . . 254
1.2 Play and Children with Disabilities . . . 254
2 Person-Environment Process . . . 255
2.1 Person-Environment Fit . . . 255
3 A Theoretical Perspective on the Person-Environment Experience . . . 256
3.1 Application of the Theoretical Perspective . . . 256
4 Impact of Engaging in Play in a Virtual Environment . . . 261
4.1 Personal Perceptions of Engaging in Play in a Virtual Environment. . . 261
4.2 Influence of Virtual Play on Children’s Playfulness . . . 263
4.3 Influence of Virtual Play on Children’s Motivation . . . 264
5 Summary. . . 266
References . . . 266

Part 3: Virtual Reality and Assessment

13 Neuropsychological Assessment Using Virtual Environments: Enhanced Assessment Technology for Improved Ecological Validity . . . 271
Thomas D. Parsons

1 Introduction . . . 271
1.1 Neuropsychological Assessments . . . 272
1.2 Standardization of Neuropsychological Assessment Measures . . . 273
1.3 Psychometric Rigor of Neuropsychological Assessment Measures . . . 274
1.4 Paradigm Shift in Neuropsychological Assessment . . . 276
2 Computer-Based Neuropsychological Assessment . . . 276
2.1 Automated Neuropsychological Assessments . . . 277
2.2 Outdated Technology . . . 278
3 Ecologically Valid Neuropsychological Instruments . . . 279
3.1 Ecological Validity: Need to Incorporate Advanced Technology . . . 279
4 Virtual Environments Offer Advanced Ecological Validity. . . 280
4.1 Correspondence . . . 282
4.2 Representativeness . . . 283
4.3 Expedience . . . 283
4.4 Relevance . . . 284
5 Conclusions . . . 285
References . . . 286

Author Index . . . 291