Linguistic Analysis


Linguistic Analysis: From Data to Theory (2011) .. by Annarita Puglielli & Mara Frascarelli


Table of Contents

Introduction … 1

Categories and functions … 5

Different levels of analysis … 5

The theoretical framework: Generative Grammar … 6

X-bar (X’) Theory … 8

The head-complement parameter … 11

Levels of analysis and X’ structure … 15

The Syntax-Semantics interface: Verb Phrase … 16

The Syntax-Morphology interface: Inflectional Phrase … 17

The Syntax-Discourse grammar interface: Complementizer Phrase … 19

Parts-of-speech classification: The concept of category … 20

A formal approach to classification … 22

The concept of grammaticality … 25

Categories: Typology and formal properties … 28

Categories and syntactic functions … 32

Subject function … 33

Predicate function … 38

Modifier function … 41

The structure of the verb phrase … 43

Predicates, arguments and structural Categorization … 43

Argument structure … 45

Macro-roles and event structure … 49

Mono-argument verbs … 52

Two-argument verbs … 55

Three-argument verbs … 61

Macro-roles and VP structure … 62

Argument roles, event structure and overt syntax … 66

Event structure and macro-role of the subject in inflecting and agglutinative languages … 66

Event structure and macro-role of the subject in incorporating languages … 73

Event structure and macro-role of the subject in predicate-initial languages … 77

Arguments realized by clauses … 79

Clauses as nouns … 83

Syntactic functions … 89

The relationship between deep roles and surface structure … 89

Deep and structural Cases … 90

Correlations and tendencies … 91

When structural function is not associated with deep Case: Expletive subjects … 98

Deep roles in surface structure: Ergative languages … 100

The morpl1o-syntactic realization of structural Cases … 104

Subject … 104

Direct object … 112

Morphological Case: Cross-linguistic strategies … 116

The structure of the noun phrase … 129

The internal structure of the NP … 129

Elements in Spec, NP … 130

Elements in Compl, NP and restrictive noun modifiers … 133

When the head is a nominalization … 136

NPs as arguments … 139

The functional area of NP: The determiner phrase (DP) … 142

Noun head modification … 148

Adjectival modification … 149

The relative clause … 161

The internal structure of restrictive relative clauses … 161

Relative clauses from a typological perspective … 166

Types of relative clauses and their meaning … 172

Adverbial modification … 177

Adverbs and adverbials: Preliminary considerations … 177

Properties and distribution of adverbial modifiers … 178

Structural insertion of adverb phrases … 181

Noun and prepositional phrases with adverbial function … 194

Clausal structures with adverbial function … 201

The internal syntax of adverbial clauses … 201

The external syntax of adverbial clauses … 211

The sentence as utterance … 9

Discourse grammar and information structure … 219

Speech acts … 219

Information structure in declarative clauses … 223

The notion of markedness … 224

Given and new in marked and unmarked structures … 226

Focus … 234

Focus strategies in typologically different languages … 236

Focus as a specificational predicate … 239

Focus-prominent languages … 243

Syntactic interface: The complex structure of CP … 244

Prosodic interface … 246

Topicalization … 247

The functions of Topic in discourse … 248

Phrasal restrictions on the topicalized constituent … 255

Topicalization strategies in typologically different languages … 258

Topic-prominent languages … 261

Contrast … 264

Illocutionary force … 269

Types of illocutionary acts … 269

Overt performatives … 270

Covert performatives … 275

Formal markers of the covert performative … 276

Formal markers in the presence of a performative … 276

Illocutionary force and performative structure … 281

The distribution of information in different types of sentences … 283

Requests for information … 284

Requests for action … 290

Illocutionary force and subordinate clauses … 293

Declarative sentences … 294

Interrogative sentences … 297

Imperative sentences … 302

More on illocutionary acts … 305

Performative structure modification … 305

Indirect illocutionary acts … 307

Conclusions … 311

List of languages … 317

List of abbreviations … 321

Notes … 323

References … 359

Subject index … 393

Language index … 401