GSL (Grammar Specification Language)


Wikipedia:

See also:

Formal Grammar


[PDF] Evaluation of an IVR system [PDF] from shef.ac.uk JDIII Anadu… – 2010 – wiki.dcs.shef.ac.uk … VoiceXML allows the creation of grammars using several formats such as: SRGF (Speech Recognition Grammar Format -Previously JSGF) and others like GSL (Nuance’s Grammar Specification Language) .Grammars are extremely impor- tant and can be used for enabling the … Related articles – View as HTML

Adaptable dialog architecture and runtime engine (AdaRTE): A framework for rapid prototyping of health dialog systems [PDF] from inria.fr LM Rojas-Barahona… – International Journal of Medical …, 2009 – Elsevier … Full-size table. The first three prototypes were based on previous implementations (see references). GSL is the Nuance Grammar Specification Language; SRGS is the Speech Recognition Grammar Specification from the WWW Consortium [37]. View Within Article. … Cited by 1 – Related articles – All 9 versions

“Let’s Go, DUDE!” using the Spoken Dialogue Challenge to teach Spoken Dialogue development [PDF] from hw.ac.uk H Hastie, N Merigaud, X Liu… – … Workshop (SLT), 2010 …, 2010 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … grammar specifi- 470 Page 6. cations such as SRGS ABNF (Augmented Backus-Naur Form), JSGF ABNF (Java Speech Grammar Format) and Nuance’s GSL (Grammar Specification Language). 5. EVALUATION The DUDE … Related articles – All 2 versions

Vocal tecnology: A normalization approach [PDF] from unime.it A Puglisi – AAPP| Physical, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences, 2009 – cabnew.unime.it … to pause between one word and another. Let us look at some of the languages used for the definition of speech recognition gram- mars: Nuance Grammar Specification Language. GSL is a proprietary standard developed by … Related articles – All 10 versions

A spoken language interface with a mobile robot [PDF] from rug.nl J Bos… – Artificial Life and Robotics, 2007 – Springer … typing. We used Nuance’s speaker-independent speech recognition system (www.nuance.com), which allows language models to be specified in the grammar specification language (GSL), a form of context-free grammar. Rather … Cited by 9 – Related articles – BL Direct – All 9 versions

Web services and speech-based applications around VoiceXML [PDF] from academypublisher.com J Rouillard – Journal of Networks, 2007 – academypublisher.com … 3 No.5, pp. 299-314, 1960. [20] Newcomer, E., Lomow, G., Service-Oriented Architecture with web services, Addison Wesley, 2005, 444 pages. [21] GSL: Nuance Grammar Specification Language, http://studio.tellme.com/grammars/gsl 34 JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL. … Cited by 4 – Related articles – All 12 versions

[PDF] Converting Grammatical Framework to Regulus [PDF] from upenn.edu P Ljunglöf – ACL 2007, 2007 – acl.ldc.upenn.edu … The grammar format is called Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL). The format has some special features, such as semantic tagging and probabilistic grammar rules. There are also restrictions in the format, most no- tably that the grammars must not be left-recursive. … Cited by 1 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 31 versions

Understanding Rules in Human-Robot Instructions [PDF] from psu.edu JC Wolf… – … , 2007. RO-MAN 2007. The 16th IEEE …, 2007 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … The implementation of this grammar is written in Nuance GSL (Grammar Specification Language), which utilizes the slot filling concept. When a grammar rule (in this case made of a clause) is hit during speech recognition, variables (slots) are filled with values. … Cited by 3 – Related articles – All 7 versions

[PDF] A generic multi-lingual open source platform for limited-domain medical speech translation [PDF] from mt-archive.info P Bouillon, M Rayner, N Chatzichrisafis… – In Proceedings of the …, 2005 – mt-archive.info … and carrying out a binarisation transform (Rayner et al 2002). 5. The post-processed specialised grammar is compiled into a CFG grammar in Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL) format. 6. The Nuance GSL grammar is compiled into a Nuance recognition package. … Cited by 32 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 6 versions

[PDF] Spatial directionals for robot navigation [PDF] from ntnu.no A Winterboer, T Tenbrink… – Motion Encoding in Language and …, 2008 – hf.ntnu.no … Nuance’s speech recognizer allows specifying a speech recognition package on the basis of their grammar specification language (GSL), which is both used for language modelling and parsing, and requires a careful design process taking into … Cited by 5 – Related articles – View as HTML

[PDF] Modular Grammars for Speech Recognition in Ontology-Based Dialogue Systems [PDF] from dfki.de HM Kosinowski – 2010 – dfki.de … In our case, it is the Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL) format which is defined in the Nu- ance Grammar Developer’s Guide [NUANCE, 2003] based on XML. A grammar for speech recognition is often a mixture of regular and context-free grammar rules. … Related articles – View as HTML

From UBGs to CFGs A practical corpus-driven approach HU Krieger – Natural Language Engineering, 2007 – Cambridge Univ Press … It is worth noting that within the last four years or so, the commercial speech community has focused primarily on the grammar-based approach (VoiceXML, W3C, Nuance, Speech Works, etc.); see also Rayner et al (2001a). Open Approach. … Cited by 2 – Related articles – Library Search – BL Direct – All 6 versions

[PDF] The TALK grammar library: an integration of GF with TrindiKit [PDF] from gu.se P Ljunglöf, B Bringert, R Cooper, AC Forslund… – Deliverable D, 2005 – ling.gu.se … In previous systems built with these tools we have used simple phrase spotting to relate user and system utterances to dialogue moves. The correlations are expressed in GoDiS lexicons. For speech recognition we have used Nuance’s grammar formalism. … Cited by 7 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 10 versions

[PDF] Comparing rule-based and statistical approaches to speech understanding in a limited domain speech translation system [PDF] from mt-archive.info M Rayner, P Bouillon, BA Hockey… – Proceedings of the …, 2004 – mt-archive.info … The core functionality provided by the REGULUS environment is compilation of typed unification grammars into annotated context-free grammar language models expressed in Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL) notation (Nuance 2004). … Cited by 16 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 10 versions

[PDF] Comparison of Grammar-Based and Statistical Language Models Trained on the Same Data [PDF] from psu.edu BA Hockey… – Proceedings of the the AAAI Workshop on …, 2005 – Citeseer … Regulus The core functionality provided by the Regulus Open Source platform is compilation of typed unification grammars into annotated context-free grammar language models expressed in Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL) notation (Nuance 2005). … Cited by 2 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 14 versions

Meaningful conversation with mobile robots [PDF] from rug.nl J Bos… – Advanced Robotics, 21, 2007 – ingentaconnect.com … In our system, we use Nuance’s speaker-independent speech recognition system (www.nuance.com), which allows language models to be specified in Grammar Specification Language (GSL), a form of context-free grammars. … Cited by 7 – Related articles – All 4 versions

Data-driven strategies for an automated dialogue system [PDF] from upenn.edu H Hardy, T Strzalkowski, M Wu, C Ursu… – Proceedings of the …, 2004 – dl.acm.org … To enhance ASR performance, we integrated static GSL (Grammar Specification Language) grammar classes provided by Nuance for recognizing several high-frequency items: numbers, dates, money amounts, names and yes-no statements. … Cited by 22 – Related articles – All 18 versions

[PDF] Embedded grammars [PDF] from chalmers.se B Bringert – Master’s, 2005 – cse.chalmers.se … free grammar CFGM Multilingual Context-Free Grammar EBNF Extended Backus-Naur Form GF Grammatical Framework GFC Canonical GF GFCM Multilingual Canonical GF GPL GNU General Public License GSL Nuance Grammar Specification Language ICL Interagent … Cited by 9 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 10 versions

[PDF] Enhanced VoiceXML [PDF] from lifl.fr J Rouillard… – HCI International, 2005 – lifl.fr … 15, no 1-2 , pp. 3 – 25 [Nuance GSL] GSL: Nuance Grammar Specification Language, http://studio.tellme.com/grammars/gsl [SALT] SALT, http://www.saltforum.org [SOAP] SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol, http://www.w3.org/TR/soap … Cited by 1 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 3 versions

[PDF] Dual-Type Automatic Speech Recogniser Designs for Spoken Dialogue Systems [PDF] from mercubuana.ac.id J Littlefield, M Broughton – Proceedings of the …, 2005 – lombablog.mercubuana.ac.id … CFG). The format of the CFG used by an ASR is usually a standard format, such as Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL) (Nuance, 2001) or Java Speech Grammar Format (JSGF) (Sun Microsystems, 1998). The Dialogue … Cited by 1 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 17 versions

Using statistical language modelling to identify new vocabulary in a grammar-based speech recognition system [PDF] from cmu.edu G Gorrell – … European Conference on Speech Communication and …, 2003 – isca-speech.org … 2.1. Grammar The grammar used is a home-control domain grammar devel- oped for use in the On Off House system, described in [4]. It is implemented in the Nuance Toolkit Grammar Specification Language, and directly encodes slot-value semantics. … Cited by 9 – Related articles – All 6 versions

[PDF] Multi-Modal Task Instructions to Robots by Naive Users [PDF] from swrtec.de JC Wolf – 2008 – swrtec.de … GSL Grammar Specification Language. Language to specify grammar in the Nuance Speech Recognition system HMM Hidden Markov Model, a statistical model often used in temporal pattern recognition. MIBL Multi-modal Instruction Based Learning … Related articles – View as HTML – All 8 versions

A limited-domain English to Japanese medical speech translator built using REGULUS 2 [PDF] from upenn.edu M Rayner, P Bouillon, H Isahara… – Proceedings of the 41st …, 2003 – dl.acm.org … platform (Nuance, 2003). Recogni- tion is constrained by a CFG language model written in Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL), which also specifies the semantic representations produced. This language model … Cited by 9 – Related articles – All 26 versions

[PDF] Efficient development of grammars for multilingual rule-based applications [PDF] from unige.ch ME Santaholma – 2010 – archive-ouverte.unige.ch Page 1. Thesis Reference Efficient development of grammars for multilingual rule-based applications SANTAHOLMA, Marianne Elina Abstract Les applications de traitement automatique des langues (TALN) fondées sur des … Related articles – View as HTML – All 2 versions

Beschreibung von Sprachdialogen SW Hamerich – Sprachbedienung im Automobil, 2009 – Springer … werden. xHMI Die Firma Nuance 8 hat vor einiger Zeit eine eigene  Metabeschreibungsspra- che für Sprachdialogsysteme namens xHMI vorgestellt. Detaillierte Auskünfte über diese Sprache wurden jedoch bisher nicht erteilt. …

[PDF] Challenges in verbal instruction of domestic robots [PDF] from plym.ac.uk G Bugmann – Proc. of 1st Intl. Ws. on Adv. in Service Rob.(ASER’03 …, 2003 – tech.plym.ac.uk … This grammar is compiled into the Grammar Specification Language (GSL) of the speech recognition software NUANCE2 (Bos, 2002). The semantic analysis of the speech produces results in the form of Discourse Representation Structures (DRS). … Cited by 10 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 4 versions

Designing Language Models for Voice Portal Applications [PDF] from google.com P Shinn, M Shomphe, M Lewis, K Carey… – International Journal of …, 2004 – Springer … The grammar formats discussed below include: Nuance’s Grammar Specification Language (GSL); SpeechWork’s1 Backus Naur Format (BNF) and Open Speech Recognition (OSR); Microsoft’s Speech Ap- plication Programming Interface (SAPI); the JAVA Speech Grammar … Cited by 1 – Related articles – BL Direct – All 5 versions

Hidden menu options in automated human-computer telephone dialogues: dissonance in the user’s mental model J Wilke, F McInnes, MA Jack… – Behaviour & Information …, 2007 – Taylor & Francis … For the purpose of the experiment, the Nuance Grammar Specification Language notation was employed to define word string representations of all permissible speech inputs (along with corresponding touch-button options) for each input stage in the dialogue, resulting in … Cited by 1 – Related articles – BL Direct – All 6 versions

[PDF] Language and Speech Architecture for Prototype 3 [PDF] from ed.ac.uk J Bos, R Clark, J Laaksolahti, C Matheson, T Oka… – 2004 – ltg.ed.ac.uk … However, as Lewin et al. (2000) report, although certain modules such as the Nuance speech recogniser (Communications 1996) offer facilities like top-down controlled grammar-switching or discourse state-identifying registers, these devices are in fact rarely used. … Related articles – View as HTML – All 3 versions

[PDF] SCOPE-CARE II Innovative [PDF] from eurocontrol.be P TRUILLET, O GRISVARD… – 2004 – eurocontrol.be … Accordingly to the ASR software chosen in WP1 (Nuance 8.0), we used the Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL) format, an ABNF-based grammar Specification Language developed by Nuance Communications. 2.2. Nuance GSL format … Related articles – View as HTML – All 9 versions

[PDF] Natural Language Techniques for Model-Driven Semantic Constraint Extraction [PDF] from epfl.ch M Ailomaa… – 2005 – infoscience.epfl.ch … Regulus provides tools for compiling a unification-based grammar and lexicon into a grammar in the Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL), which is then used to build the corresponding Nuance speech-recognizer. … Related articles – View as HTML – All 7 versions

[PDF] A phrasebook style medical speech translator [PDF] from upenn.edu M Rayner… – Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting …, 2002 – acl.ldc.upenn.edu … Recognition is guided by an annotated CFG grammar encoded in Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL) format; this acts as the language model, and also spec- ifies how source-language semantic representa- tions are to be produced. … Cited by 4 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 9 versions

[PDF] Vox et praeterea nihil [PDF] from uib.no K Tverra – 2004 – ub.uib.no … 25 6 Grammars 26 6.1 Grammar formats . . . . . 26 6.1.1 Speech Recognition Grammar Specification (SRGS) . . 27 6.1.2 Grammar Specification Language (GSL) . . . . 27 6.1.3 Input modes . . . . . 27 6.2 Grammar build-up . . . . . … Related articles – View as HTML – All 6 versions

Analysis of Tradeoffs in Modeling Continuous Speech Recognition for Domain Specific Training Application LD Marshall, D Ribakoff, L Ouakil… – The Interservice/Industry …, 2003 – NTSA … There are two approaches to designing language models with Nuance. In the first approach, the Grammar Specification Language (GSL) can be used to build models with highly constrained vocabularies. In a GSL model, all legal phrases must be explicitly defined in the model. … Related articles

[PDF] Language Modelling for Spoken Dialogue Systems; Grammar-Based and Robust Approaches Compared and Contrasted [PDF] from kth.se G Gorrell – 2003 – speech.kth.se … A grammar might be annotated with semantics, such that an utterance recognised using it is also understood. Here is an example of a small gram- mar, annotated with semantics, written in the Nuance Grammar Specification Language [3]; … Related articles – View as HTML – All 2 versions

[PDF] VoiceXML absentee system [PDF] from pace.edu P Gallivan, Q Hong, L Jordan, E Li… – Proc. 8th Annual Mid- …, 2002 – csis.pace.edu … The TellMe Studio Platform provides you with three choices when integrating grammars into your voice application: a) Reference a grammar in the TellMe Studio Grammar Library b) Define your own grammar using the Nuance Grammar Specification Language c) Define your … Cited by 6 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 2 versions

[DOC] An automated telephony natural speech interface as a “Virtual Coach” for child healthcare. [DOC] from dal.ca HHK Kharrazi – 2005 – cs.dal.ca … NVP can load grammar documents from a web server or the file system. They can be stored as source text files in Nuance’s Grammar Specification Language (GSL) or the W3C’s GrXML format, or in a precompiled binary format as Nuance Grammar Object (NGO) files. … Related articles – View as HTML – All 3 versions

[PDF] SMARTPAD: A Mobile Multimodal Prescription Filling System [PDF] from virginia.edu SE Lambros – 2003 – alice.virginia.edu … should expect to “hear” and how to interpret them. Nuance 8 supports various grammar languages and for this project the Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL) was used. The Grammar was designed to specify each field of a prescription (drug name, … Cited by 2 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 16 versions

[PDF] SCOPE-CARE II Innovative [PDF] from eurocontrol.int T EHRETTE… – 2004 – publish.eurocontrol.int … A grammar is inherent to any constraint vocabulary recognition system, as Nuance, and specifies the whole possible utterances that can be recognized and their interpretation (Nuance slots structure). … All grammars are written in GSL (Grammar Specification Language, see R3). … Related articles – View as HTML – All 11 versions

The Amitie [combining acute accent] s system: Data-driven techniques for automated dialogue H Hardy, A Biermann, RB Inouye, A McKenzie… – Speech …, 2006 – Elsevier … To enhance ASR performance, we integrated static GSL (Grammar Specification Language) classes provided by Nuance for recognizing several high-frequency items: numbers, dates, money amounts, names and yes-no statements. … Cited by 17 – Related articles – All 3 versions

Testing Template and Testing Concept of Operations for Speaker Authentication Technology [PDF] from dtic.mil MM Sipko – 2006 – DTIC Document … given task in a given application. For example, an application calls for a grammar defining basic greetings functions. In Nuance’s Grammar Specification Language (GSL), the grammar would look something like Figure 5. The grammar has a name which … Library Search – All 4 versions

Plug and play spoken dialogue processing [PDF] from riacs.edu M Rayner, J Boye, I Lewin… – SIGdial 2001 book, 2002 – Springer … The linguistic knowledge used by the module is encoded as a unification grammar, and compiled first into a representation in Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL) and then into a Nuance recognition package. The module’s output con- Page 6. … Cited by 1 – Related articles – All 4 versions

[PDF] Software illustrating a unified approach to multimodality and multilinguality in the in-home domain [PDF] from chalmers.se S Ericsson, G Amores, B Bringert, H Burden… – Status Report …, 2006 – cse.chalmers.se Page 1. Software illustrating a unified approach to multimodality and multilinguality in the in-home domain Stina Ericsson (editor), Gabriel Amores, Bj¨orn Bringert, Håkan Burden, Ann-Charlotte Forslund, David Hjelm, Rebecca Jonson, Staffan Larsson, Peter Ljungl¨of, … Cited by 8 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 13 versions

[PDF] Answering Questions About Archived, Annotated meetings [PDF] from epfl.ch M Ailomaa – 2009 – biblion.epfl.ch Page 1. POUR L’OBTENTION DU GRADE DE DOCTEUR ÈS SCIENCES acceptée sur proposition du jury: Prof. M. Hasler, président du jury Dr M. Rajman, directeur de thèse Prof. N. Castell, rapporteur Prof. P. Dillenbourg, rapporteur Prof. J. Moeschler, rapporteur … Cited by 2 – Related articles – Library Search – All 3 versions

Adapting the interaction in a call centre system [PDF] from unito.it F Cena, I Torre – Interacting with Computers, 2006 – Elsevier … of the platform are the ICM (Cisco Intelligent Contact Manager), which routes the call; the TextToSpeech Nuance server, which translates text into voice; the ASR Nuance server, which contains the voice recognition engine (based on GSL-Grammar Specification Language). … Cited by 5 – Related articles – All 6 versions

[PDF] ????? VoiceXML ???? [PDF] from lw23.com ??? – ???????? (?????), 2005 – lw23.com … ????????????????????????,???????? ???????, ????????????GSL(Grammar Specification Language).???????? ????????GSL??,??????Nuance??????????????: (NUANCE … Related articles – View as HTML – All 3 versions

[PDF] A Telephone-Based Speech Recognition System and VoiceXML Application Design Tool [PDF] from shef.ac.uk M Dudbridge… – 2002 – dcs.shef.ac.uk … The grammar file used in this example is given below. Note that this is in Nuance’s own grammar format (Grammar Specification Language, or GSL) [10] as opposed to the Java Speech API Grammar Format (JSGF), which is the standard used by the VoiceXML Forum. … Cited by 1 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 3 versions

[PDF] Anwendung von VoiceXML bei sprachbasierter Arbeit mit Katalogen erstellt mit IBM Websphere Studio [PDF] from fh-dortmund.de B Stoll – 2004 – wirtschaft.fh-dortmund.de … Die zweite Sprache ist die Grammar Specification Language (GSL) von Nuance, die von den meisten Plattformen auf dem Markt verwendet werden kann. Die folgende Tabelle zeigt eine Übersicht über die verschiedenen Grammatiken: … Cited by 2 – Related articles – View as HTML – All 2 versions

[PDF] DIALOGUE HOMME-MACHINE: MODÉLISATION DE MULTISESSION [PDF] from inria.fr M Marie-France – 2005 – hal.inria.fr … 38 1.3.3 Environnement développé de VoiceXML ….. 38 1.3.3.1 Nuance-V_Builder….. 39 … 42 1.3.4.2 Expérimentation avec l’environnement V_Builder de Nuance….. 44 … View as HTML – All 7 versions

[PDF] Entwicklung einer zeit-und ortsunabhängigen Terminvereinbarung mit Hilfe eines natürlichsprachlichen Dialogsystems auf der Basis von VoiceXML [PDF] from uni-goettingen.de F Hansen – 2004 – filepool.informatik.uni-goettingen.de Page 1. Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Zentrum für Informatik ISSN 1612-6793 Nummer ZFI-BM-2004-22 Bachelorarbeit im Studiengang “Angewandte Informatik” Entwicklung einer zeit- und ortsunabhängigen Terminvereinbarung mit Hilfe eines … View as HTML – All 5 versions