ELIZA (Joseph Weizenbaum) 2017


Notes:

One of the earliest examples of a conversational agent is Eliza, written in 1966 in the LISP language, by Joseph Weizenbaum (1923-2008). Eliza is a rule-based expert system that analyzes input and responses by rules, and is regarded as the first chatbot, so plays an important role in the history of chatbots. In general, Eliza simply rephrased input back to the human, typically in the form of a question. Eliza stored its knowledge-based data by embedding it right into the code. Eliza demonstrates a significant ability to shift the topic of conversation, thus maintaining an entertaining, whimsical facade. To do this, Eliza periodically uses coded rules to repeat fragments of the user’s input phrasing, to give an illusion of understanding what a user has said.

Eliza has been referred to as a person-centered “therapist emulator”, a quasi-psychoanalyst chatterbot which interacts with users via text, or a “therapy program”, as in “Eliza therapy”. The development of the Eliza program, which was capable of engaging humans in a natural conversation and simulated a Carl Rogers empathic psychologist, was one of the first conversational agents with a medical theme. Although simple in design and driven by a script called DOCTOR that performed keyword matching and replacement, it was a very powerful mechanism that tricked some people into thinking they were talking to a real psychoanalyst. The ELIZA effect, in computer science, is the tendency to unconsciously assume computer behaviors are analogous to human behaviors.

Eliza inspired Richard Wallace to begin the ALICE Artificial Intelligence Foundation (Origins of ALICE and AIML). Wallace’s XML-based Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML) has been designed for modeling and specifying dialogs with Eliza-like chatbots such as ALICE. Keyword based linguistic models have found wide utility in question answering research starting with Bobrow (1968), in natural language conversational systems such as ELIZA (Weizenbaum 1966) and PARRY (Colby 1971), and are basic to most Computer Aided Instruction programs. Jordan Mechner @jmechner transcribed the first encounter between Eliza and Apple Siri in “Siri Meets Eliza“.

Eliza has also been influential in both art and popular culture. Jimmy Maher has written online about what Eliza means to the history of digital narrative in Eliza, Part 3. Artists Alexa Wright and Alf Linney point out that Conversation Piece‘s interactive environment, similarly to Feingold’s Head, has its beginnings with Weizenbaum’s Eliza, designed to emulate a Rogerian psychotherapist. Artist Daniel Huhndt @AbsurdApe connected Eliza interactively with an old-fashioned typewriter, and called it “STYPE – Skype Typewriter“. There is a film by @peterhaasBerlin about Eliza’s inventor, Joseph Weizenbaum, called “Rebel at Work“. Google Earth even planted a so-called “Easter Egg” on Mars, a chatbot called “Meliza” (Best Meliza Videos), supposedly a Martian parody of Eliza.

Resources:

Wikipedia:

References:

See also:

100 Best Meliza Videos | Chatbots in Art & Culture | ELIZA effect


The real risks of artificial intelligence
DL Parnas – Communications of the ACM, 2017 – dl.acm.org
… Joseph Weizenbaum’s Eliza Anyone interested in the Turing Test should study the work of the late MIT Writing game-playing programs is harmless and builds capabilities. How- ever, I am very concerned by the pro- posal that practical products should ap- ply human methods …

Special issue on supporting a healthier lifestyle with e-coaching systems
RJ Beun, J Anderson, J Ham, M Klein, A Roefs… – 2017 – Springer
… Already in the mid-1960s of the twentieth century, the German-American computer scientist Joseph Weizenbaum implemented a program that mimicked a virtual Rogerian psychoanalyst called “Eliza” [1]. Eliza analyzed natural language statements, typed by the user, and then …

Is Eliza human, and can she write a sonnet?: A look at language technology
J Abrams – Access, 2017 – search.informit.com.au
… The first chatbot, ELIZA, was built by Joseph Weizenbaum in the 1960s in an attempt to demonstrate that an unintelligent program, which conversed only according to a series of superficial rules and pattern matching, could create the illusion of intelligence …

An Intelligent Behaviour Shown by Chatbot System
V Sharma, M Goyal, D Malik – International Journal of New Technology and … – ijntr.org
… A. ELIZA The german computer scientist, Joseph Weizenbaum developed the program ELIZA in 1966, which seemed to be able to fool users into believing that they were conversing with a real human. It is considered as the first chatterbot in the computer history …

LooPings: A look at semantic similarities
A Sow, JR Bourguet – … of the 2nd International Workshop on … – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
… References 1. Alan Mathison Turing. Computing machinery and intelligence. Mind, 59(236):433–460, 1950. 2. Joseph Weizenbaum. Eliza;a computer program for the study of natural language communi- cation between man and machine. Commun. ACM, 9(1):36–45, 1966 …

Towards improving the performance of chat oriented dialogue system
R Jiang, RE Banchs – Asian Language Processing (IALP), 2017 …, 2017 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… REFERENCES [1] Joseph Weizenbaum, “ELIZA – A Computer Program For the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man And Machine,” In Communications of the ACM, page 36-45, Vol. 9, No. 1, January 1966 …

Bot lekarzem duszy?
A Przegali?ska – Widok. Teorie i praktyki kultury wizualnej, 2017 – pismowidok.org
… 2 Joseph Weizenbaum, “ELIZA – A Computer Program for the Study of Natural Language Communications between Man and Machine,” Communications of the ACM 9, no. 1 (1966), https://www.csee.umbc.edu/courses/331/papers/eliza.html, accessed June 15, 2017. 3Ibid …

Artificial Intelligence: The Future of Cybertherapy?
A Gaggioli – Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 2017 – liebertpub.com
… of the AI era. In 1966, MIT computer science professor Joseph Weizenbaum created ELIZA, an AI program designed to act as a “simulation” of a Rogerian therapist by textually chatting with the patient. For the most part, ELIZA’s …

Re-reading ELIZA: Human–machine Interaction as Cognitive Sense-ability
P Treusch – Australian Feminist Studies, 2017 – Taylor & Francis
… Developed in 1966 by Joseph Weizenbaum, ELIZA was one of the first examples in which the idea of the computational machine as an interlocutor was realised. As I elaborate below, the debates around ELIZA, especially the …

Virtual reference librarians (Chatbots)
J Vincze – Library Hi Tech News, 2017 – emeraldinsight.com
… Chatbots have been around since the 1960s. MIT Professor Joseph Weizenbaum created an early Natural Language Processing computer program named ELIZA which emulated a Rogerian psychotherapist. Named after Eliza …

Understanding Natural Language Processing and its Primary Aspects
A Roy, AG Majumder, A Nath – International Journal, 2017 – ijarcsms.com
… 236): 433-460, doi: 10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433 2. Joseph Weizenbaum, “ELIZA – a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine”, Magazine Communications of the ACM, Volume 9 Issue 1 January 1966 3. Computer Science …

CONNECT AND RUPTURE
E Horwatt – Millennium Film Journal, 2017 – search.proquest.com
… This insight comes through in several segments depicting McLean’s typed exchange with ELIZA: a language processing computer program developed by Joseph Weizenbaum in MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in 1964 …

A Survey Of Various Chatbot Implementation Techniques
A Deshpande, A Shahane, D Gadre, M Deshpande… – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
… of Artificial Intelligence and the Turing Test he proposed in this paper can be considered as a benchmark for evaluating the intelligence of a computer system [8]. The fame of his proposed test drew a lot of attention to Joseph Weizenbaum’s program ELIZA developed in …

Building Kurdish Chatbot Using Free Open Source Platforms
KM Kaka-Khan – UHD Journal of Science and Technology, 2017 – journals.uhd.edu.iq
… to identify the human. We say the machine can think if the human and machine responses are indistinguishable. In 1966, Eliza (the first chatbot) was created by Joseph Weizenbaum at MIT. For generating proper responses, Eliza …

2. History of Conversational Systems
T Nishida – 2017 – ii.ist.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp
… 183-207, 2010. [Weizenbaum 1966] Joseph Weizenbaum. ELIZA — A Computer Program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 36-45, 1966 …

Be More Eloquent, Professor ELIZA–Comparison of Utterance Generation Methods for Artificial Second Language Tutor
T Nakamura, R Rzepka, K Araki… – … of Linguistic and …, 2017 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
Be More Eloquent, Professor ELIZA – Comparison of Utterance Generation Methods for Artificial Second Language Tutor … On the other hand, ELIZA-like confirmations and follow-ups were preferred by Japanese subjects when prac- ticing conversational English was considered …

New Challenges of Copyright Authorship in AI
C Ruipérez, E Gutiérrez, C Puente, JA Olivas – csce.ucmss.com
… As computers evolved through the ages, new ‘intelligent’ forms appeared. In the 60’s Joseph Weizenbaum created Eliza [2], a program able to emulate a computer therapist and able to maintain a simple conversation as figure 1 shows …

The computational therapeutic: exploring Weizenbaum’s ELIZA as a history of the present
C Bassett – AI & SOCIETY, 2017 – Springer
… circles. The second protagonist is Joseph Weizenbaum, an MIT computer sci- entist who came to disavow his artificial progeny. Weizen- baum believed that the reception awarded to ELIZA was unwarranted and misplaced …

Tacit knowledge
AM Walker – European journal of epidemiology, 2017 – Springer
… In 1966 at MIT, Joseph Weizenbaum created the “Symmetric List Processor,” a programming language for artificial intelligence (AI). To illustrate it Weizenbaum wrote code that permitted a computer to acquire English sentences and to respond in kind. Dubbed “ELIZA,” one of …

Build Better Chatbots: A Complete Guide to Getting Started with Chatbots
R Khan, A Das – 2017 – books.google.com
… The first-ever chatbot was introduced even before the first personal computer was developed. It was named Eliza and was developed at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory by Joseph Weizenbaum in 1966. Eliza impersonated a psychotherapist …

Constructing Womanhood and the Female Cyborg: A Feminist Reading of Ex Machina and Westworld
ZE Seaman-Grant – 2017 – scarab.bates.edu
… society. Unlike Galatea, Eliza is unwilling to remain with the man who has crafted her in his image. Interestingly, Joseph Weizenbaum named his artificial intelligence program ELIZA after Eliza in Pygmalion. While Pygmalion …

Computer Ethics from Obscure to Ubiquitous.
J Iqbal, BM Beigh – International Journal of Advanced …, 2017 – search.ebscohost.com
… Joseph Weizenbaum is most prominent and notable computer scientist who pioneered computer ethics. Weizenbaum in 1966 created a simulation script, a natural language processing program called ELIZA at MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory [16] …

A survey of design techniques for conversational agents
K Ramesh, S Ravishankaran, A Joshi… – International Conference …, 2017 – Springer
… Designer name. Description. 1966. ELIZA [8]. Joseph Weizenbaum. Pattern Matching. The input text is searched for keywords which are assigned a rank and the input is transformed as the rule associated with the highest rank directs. (One of the first chatbots). 1972. PARRY [24] …

Using Natural Language Understanding
N Pathak – Artificial Intelligence for. NET: Speech, Language, and …, 2017 – Springer
… Find the two numbers.” would result in an answer like, “One of the numbers is 56. The other number is 40.”. Perhaps the most famous example of NLU is the computer program ELIZA, created by Joseph Weizenbaum between 1965-66 at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory …

Is a Robot a Better Walking Partner If It Associates Utterances with Visual Scenes?
R Totsuka, S Satake, T Kanda, M Imai – Proceedings of the 2017 ACM …, 2017 – dl.acm.org

The Use of Dialectical Dialogues in a Personalized Virtual Coach for Obese Emotional Eaters
A Dol, O Kulyk, H Velthuijsen, L van Gemert-Pijnen… – researchgate.net
… Since chatbot Eliza was invented by Joseph Weizenbaum [12], many new studies have emerged. Over the last years, virtual coaches have been developed for behavior change support, healthy lifestyle, and physical activity support [13]-[17]. Existing virtual coach applications …

The rise of artificial intelligence: An analysis on the future of accountancy
C Jaslove – 2017 – scholarsarchive.library.albany.edu
… Other notable additions to the field shortly followed. In 1966, Joseph Weizenbaum created “ELIZA”, which was the world’s first chat program that used programmed phrases to communicate with human users. Furthermore, by 2000 Cynthia Breazeal …

Chatbot for university related FAQs
BR Ranoliya, N Raghuwanshi… – Advances in Computing …, 2017 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… Page 2. 1) ELIZA: ELIZA [5] is the primary chatbot created by Joseph Weizenbaum utilizing a keyword coordinating strategy. The thought was to persuade the client info and look for certain keywords, if a catchphrase was discovered then the appropriate response was recovered …

The use of dialectical dialogues in a personalized virtual coach for obese emotional eaters: A research protocol for a field study among target group
A Dol, O Kulyk, H Velthuijsen, J van Gemert-Pijnen… – 2017 – repository.ubn.ru.nl
… Since chatbot Eliza was invented by Joseph Weizenbaum [12], many new studies have emerged. Over the last years, virtual coaches have been developed for behavior change support, healthy lifestyle, and physical activity support [13]-[17]. Existing virtual coach applications …

A proposal for introducing Virtual Reality Assistant at Dubai Women’s College
R Ravikumar, AV Rajan, A Abdulla… – … Trends (ITT), 2017 …, 2017 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… The concept of virtual reality assistant was popular in 1960s and it was first developed by Joseph Weizenbaum as he created the first chat bots called ‘ELIZA’ which help to regenerate dialogues between a psychoanalyst and a patient …

Software development to increase coping skills in adolescents
MÁ Muñoz-López… – Journal of Behavior …, 2017 – Elsevier
… The self-guided treatment supplied by computers have 40 years since its first apparition, among the oldest are the “chatterbots” designed by Kenneth Colby in the 60s, on that basis, Joseph Weizenbaum developed in 1966 “ELIZA” that mimicked a psychologist’s questions …

Tweeting while Rome burns
H Earl – 2017 – Taylor & Francis
… There are two rays of light in the general gloom, and the first of these is the story of Eliza, a computer program developed between 1964 and 1966 at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory by Joseph Weizenbaum, modelled on Carl Rogers’ person-centred approach to …

AI-Powered Social Bots
T Adams – arXiv preprint arXiv:1706.05143, 2017 – arxiv.org
… Reading competition). Possibly, the earliest chatbot was ELIZA which was created by Joseph Weizenbaum of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab from 1964 – 1966. Other well known chatbots include Cleverbot and Tay. Intelligent …

An Expert System to Assist with Early Detection of Schizophrenia
SR Manalu, BS Abbas, FL Gaol, B Trawi?ski – Asian Conference on …, 2017 – Springer
… ELIZA was developed by Joseph Weizenbaum using pattern matching techniques and played as a psychiatrist to response the patient. In turn, PARRY, created by Kenneth Colby, attempted to simulate a person exhibiting paranoid schizophrenia …

Privacy & Identity: in the age of AI
H Shah – eema.org
… EEMA Privacy vs. Identity conference, Day2: 5 July 2017 Page 5. • 1966: Machines begin to talk: Joseph Weizenbaum’s natural language understanding programme, Eliza, allows humans to interact with a computer through text-based questions and answers: EEMA Privacy vs …

Artificial intelligence and professional roles
L Tredinnick – Business Information Review, 2017 – journals.sagepub.com
Skip to main content. Menus. SAGE Journals. Profile logged-in. Search. MENU. Browse; Resources: Authors; Librarians; Editors; Societies. My Tools: My Alerts; My Saved Searches; My Favorite Journals; My Account. Advanced Search. IN THIS JOURNAL …

Chatbots Setting Intentions for Preparation in Online Learning Communities
N Lambropoulos – researchgate.net
… Working on Interaction Design for eLearning In 1966 Joseph Weizenbaum at MIT developed the first chatbot Eliza (After Shaw’s Pygmalion) by reworded the human’s statements as questions. PhiliPa as Eliza is programmed …

A Survey of Design Techniques for Conversational Agents
K Chandrasekaran – … Conference, ICICCT 2017, New Delhi, India …, 2017 – books.google.com
… Page 351. A Survey of Design Techniques for Conversational Agents 343 Table 1. Chatbots and design techniques Year Programme name Designer name Description 1966 ELIZA [8] 1972 PARRY [24] 1984Mark V Shaney [25] Joseph Weizenbaum Pattern Matching …

Natural Language Interface To Databases
M Kuthadi – ijtre.com
… Mr. Joseph Weizenbaum programmed ELIZA nearly from 1964 to 1966 [4]. Syntax-Based Systems: In syntax-based systems the user’s question is parsed (ie analyzed syntactically) and the resulting parse tree is directly mapped to an expression in some database query …

Electronic literature and the future of writing
L Flores – Metaphor, 2017 – search.informit.com.au
… Digital Poetry (2007). • Bots are autonomous programs that simulate a person or personified concept, and have been around since 1964, when Joseph Weizenbaum created the first chatbot, named ELIZA, at MIT. While bots have …

Survey on trends and methods of an intelligent answering system
D Yogish, TN Manjunath… – Electrical, Electronics …, 2017 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… BASEBALL Green et al., 1963 Developed to answer user questions about dates, locations, and the results of baseball matches in American League. ELIZA Joseph Weizenbaum,1964 First chatter bots and first programs capable of passing the Turing test …

Disconnected: How Are New Technologies Distancing Us From Ourselves?
KA Benson – Critical Reflections: A Student Journal on …, 2017 – ojs.leedsbeckett.ac.uk
… In the film, Samantha is essentially machine learning and it’s implied that AI at this point has moved far beyond Joseph Weizenbaum’s ELIZA (Hypernormalisation, 2016). Eventually Theodore enters an intimate relationship with Samantha, whilst solely remaining a computer …

Artificial Intelligence Chatbot in Android System using Open Source Program-O
SV Doshi, SB Pawar, AG Shelar… – Artificial Intelligence, 2017 – researchgate.net
… II. LITERATURE SURVEY Eliza is considered as the first chatbot which works on the pattern matching system. It is developed by Joseph Weizenbaum in 1964 [2]. ALICE [3] is rule-based chatbot based on the Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML) …

Look Who’S Talking Too!
H Shah – researchgate.net
… Page 3. Machines talking since 1966 ? Joseph Weizenbaum’s Eliza natural language understanding, Q/A programme – online version accessible: Dr Huma Shah: Conversational Interaction conference, San Jose CA, 30-31 January 2017 Page 4 …

Designing bots: Creating conversational experiences
A Shevat – 2017 – books.google.com
… Developed by Joseph Weizenbaum in 1964 for the IBM 7094, Eliza was a psychotherapist bot that talked to users about their problems, invoking strong emotional reactions in many users even though it was clear they were interacting with a bot and not a human …

Alone together: Why we expect more from technology and less from each other
S Turkle – 2017 – books.google.com
… developments. To tell the story of artifacts that encourage relationship, I begin with the ELIZA program in the 1970s and take the story through to the “sociable” humanoid robots, such as Domo and Mertz, built at MIT in the 2000s …

So you want to be an AI designer?
NZ Wei – interactions, 2017 – dl.acm.org
… Bots are also not new. Joseph Weizenbaum from MIT built the first chatbot, Eliza, a computer therapist (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ELIZA). Lacking natural language understanding/processing (NLU/NLP), Eliza is not considered to be a real conversational interface …

Dialogue with computers: dialogue games in action
P Piwek – 2017 – oro.open.ac.uk
… One of the earliest and most well-known dialogue systems is ELIZA. It was developed in the 1960s at MIT by Joseph Weizenbaum. Interaction with ELIZA is via the keyboard (through a chat interface). ELIZA takes on the role of a psychotherapist and does this quite convincingly …

E-mail monitoring and management with MS social bots
M Pollak, G Anderst-Kotsis – … of the 19th International Conference on …, 2017 – dl.acm.org
… One of the most famous chatbot is ELIZA. ELIZA was created in 1966 by Joseph Weizenbaum to demonstrate certain kinds of natural language conversation between human and machine [14]. The first chatbot which passed the Turing test was PARRY …

Chatbots as Interaction Modality: An Explorative Design Study on Elderly Classical Music Concert Subscribers
F Berglund – 2017 – diva-portal.org
… The year 1966, Joseph Weizenbaum published a chatbot, called ?ELIZA?, for the study of natural language communication between human and machine [35]. ELIZA played a Rogerian psychotherapist, taking the user’s answers …

Chatbots: The next generation in computer interfacing–A Review
MS Walgama, B Hettige – 2017 – ir.kdu.ac.lk
… ELIZA (West et al., 1985) by Joseph Weizenbaum is a system that is implemented within the MAC time sharing. ELIZA can converse in natural language. ELIZA analyzes the user provided statement and generate the corresponding response …

Artificial Intelligence Comes of Age
D Bollier – 2017 – issuelab.org
… It can follow analysis; but it has no power of anticipating any analytic relations or truths.”2 Computer scientist Joseph Weizenbaum famously illustrated the limitations of AI in the 1960s with the development of the Eliza program …

The Points of Viewing Theory for Engaged Learning with Digital Media
R Goldman, J Black, JW Maxwell, JJL Plass… – tc.columbia.edu
… A notable example was the reception given to Joseph Weizenbaum’s famous program, ELIZA. When it first appeared in 1966, ELIZA was not intended as serious AI; it was an experiment in creating a simple conversational interface to the …

MedKiosk: An embodied conversational intelligence via deep learning
PH Leong, OS Goh, YJ Kumar – 2017 13th International …, 2017 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… agent, including the integration of Natural Language Processing (NLP), and pattern matching [2]. Eliza was the very first chatbot developed by Joseph Weizenbaum in 1966 to produce reply based on pattern matching rules in examining input sentence via keywords …

Politician–An Imitation Game
D Kubo?, E Metheniti, B Hladká – International Conference on Internet …, 2017 – Springer
… Joseph Weizenbaum created the very first chatbot ELIZA that used pattern matching and substitution methodology in order to answer questions posed by humans, and given a rule-based scenario it could carry out a conversation with a human taking the role of a psychoanalyst …

Dialogue with computers
P Piwek – Dialogue across Media, 2017 – books.google.com
… Reactive dialogue systems One of the earliest and most well-known dialogue systems is Eliza. It was devel- oped in the 1960s at MIT by Joseph Weizenbaum. Interaction with Eliza is via the keyboard (through a chat interface). Eliza takes on the role of a psychotherapist …

Neural logic framework for digital assistants
N Cingillioglu, A Russo, K Broda – Department of Computer Science …, 2017 – imperial.ac.uk
… practical assistants. ELIZA Created from 1964 to 1966 by Joseph Weizenbaum at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, ELIZA was an early chatterbot program aimed to demonstrate the superfi- ciality of communication between man and machine [14] …

Combining software agents and gaming through student play, an educational module in agent SocialMetric
A Kuz, M Falco, RS Giandini – … y Sociedad (SLIS-CLEI)-JAIIO 46 …, 2017 – sedici.unlp.edu.ar
… III. RELATED WORK Around 1960 arose the development of technology for conversational agents, where Eliza was the first conversational agent developed by Joseph Weizenbaum. These agents are also known as chatterbot or chatbot, originally coined by M. Mauldin in 1994 …

RubyStar: A Non-Task-Oriented Mixture Model Dialog System
H Liu, T Lin, H Sun, W Lin, CW Chang, T Zhong… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2017 – arxiv.org
… Joseph Weizenbaum. Eliza—a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine. Communications of the ACM, 9(1):36–45, 1966. Kenneth Mark Colby. Modeling a paranoid mind …

The Gender Turing Test
W Patterson, J Boboye, S Hall… – … Conference on Applied …, 2017 – Springer
… There is a large body of research on this topic since Turing first posed the question around 1950, beginning with the development of the artificial “psychologist” named Eliza originally developed by Joseph Weizenbaum [6], and leading all the way to IBM supercomputer Watson …

The ethics of robotic caregivers
A Etzioni, O Etzioni – Interaction Studies, 2017 – jbe-platform.com
… These AI caregivers have been reported to be widely used and very successful. In the 1960s, MIT professor Joseph Weizenbaum developed a com- puter program called ELIZA, designed to simulate conversation with a human …

Algorithms and Applications
M Mohammed, MB Khan, EBM Bashier – 2017 – researchgate.net
… guage. David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel proposed the use of neural networks for the computer vision in 1962. Joseph Weizenbaum developed the first expert system Eliza that could diagnose a disease from its symptoms. The …

APPLICATION OF VIRTUAL AGENTS FOR DELIVERY OF INFORMATION SERVICES
A Vasiljevs, I Skadina, D Deksne… – PROCEEDINGS OF …, 2017 – dspace.lu.lv
… to behave intelligently (Turing, 1950). Simulation was later further spurred by the surprising success of the first conversational agent Eliza developed by Joseph Weizenbaum (Weizenbaum, 1966). In this study we analyse the …

Proposed methodology for studying and analysing the new documentary forms
A Gifreu – DOC On-line: Revista Digital de Cinema Documentário, 2017 – dialnet.unirioja.es
… century. Morton Heilig, sensorama, 1958, virtual reality and the virtual helmet, 1962; Joseph Weizenbaum, the computer ELIZA, the concept of artifi- cial intelligence, 1965; Ray- mond Kurzweil, artificial in- telligence. Page 10. i i …

Improvised theatre alongside artificial intelligences
KW Mathewson, P Mirowski – Association For The …, 2017 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
… Comparison with ELIZA Finally, we built an audience interaction game in homage to one of the earliest chatbot systems, ELIZA, by Joseph Weizenbaum (Weizenbaum 1966). In this format, an audi- ence member is invited to …

Homo Informaticus: Image of Man in Information Society
F Tretter – THE FUTURE INFORMATION SOCIETY: Social and …, 2017 – World Scientific
… Of course, it is well known that computers can mimic emotions and empathy by preprogramed situation- related emotional speech production: the first “empathic computer” was already realized by the software ELIZA that was constructed by Joseph Weizenbaum [1966] …

Chat Bots Implementation and User Engagement
S Hosseini – 2017 – theseus.fi
… The ELIZA program could give users communicating with it an illusion of communicating with a real human being. Joseph Weizenbaum did not think of ELIZA as an “intelligent” program, but rather as a program which only gives the illusion of intelligence …

Thinking in Practice: Interdisciplinary Workshop Wahn Manor House, Cologne 19-20 January
W McCarty – mccarty.org.uk
… It is, rather, to ask if we can learn from these anthropologists in turn what it means to pull oneself away from the narcissistic self-entrapment that Joseph Weizenbaum discovered in the mid 1960s when users of his conversational program Eliza mistook it for their confessor.16 It is …

The rise of bots: a survey of conversational interfaces, patterns, and paradigms
LC Klopfenstein, S Delpriori, S Malatini… – Proceedings of the 2017 …, 2017 – dl.acm.org
… Chatterbots One of the first examples of such a program was ELIZA, cre- ated by Weizenbaum in 1966 [34]. ELIZA did simply answer all the user’s utterances with other vague questions, giving a rough impression of a Rogerian psychotherapist …

Robots as Language Learning Tools.
E Collado – Learning Languages, 2017 – ERIC
… text (Chatbots.org, 2017). It dates to the year 1966 when scientist Joseph Weizenbaum at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology created the first-ever chatbot named Eliza (Mullins, 2005). Eliza was programmed to mimic …

ROBOTS
E Collado – researchgate.net
… text (Chatbots.org, 2017). It dates to the year 1966 when scientist Joseph Weizenbaum at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology created the first-ever chatbot named Eliza (Mullins, 2005). Eliza was programmed to mimic …

Hamlet on the holodeck: The future of narrative in cyberspace
JH Murray, JH Murray – 2017 – books.google.com
… Part III: Procedural Authorship 7 The Cyberbard and the Multiform Plot 231 2016 Update 261 8 Eliza’s Daughters 267 … Stuart Malone, Kenneth Mayer, Ruth Perry, Barbara Sirota, Vivian Sobchack, David Thorburn, Lily Tomlin, Jane Wagner, Joseph Weizenbaum, Catherine White …

Chat Detection in an Intelligent Assistant: Combining Task-oriented and Non-task-oriented Spoken Dialogue Systems
S Akasaki, N Kaji – arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.00746, 2017 – arxiv.org
Page 1. Chat Detection in an Intelligent Assistant: Combining Task-oriented and Non-task-oriented Spoken Dialogue Systems Satoshi Akasaki? The University of Tokyo akasaki@tkl.iis.u-tokyo. ac.jp Nobuhiro Kaji Yahoo Japan Corporation nkaji@yahoo-corp.jp Abstract …

Computational and Emotional Linguistic Distance and Language Learning
KA Challa, M Vurity – Computer Communication, Networking and Internet …, 2017 – Springer
… 4 Computational Linguistic Distance. In the year 1966, Joseph Weizenbaum developed a program called ELIZA, the first of its kind designed to provide natural interaction between man and machine. Later on a number of programs …

Operating on the human heart
K Magliato – I, Monster: Positive Ways of Working with …, 2017 – books.google.com
… She added that the recognition of another’s suffering was the first step towards developing a 31 In 1966, Joseph Weizenbaum, a pioneer in computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, wrote a program called ‘Eliza’ …

EncodingWord Confusion Networks with Recurrent Neural Networks for Dialog State Tracking
G Jagfeld, NT Vu – arXiv preprint arXiv:1707.05853, 2017 – arxiv.org
… Signal Processing, ICASSP. Joseph Weizenbaum. 1966. ELIZA: A Computer Pro- gram for the Study of Natural Language Commu- nication Between Man and Machine. Communica- tions of the ACM, 9(1). Tsung-Hsien Wen …

The Conversational Business
S Etlinger – 2017 – andyblackassociates.co.uk
… 1966 – ELIZA, generally recog- nized as the prototype of today’s chatbot, is introduced by MIT Professor Joseph Weizenbaum. 1995 – ALICE, aka Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity, is implemented. 1996 – Andrew Leonard declares “bots are hot.” …

Choice and Disbelief: Revisiting Immersion and Interac-tivity
DC Maduro – Digital Media and Textuality: From Creation to …, 2017 – books.google.com
… actual conversation is taking place. Galatea is based on ELIZA (1966), a chatterbot created by Joseph Weizenbaum. 29 If we ask the right ques- tions (or insert the correct commands), Galatea will reply. Once readers enter the …

Context Aware Conversational Agent for Flight Search
H Ramesh – 2017 – search.proquest.com
… This section presents a bird’s eye view of history of conversational agents. ELIZA is an early natural language processing computer program created from 1964 to 1966 at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory by Joseph Weizenbaum …

VitiBot: A Dialog System Sommelier
S Tang, I Suarez, J Andress – stanford.edu
… Issues quickly become ap- parent, including the problem of what constitutes a keyword and how context can affect a keyword. Nevertheless, ELIZA was an early attempt to ad- dress these concerns and stands out as one of the first novel dialog system … Joseph Weizenbaum …

Evaluating Dialogs based on Grice’s Maxims
P Jwalapuram – Proceedings of the Student Research …, 2017 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
… See Appendix for all the dialogs. The dialogs are a mix from early systems like ALICE (Wallace, 2009) and Eliza (Weizenbaum, 1966) with current state-of-the-art, and also a mix of task oriented and conversational dialog … Joseph Weizenbaum. 1966 …

EAI Endorsed Transactions
E Currie, PH Harvey, P Daryanani, JC Augusto, R Arif… – 2017 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
… An early example of a chatterbot was Joseph Weizenbaum’s Eliza in 1966 [19], which used natural language processing and pattern recognition techniques. In the 1990s, second generation chatterbots appeared, using artificial neural networks …

Towards designing cooperative and social conversational agents for customer service
U Gnewuch, S Morana, A Maedche – 2017 – aisel.aisnet.org
… 2016). Such agents have been around since the 1960s when Joseph Weizenbaum developed ELIZA to simulate natural human interactions between a user and a computer (Weizenbaum 1966). In the early days, CAs could only make simple responses based on Page 3 …

Human-in-the-loop Artificial Intelligence
FM Zanzotto – arXiv preprint arXiv:1710.08191, 2017 – arxiv.org
… arXiv preprint arXiv:1506.06158, 2015. 9 Page 10. [39] Joseph Weizenbaum. Eliza—a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine. Communications of the ACM, 9(1):36– 45, 1966 …

Self-guided web-based interventions: Scoping review on user needs and the potential of embodied conversational agents to address them
MR Scholten, SM Kelders… – Journal of medical …, 2017 – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
… The ELIZA (software created by Joseph Weizenbaum at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Cambridge, MA, USA) study [54] described an early version of a textual psychotherapist that gave “canned” responses to user questions as a result of quickly …

It’s Alive!: Artificial Intelligence from the Logic Piano to Killer Robots
T Walsh – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. “A whirlwind four through the history and the future of A?-and why i? ma?ters to all of us. A must-rend.” ?ehºlar ?hrun, 5tanford/Goºgle/Udurity II’s ALIVE! Yºf Artificial intelligence |º from Illilºlºlº?? || ” W TOKILLERROBOTS ‘TOBY WAISH * º º) | Page 2 …

Generating Topic-Based Chatbot Responses
A Krantz, P Lindblom – 2017 – diva-portal.org
… One of the first computer programs to simulate human-like conversation was ELIZA in 1966 [17] … Like ELIZA, ALICE is also based on pattern matching but uses AIML (Artificial Intelligence Markup Language) [26] for its conversation rules …

Kate Darling
FIN HUMAN–ROBOT – Robot Ethics 2.0: From Autonomous Cars …, 2017 – books.google.com
… 1997). Joseph Weizenbaum (1976), after witnessing people interact with his 1960s psychother- apist bot, ELIZA, warned against being influenced by machines and taking on computers'(and their programmers’) worldview. Ian …

Android Dreams: The Past, Present and Future of Artificial Intelligence
T Walsh – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. ANDROID DREAMs The Post, Present ond Future of Artificial Intelligence TO B YWAL SH – -— Page 2. Page 3. Hurst and Company, London Page 4. Page 5. ANDROID D REAMS -º- ^ The Past, Present and Future of Artificial º * – TOBY WALSH – Page 6 …

Conversational Agent-Based Behaviour Change Support Systems: Comparing the Technical Aspects of Recent Applications
A de Vos, J Nieuwdorp, R Keulemans – adriaandevos.nl
… 3.2 Rule-based and AIML ELIZA by Jospeh Weizenbaum [6] is widely regarded as the first ever conversational agent … 3.4 Mental Models While ELIZA was designed to be a therapist, PARRY (1971) [14] simulated a patient (a person suffering from paranoid schizophrenia) …

Other Social Beings
P Turner – A Psychology of User Experience, 2017 – Springer
… relational artefacts. ELIZA was an entirely text-based interactive application developed by Joseph Weizenbaum, designed to mirror a user’s language and in doing so, to appear interested or concerned in “her” interlocutor. In practice …

Interactive Digital Narratives for iTV and Online Video
H Koenitz, N Knoller – Handbook of Digital Games and Entertainment …, 2017 – Springer
… and learn while staying put. In this regard, Karen is an update of Eliza, Joseph Weizenbaum’s 1966 experiment in using early AI technologies to emulate a Rogerian therapist (Weizenbaum 1966). Indeed, Janet Murray (1997 …

A Generation Method of Back-Channel Response to Let a Chatting Bot Be a Member of Discussions in a Text-Based Chat
Y Nishihara, M Ikuta, R Yamanishi… – … Informatics (IIAI-AAI) …, 2017 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… [5] Richard S. Wallace, The Anatomy of ALICE, Parsing the Turing Test, pp. 181-210, 2009. [6] Joseph Weizenbaum, ELIZA – Computer Program for the Study of Nat- ural Language Communication Between Man and Machine, Commun. ACM, Vol. 9, Issue 1, pp. 36-45, 1966 …

Digital humanities: knowledge and critique in a digital age
DM Berry, A Fagerjord – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. DAVID M. BERRY ANDERS FAGERJORD f : DIGITAL : HUMANITIES º º º < * Page 2. Contents Cover Title Page Copyright Dedication Acknowledgements 1 Introduction Notes 2 Genealogies of the Digital Humanities …

Utilizing bots in delivering content from Kentico Cloud and Kentico EMS
A Eikonsalo – 2017 – tampub.uta.fi
… The history of chatbots is generally considered to have begun in the 1960’s when one of the earliest successful chatbots, ELIZA (see Figure 4), was devel … [Weizenbaum 1966, 36–43] Figure 4: Sample conversation with an implementation of ELIZA [Radziwill and Ben- ton 2017] …

Cognitive evaluation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on turing test and virtual environments
JMF Montenegro, V Argyriou – Physiology & behavior, 2017 – Elsevier
… ELIZA, IBM’s Watson and Apple’s Siri are some of the most famous chatbots. ELIZA was the first chatbot and was created by Joseph Weizenbaum; IBM’s Watson is a chatbot that won in Jeopardy TV show in 2011; and Apple’s Siri is the iPhone’s personal assistant application …

Customer Centric Artificial Intelligence-Using Text and Sentiment Analysis & Deep Neural Network Learning to make Chatbots Reply in a more Customer …
A Schreuder, A Schreuder, J van Wyk – 2017 – samra.co.za
… were developed. The few exceptions during this phase was the development of some successful NLP systems such as SHRDLU and ELIZA – a simulation of a Rogerian psychotherapist by Joseph Weizenbaum (1964-1966) …

Strong Artificial Intelligence and imago hominis: The Risks of a Reductionist Definition of Human Nature
S Lumbreras – Issues in Science and Theology: Are We Special?, 2017 – Springer
… The first of these chatbots was probably Eliza, created in the 60s by psychiatrist Joseph Weizenbaum to support the diagnosis of mental illness. Up-to-date, more sophisticated versions of this chatbot are still in operation (Eliza) …

Commitment of newcomers and old-timers to online health support communities
D Yang, R Kraut, JM Levine – Proceedings of the 2017 CHI conference …, 2017 – dl.acm.org
… Even Weizenbaum’s classic Eliza computer program emulating a Rogerian therapist [60] promoted a personal connection between human recipients and the software agent, at least until the software’s lack of language understanding become apparent [60] …

Sounding board–university of washington’s alexa prize submission
H Fang, H Cheng, E Clark… – Alexa Prize …, 2017 – alexaprize.s3.amazonaws.com
… of sponsors. References [1] Joseph Weizenbaum. Eliza – a computer program for the study of natural language communica- tion between man and machine. Commun. ACM, 9(1):36–45, January 1966. [2] Alessandro Sordoni …

Learning to predict the adequacy of answers in chat-oriented humanagent dialogs
LF D’Haro, RE Banchs – Region 10 Conference, TENCON …, 2017 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… Good examples of this kind of chatbots are the psychotherapist Eliza created in 1969 by [1], which used a set of only 53 pattern matching rules, or ALICE developed by [2], that won the Loebner’s prize in 2000 and 2001 by using more … REFERENCES [1] Joseph Weizenbaum …

Transition! The 1970s in Literary Criticism
WL Benzon – 2017 – papers.ssrn.com
… Hubert Dreyfus had published What Computers Can’t Do in 1972. Joseph Weizenbaum, who’d created the (in)famous ELIZA, published Computer Power and Human Reason in 1976. Skepticism, yes, but a threat to humanities discourse, not really. It was all so new …

Chatbots As A Mean To Motivate Behavior Change: How To Inspire Pro-Environmental Attitude with Chatbot Interfaces
J Åberg – 2017 – diva-portal.org
… Chatbots were first developed in the 1960’s. Weizenbaum [46] developed a system called ELIZA, which simulates a psychotherapist. ELIZA was mainly created to demonstrate the superficiality of communication between man …

Tips of Fingers, Tips of Tongues: Emulating Authentic Dialogue in Roleplaying Video Games
S Caskenette – 2017 – digitool.library.mcgill.ca
Page 1. 1 Tips of Fingers, Tips of Tongues: Emulating Authentic Dialogue in Roleplaying Video Games Stephanie Caskenette The Department of Art History and Communication Studies, McGill University, Montréal October 2017 …

Here’s What I Can Do: Chatbots’ Strategies to Convey Their Features to Users
FAM Valério, TG Guimarães, RO Prates… – Proceedings of the XVI …, 2017 – dl.acm.org
… Author Keywords Chatbot; Conversational Interfaces; Evaluation; Semiotic Engineering; Semiotic Inspection Method. INTRODUCTION In the 1960’s, STUDENT [2] and ELIZA [16] were among the first chatbots ever made. Chatbots …

Visualizing conversational data in virtual reality
A Sätterkvist – 2017 – diva-portal.org
… 34]. However, a lot has happened since the first chatbot was implemented by Joseph Weisenbaum in 1964 called ELIZA that could interpret simple sentences and ask counter-questions depending on identified words [28]. As …

Decoding Technology Acceptance in Education: A Cultural Studies Contribution
C Stockman – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. ROUTLEDGE RESEARCH IN EDUCATION Decoding Technology Acceptance in Education A Cultural Sudies Contribution Caroline Stockmon Page 2. The origins of technology acceptance research have often been …

CHATBOT: Architecture, design, and development
J Cahn – University of Pennsylvania School of Engineering and …, 2017 – cahn.io
… the human. If the human and machine are indistinguishable, we say the machine can think. [3] In 1966, Joseph Weizenbaum at MIT created the first chatbot that, arguably, came close to imitating a human: ELIZA. Given an input …

In folly ripe. In reason rotten. Putting machine theology to rest
M Nadin – arXiv preprint arXiv:1712.04306, 2017 – arxiv.org
… new religion of the machine and AI. Of course, Hubert Dreyfus and Joseph Weizenbaum come … Dreyfus knew close to nothing about computers, and Weizenbaum did not produce another ELIZA (which is still successful in our …

The Internet of things
M Bunz, G Meikle – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. The Internet Page 2. Contents Cover Title Page Copyright Acknowledgements Introduction 1. First things Sensing networks The Fridge Fallacy Some agency, no intention 2. Addressing things The borders of the internet …

Chatbot for Laundry and Dry Cleaning Service
BJ K?íž – is.muni.cz
… 2.1 History of chatbots To find the ancestor of chatbots, we have to go back to 1960s when Joseph Weizenbaum from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology published the ELIZA program. ELIZA was meant to simulate a psy- chotherapist based on keywords matching …

Non-interactive Interactivity: building a seemingly interactive installation
JTM de Araújo – 2017 – repositorio-aberto.up.pt
… To demonstrate why this choice was made, we can use the example of the ELIZA, a system developed by Joseph Weizenbaum (1983) that attempts to perform the role of a therapist using only conversations via a computer, as if a human was on the other side …

Ok, Google: Designing Information Architecture For Smart Speakers
B Smith – projekter.aau.dk
… This idea of the relevance of the context, content, and user in information architecture design is corroborated by computer scientist Joseph Weizenbaum, psycholinguist Herbert H. Clark, computer scientist and natural language programmer Terry Winograd, and professor of …

Big Data Analytics Enabled Smart Financial Services: Opportunities and Challenges
V Ravi, S Kamaruddin – International Conference on Big Data Analytics, 2017 – Springer
… The first chatbot ELIZA, created in 1966 by Joseph Weizenbaum [32] could recognize certain keywords and pattern and answer accordingly, mimicking conversation with a psychotherapist. The timeline of the development of chatbots is depicted in Fig …

Turing and the Universal Machine (Icon Science): The Making of the Modern Computer
J Agar – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. JON AG AR |URING AND |HE UNIVERSAL MACHINE The Making of the Modern Computer Page 2. CONTENTS Cover Title Page Copyright Acknowledgements About the Author 1 Universal Machines 2 The Blue Pig …

A hybrid architecture for multi-party conversational systems
MG de Bayser, P Cavalin, R Souza, A Braz… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2017 – arxiv.org
… ELIZA [12] was one of the first softwares created to understand natural language pro- cessing. Joseph Weizenbaum created it at the MIT in 1966 and it is well known for acting like a psychotherapist and it had only to reflect back onto patient’s statements …

The power of computational thinking: Games, magic and puzzles to help you become a computational thinker
P Curzon, PW McOwan – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. IHE PUll|ER (TF [[I]MPUTHIN?| THINKING Games, magic and puzzles to help you become a computational thinker – “. W McCwan lsº – | | | | º — – _- Paul Curzon. Peter Page 2. THE POLIER OF CUMPUTRTIONHL THINKING …

A Psychology of User Experience: Involvement, Affect and Aesthetics
P Turner – 2017 – Springer
Page 1. Human–Computer Interaction Series Phil Turner A Psychology of User Experience Involvement, Affect and Aesthetics Page 2. Human–Computer Interaction Series Editors-in-chief Desney Tan Microsoft Research, USA …

Artificial Intelligence for. NET: Speech, Language, and Search: Building Smart Applications with Microsoft Cognitive Services APIs
N Pathak – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. Artificial Intelligence for .NET: Speech, Language, and Search Building Smart Applications with Microsoft Cognitive Services APIs — Nishith Pathak Page 2. Artificial Intelligence for .NET: Speech, Language, and Search …

Artificial Intelligence for .NET: Speech, Language, and Search
N Pathak – Springer
Page 1. Artificial Intelligence for .NET: Speech, Language, and Search Building Smart Applications with Microsoft Cognitive Services APIs — Nishith Pathak Page 2. Artificial Intelligence for .NET: Speech, Language, and Search Building Smart Applications with Microsoft …

Towards the Implementation of an Intelligent Software Agent for the Elderly
AHF Dinevari, A Hossein – 2017 – era.library.ualberta.ca
… ideals that are set in AI field. 2.2.2 Notable Chatterbots The first well-known chatterbot was developed by Joseph Weizenbaum [89]. It was named ELIZA and published in 1966. It was mimicking an on-going conversation in a person-centered psychotherapy session …

Basics of Psychotherapy: A Practical Guide to Improving Clinical Success
RB Makover – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. BASICS OF *YCHCHERAPY A procicol guide ?o improving clinicol success Richard B. Makover, MD Page 2. Basics of PSYCHOTHERAPY A Practical Guide to Improving Clinical Success Page 3. Page 4. Basics of PSYCHOTHERAPY …

The Social Life of Information: Updated, with a New Preface
JS Brown, P Duguid – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. INTRODUCTION 4, DAVID WEINBERGER. Al?º, ºf 7/7/4774% Page 2. THE SOCIAL LIFE OF INFORMATION Page 3. Page 4. John Seely Brown Paul Duguid THE SOCIAL LIFE OF INFORMATION Updated, with a New …

End-to-End Trainable Chatbot for Restaurant Recommendations
A Strigér – 2017 – diva-portal.org
Page 1. IN DEGREE PROJECT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, SECOND CYCLE, 30 CREDITS , STOCKHOLM SWEDEN 2017 End-to-End Trainable Chatbot for Restaurant Recommendations AMANDA STRIGÉR …

Unconsciousness by Design: Addictive Technologies and the Escape from Freedom
C Hsu – 2017 – openresearch.ocadu.ca
Page 1. i Unconsciousness by Design Addictive Technologies and the Escape from Freedom By Cheryl Hsu Page 2. Page 3. Unconsciousness by Design: Addictive Technologies and the Escape from Freedom By Cheryl Hsu …

Who knows where: a treatise on indisciplinary thinking
JJL Khazrik – 2017 – dspace.mit.edu
Page 1. WHO KNOWS WHERE: A TREATISE ON INDISCIPLINARY THINKING by Jessika Khazrik BA Linguistics and Theatre Lebanese University, 2014 SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN PARTIAL …

Opening minds: The use of technology to provide a personalized populatu= ion based mental health programme
D Fung, N Lim-Ashworth – 2017 – open-access.imh.com.sg
… Page 7. 6 BIOBOARD Researchers at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute have identified a molecule that helps the malaria virus hide from the immune system. The malaria parasite could soon find it a lot harder to hide from the …

Therapeutic alliance and different treatment formats when delivering internet-based CBT for depression
K Vernmark – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. Linköping Studies in Arts and Science No 725 Linköping Studies in Behavioural Science No 201 Therapeutic alliance and different treatment formats when delivering internet-based CBT for depression Kristofer Vernmark Page 2 …

Awakening The Potential of Positive Computing: A Transversal, Heliotropic Design Paradigm for Human Flourishing
R Wynia – 2017 – repository.upenn.edu
Page 1. University of Pennsylvania ScholarlyCommons …

A User Perception–Based Approach to Create Smiling Embodied Conversational Agents
M Ochs, C Pelachaud, G Mckeown – ACM Transactions on Interactive …, 2017 – dl.acm.org
… The SEMAINE platform was developed specifically for the purpose of enabling artificial listener interactions [Schröder et al. 2012], like the well-known Eliza chatbot [Weizenbaum 1966], with rich nonverbal be- havior but poor linguistic competences …

Thomas C. Schelling and James M. Sakoda: The intellectual, technical, and social history of a model
R Hegselmann – Journal of Artificial Societies and Social …, 2017 – jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk
Page 1. Thomas C. Schelling and James M. Sakoda: The Intellectual, Technical, and Social History of a Model RAINER HEGSELMANN Frankfurt School of Finance & Management, Philosophy and Law De- partment, Adickesallee 32-34, 60322 Frankfurt am Main, Germany …

My Cognitive AutoMOBILE Life: Digital Divorce from a Cognitive Personal Assistant
S Wedeniwski, S Perun – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. Sebastian Wedeniwski· Stephen Perun My Cognitive autoMOBILE Life Digital Divorce from a Cognitive Personal Assistant Page 2. My Cognitive autoMOBILE Life Page 3. Sebastian Wedeniwski • Stephen Perun My Cognitive …

My Cognitive autoMOBILE Life
S Wedeniwski, S Perun – Springer
Page 1. Sebastian Wedeniwski · Stephen Perun My Cognitive autoMOBILE Life Digital Divorce from a Cognitive Personal Assistant Page 2. My Cognitive autoMOBILE Life Page 3. Sebastian Wedeniwski • Stephen Perun My Cognitive autoMOBILE Life …

Digital Guest Experience: Tools to help hotels to manage and optimize the digital guest experience
B Radde – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. Tools to help hotels to manage and optimize the digital guest experience |H|| ||EST EXPERIENCE Bli?? RADDE Page 2. Digital Guest Experience Tools to help hotels to manage and optimize the digital guest experience Björn Radde 1st edition Page 3 …

Machine dreaming and consciousness
JF Pagel, P Kirshtein – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. – – – – – chine Dreamin * Page 2. MACHINE DREAMING AND CONSCIOUSNESS Page 3. This page intentionally left blank Page 4. MACHINE DREAMING AND CONSCIOUSNESS JF PAGEL PHILIP KIRSHTEIN Page 5 …

Any Body There?: Worship and Being Human in a Digital Age
C Mueller – 2017 – books.google.com
Page 1. ANY BODY THEREP Worship and Being Human in a Digital Age CRAIG MUELLER Page 2. Any Body There? Page 3. Page 4. Any Body There? Worship and Being Human in a Digital Age Craig Mueller Page 5. Any BoDy THere …

Data-driven design for sustainable behavior: A case study in using data and conversational interfaces to influence corporate settlement
J Ljungren – 2017 – diva-portal.org
Page 1. Data-driven design for sustainable behavior A case study in using data and conversational interfaces to influence corporate settlement Joakim Ljungren August, 2017 Master’s Thesis in Interaction Technology and Design …

A Warmer Welcome: Application of a Chatbot as a Facilitator for New Hires Onboarding
N Asher – 2017 – diva-portal.org
… most notable example), to news chatbots that keep you updated with 1 Artificial Intelligence 2 Internet of Things 3 A computer program created by Joseph Weizenbaum in 1966, and is generally recognized as the first chatbot. It …

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