DHM and Posturography


DHM and Posturography (2019) .. edited by Sofia Scataglini and Gunther Paul


Contents

Contributors xxi
Preface xxvii
Acronyms xxix
Glossary xxxiii

Part I
Introduction

1. From Greek sculpture to the digital human model e a history of  human equilibrium”
Sofia Scataglini and Gunther Paul
References 5

2. Why do we need digital human models?
Heiner Bubb

1. Introduction 7
2. A short review on the DHM development 7
3. Fields of DHM 11
3.1 Anthropometrical models 11
3.2 Biomechanical models 16
3.3 Physiological medical models 18
4. SAE-DHM conferences 20
4.1 History of the conferences 20
4.2 Content of the conferences 21
5. Technical development in the context of DHMs 23
5.1 Specific measurement tools and the results of their application 23
5.2 Consideration of new technologies 26
5.3 Confusion of the various model lines 26
5.4 Modelling of the hand 29
6. Conclusion 30
References 31
Further reading 32

Part II
Human simulation tools

3. Siemens Jack
Ulrich Raschke and Christina Cort

1. Introduction 35
2. Jack simulation environments 35
2.1 The Jack portfolio 36
3. The Jack human model 37
3.1 Jack and anthropometry 38
4. Task simulation with Jack 39
4.1 The task simulation builder framework 40
5. Virtual reality and motion capture 41
6. Analysis capability 41
6.1 Collaborative robotics 42
7. Conclusion 47
References 47

4. Human Solutions RAMSIS
Hans-Joachim Wirsching

1. Introduction 49
2. RAMSIS application process 49
2.1 Digital representation of the customer market 50
2.2 Simulation of task-specific interactions 51
2.3 Ergonomic interaction analyses 52
3. Conclusion 54
References 54

5. Task-based digital human simulation with Editor for Manual work Activities – Basic functionalities, applications, and future works
Sebastian Bauer, Vipin Jayan Sylaja, Lars Fritzsche and Sascha Ullmann

1. Backstory and development of editor for manual work activities 57
2. Basic methodology 57
3. Functions 58
3.1 Planning and design 58
3.2 Simulation and visualization 59
3.3 Evaluation and documentation 59
4. Applications and future work 60
4.1 Fields of application 60
4.2 Future work 60
References 62

6. Santos: An integrated human modeling and simulation platform
Karim Abdel-Malek, Jasbir Arora, Rajan Bhatt, Kimberly Farrell, Chris Murphy and Kevin Kregel

1. Introduction 63
2. Benefits of human simulation 63
3. Virtual mockups and digital twins 64
4. Kinematic model 65
5. Behavior-induced posture prediction 66
6. Physics-based simulations: predictive dynamics 67
6.1 Predictive dynamics 67
6.2 Task execution 67
7. Strength limits and fatigue modeling 68
8. Hand modeling 68
9. Scenario generation 70
10. Stability and balance 71
11. Injury prediction 72
12. Artificial intelligence 72
13. Physiology modeling 72
14. Validation of human simulation environments 73
15. Current research areas 74
16. Conclusion 74
References 74
Further reading 77

7. NexGen Ergonomics Inc. HumanCAD
David Pinchefsky

1. Introduction 79
2. Digital human modeling options 79
3. Anthropometry 79
4. Comfort/discomfort 81
5. Vision and reach analysis 82
6. Center of mass and gravity 82
7. Conclusion 83
References 83
Further reading 83

8. The AnyBody Modeling System
John Rasmussen

1. History and motivation for AMS 85
2. The model repository 85
3. Technical foundation 86
4. Kinematics 86
5. Redundant kinematics 88
6. Kinematic muscle modeling 88
7. Kinetic analysis 90
8. Force-dependent kinematics 91
9. Computationally efficient posture and motion prediction 92
10. Final remarks 94
References 96

9. Virtual Ergonomics by Dassault Systemes
Julie Charland

1. History 97
2. Evolution 97
2.1 Anthropometry 98
2.2 Manikin model 99
2.3 Ergonomic analyses 100
2.4 The (very near) future 102
References 102

10. CASIMIRda human body model for the analysis of seat vibrations
Alexander Siefert and Jorg Hofmann

Glossary 105
1. Introduction 105
2. The human body model CASIMIR 105
2.1 Development 105
2.2 Setup and validation 106
2.3 Interface between RAMSIS and CASIMIR 108
3. Seat vibrationsddynamic comfort 109
3.1 Seat structure 110
3.2 Upholstery 110
3.3 Seat transmissibility characteristics 111
4. Ride comfortdcombination of finite element method and multibody system 112
4.1 Condensation of the occupied seat 112
4.2 Computation of seat behavior in the time domain 113
4.3 Next steps 114
References 114

11. Industrial Path Solutions – Intelligently Moving Manikins
Lars Hanson, Dan Ho¨gberg, Johan S. Carlson, Niclas Delfs, Erik Brolin, Peter Ma?rdberg, Domenico Spensieri, Staffan Bjo¨rkenstam, Johan Nystro¨m and Fredrik Ore

1. Background 115
2. Biomechanical model and skin mesh 115
3. Anthropometrics module 115
4. Motion prediction 117
5. Instruction language 117
6. Ergonomic evaluation 118
7. Research and development activities 118
8. Dynamic motion simulation 118
9. Muscle modelingeinspired and direct measurement-inspired ergonomic evaluations 119
10. Humanerobot collaboration 120
11. Occupant packaging and vehicle ergonomics 121
12. Layout planning 122
Acknowledgments 123
References 123

12. ERL seat design and digital human models
Mac Reynolds

1. Introduction 125
2. Benchmark vehicles 126
3. Variation in vehicle packaging and anthropometry 127
4. Seat shape 127
5. Seat shape: patches and anatomical landmarks 127
6. Digital human body models 129
7. Torso postures logic 130
8. DHM interface with vehicle 130
9. Seated driver comfort 131
10. Seat adjustments: elbow, hip, and seat positions 132
11. Cushion design: cushion tilt and front of thigh 133
12. Seatback design: torso angle and eye height 134
13. Head restraint: neck angle and back recliner 134
14. Conclusions and recommendations 136
Acknowledgments 136
References 137
Further reading 137

13. ESI unique human model for seat (dis)comfort evaluation
Muriel Beaugonin and Caroline Borot

1. Introduction 139
2. Finite element human models for various seat comfort fields 139
2.1 Initial ESI human model 139
2.2 Second generation of ESI human models 139
2.3 Upgrade of ESI human models 142
2.4 Representative models of other population groups 142
3. Use of ESI human models to virtually test seat discomfort 144
3.1 Seating of human model 144
3.2 Seating comfort for different postures 147
3.3 Passenger living space 147
3.4 Effect of vibrations on human comfort 149
3.5 Human thermal comfort 149
4. Importance of anthropometries diversity and population percentiles in engineering 149
4.1 Population percentiles effect on seat comfort prediction 150
4.2 Nonstandard population groups effect on seat comfort prediction 152
5. Conclusion 153
References 153

14. Simcenter Madymo
Freerk Bosma, Paul A. van Hooijdonk, Kajetan Kietlinski, Martin G.A. Tijssens and Michiel F. Unger

1. Introduction 155
2. Methodology 155
3. Application 157
3.1 Crash pulse scaling 157
3.2 Airbag firing 159
3.3 Braking pulse 159
3.4 Simulation setup 161
3.5 AIS injuries 162
4. Study results 162
4.1 Step 4: Reference and autonomous emergency braking 162
4.2 Step 4: Design of experiments results 163
5. Discussion 166
6. Limitations of the study 167
7. Summary and conclusions 167
8. Acknowledgment 167
References 167
Further reading 168

15. ESI VIRTHUMAN models for impact
Ludek Kovar and Jana Hlucha

Glossary 169
1. Introduction 169
2. Model 170
2.1 Model structure 170
3. Model pre- and postprocessing 170
3.1 Pedestrian simulatordA user-friendly module for evaluation of pedestrian accidents 170
3.2 Evaluation of injury risk 172
3.3 Model validation 173
3.4 Component tests 173
3.5 Overall validation 178
3.6 New euro NCAP regulation 178
4. Applications of VIRTHUMAN model 180
4.1 Pedestrian accident assessment 180
4.2 Public transport accident 182

5. Conclusion 182
References 184

16. Alaska/dynamicus – human movements in interplay with the environment
Heike Hermsdorf, Norman Hofmann and Albrecht Keil

1. Introduction 187
2. Human model Dynamicus 187
3. Anthropometric data 189
4. Context model 191
5. Interaction model 191
6. Simulation methods 192
7. Automatic generation of process schemes 195
8. Recording of Movements 196
9. Analysis and assessment 196
10. Conclusion 197
References 198

Part III
Open source and internal DHM in posturography

17. Open-source software to create a kinematic model in digital human modeling
Gunther Paul and Sofia Scataglini

1. Introduction 201
2. Overview 201
3. Methods 205
3.1 Creation of body surface from MakeHuman 205
3.2 Acquisition of subject kinematics during a physical task 206
3.3 Blender workflow 208
4. Discussion 212
5. Conclusion 212
Acknowledgments 212
References 212

Part IV
Elements of posture

18. Human head modeling and applications
James Yang and Zhipeng Lei

1. Introduction 217
1.1 Head injury 218
1.2 Headehelmet model 219
1.3 Headerespirator model 220
2. Human head anatomy 221
3. Models and applications 222
3.1 Posture prediction 222
3.2 Impact simulation 223
3.3 Respirator design 234
4. Conclusion 239
References 240

19. Neck postural stabilization, motion comfort, and impact simulation
Riender Happee, Edo de Bruijn, Patrick Alan Forbes, Paul van Drunen, Jaap H. van Diee¨n and Frans Cornelis Theodorus. van der Helm

1. Introduction 243
1.1 Comfort of automated driving 245
2. Neck modeling 246
2.1 Biomechanical headeneck model 246
2.2 Validation in the frequency domain 247
2.3 Validation for impact conditions 249
3. Lumbar spine and neck modeling 253
4. Discussion 255
4.1 Insights gained in neck postural stabilization 255
4.2 Motion comfort 256
Acknowledgments 257
References 258

20. Motion analysis and modeling of the shoulder: challenges and potential applications
Yoann Blache, Romain Martinez, Raphae¨l Dumas, Mickael Begon, Nicola Hagemeister and Sonia Duprey

1. Context: upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders, an economic and social challenge 261
2. The shoulder, a complex joint to measure and model 262
2.1 Modeling and simulation 262
2.2 Shoulder biomechanical experiments 263
3. Case study: overhead lifting tasks 264
3.1 Context 264
3.2 Instrumentation and procedure 265
3.3 Kinematics 265
3.4 Muscle activity and cocontraction 267
3.5 Musculoskeletal modeling 267
4. Conclusion 268
References 268

21. Development of a feasible finite element digital human hand model
Gregor Harih and Mitsunori Tada

1. Introduction 273
1.1 Phenomena of human grasping 273
1.2 Digital human (hand) models 273
1.3 Finite element method in human hand biomechanics and ergonomics 274
2. Material and methods 276
2.1 Reverse engineering 276
2.2 Finite element model 277
2.3 Results and discussion 280
3. Conclusion 283
Acknowledgments 284
References 284

22. The spine: biomechanics and subject-specific finite element models
J. Paige Little

1. Anatomy of the spine 287
2. Spinal vertebrae 287
3. Intervertebral discs 287
4. Ligamentous and muscle connections 288
5. Simulating the biomechanics of the spine 288
5.1 Types of models 288
5.2 Subject-specific finite element modeling of the spine 288
5.3 Subject-specific modeling for spinal deformity patients 289
5.4 Simulating anterior spinal deformity correction surgery using VirtuSpine 290
5.5 Future directions in modeling 290
6. Conclusion 292
References 292

23. Foot size and foot shape of children, adults and elderly
Ameersing Luximon and Ravindra S. Goonetilleke

1. Introduction 295
2. Methodology 296
2.1 Participants 296
2.2 Method 296
3. Sensitivity of heel centerline alignment 297
4. Results and analysis 297
4.1 Anthropometric measures 297
4.2 Descriptive statistics 301
4.3 Analysis of variance 301
4.4 Prediction models: foot widths 306
4.5 Prediction models: foot heights 306
4.6 Prediction models: foot girths 306
4.7 Prediction models: foot flare 307
5. Correlations 308
6. Allometry 314
7. Discussion 314
8. Conclusions 316
References 316

24. Pelvic floor biomechanical assessment: current approaches and new evidence
Licia Pazzoto Cacciari and Isabel C.N. Sacco

1. Introduction 321
2. Current assessment of pelvic floor muscle function 322
2.1 Manometry 323
2.2 Dynamometry 324
2.3 Electromyography 325
3. Rational for new approaches of pelvic floor muscle function assessment 325
References 328

Part V
Postural interactions

25. Posture and anthropometry
Russell Marshall and Steve Summerskill

1. Introduction 333
2. Understanding and working with human body size and shape data 333
2.1 Anthropometric variability 333
2.2 Issues to consider when working with anthropometric data 334
2.3 The use of anthropometric data for digital human modeling 338
2.4 Anthropometry in user-centered design 345
2.5 Anthropometry and its relationship with other key measures 347
2.6 Recommendations for the use of anthropometric data in human modeling 347
3. Conclusion 348
References 348

26. Posturography
Sofia Scataglini

1. Introduction 351
2. Posturographic evaluation 354
2.1 Static and dynamic test without the use of computerized posturography 354
2.2 Computerized posturography 356
3. Discussion 362
4. Conclusion 362
Acknowledgment 362
References 363

Part VI
Activities of daily living

27. Physics-based sit-to-stand three-dimensional motion prediction considering seat pan contact
James Yang and Burak Ozsoy

1. Introduction 367
2. Problem definition 368
3. Methodology 368
3.1 Digital human model 368
3.2 Numerical discretization 370
3.3 Physics-based sit-to-stand prediction formulation 370
4. Results 373
4.1 Symmetrical STS 373
4.2 Asymmetrical STS 374
5. Validation 377
6. Discussion 378
7. Conclusion 381
Appendix 381
A1. Kinematic model of human body 381
A2. Dynamic equations of motion 381
References 382

28. Digital human modelling and ergonomic design of sleeping systems
Roberto Sironi, Carlo Emilio Standoli, Paolo Perego and Giuseppe Andreoni

1. Introduction 385
2. Design for the quality of sleep: the factors for the ergonomic design of the bed system 385
3. Sleeping postures 390
4. Analysis of weight distribution over a bed system through digital human modeling 392
5. Neutral body posture and sleeping 392
6. Conclusion 395
References 395
Further reading 396

29. Surface transitions and stair climbing and descent
Andrew S. Merryweather, Mitja Trkov and Kelton K. Gubler

1. Introduction 397
2. Surface transitions 397
2.1 Tripping 397
2.2 Indoor surface transitions 399
2.3 Outdoor surface transitions 402
2.4 Kinematics 402
3. Stair negotiation 403
3.1 Ascent 404
3.2 Descent 407
3.3 Foot clearance 409
4. Conclusion 410
References 410

30. Ingresseegress analysis for passenger vehicle design through digital human modeling
Giuseppe Andreoni and Gunther Paul

1. Introduction 415
2. Biomechanical analysis of ingress and egress and movement strategies 416
3. Human simulation and proactive ergonomics 421
4. Digital human modeling application in car ingresseegress 422
5. Conclusions and perspectives 422
References 423
Further reading 423

31. Posture prediction and physics-based human motion simulation
Rajan Bhatt, Kimberly Farrell, Karim Abdel-Malek, Jasbir Arora and Chris Murphy

1. Introduction 425
2. Digital human model 426
3. Recursive kinematics and dynamics 426
4. Optimization 428
5. Design variables 429
6. Performance measure 429
7. Joint displacement 429
8. Joint discomfort 430
9. Vision 430
10. Joint torque 432
11. Constraints 432
12. Distance 432
13. Vision 432
14. Self-avoidance 433
15. Posture prediction 434
16. External forces 435
17. Motion capture processing 435
18. Predictive dynamics 436
19. Future research 438
20. Conclusion 438
References 439

32. Three-dimensional body shape modeling and posturography
Sandra Alemany, Jordi Uriel, Alfredo Ballester and Eduardo Parrilla

1. Introduction 441
2. Body scan databases 442
2.1 Large-scale body scanning surveys 442
2.2 Body scanning standardization 444
2.3 Dynamic data sets 446
3. Body shape modeling 447
3.1 Surface registration 447
3.2 Shape analysis 448
4. Dynamic shape modeling 449
4.1 Skeleton model 449
4.2 Pose deformation model 449
5. Body shape reconstruction 450
6. Concluding remarks 452
References 454
Further reading 457

33. Adaptable digital human models from 3D body scans
Femke Danckaers, Toon Huysmans and Jan Sijbers

1. Introduction 459
2. Methods 459
2.1 Surface correspondence 460
2.2 Building a statistical shape model 461
2.3 Feature modification 462
2.4 Identity removal 462
2.5 Posture normalization 463
3. Results 463
3.1 Statistical shape model 463
3.2 Posture-normalized shape model 463
3.3 Model performancedcompactness 465
3.4 Shape prediction from features 467
4. Conclusion 469
References 470

34. Occupant comfort
Gunther Paul

1. Introduction 471
2. The role of “comfort” in ergonomics 473
3. Elements of comfort 474
4. Comfort assessment 479
5. Variability between DHM 483
6. Conclusions and perspectives 484
References 484

35. Models of the human in dynamic environments
Neil J. Mansfield

1. Introduction 487
2. Context of humans in dynamic environments 487
3. Acceleration-based models of human response to vibration and shocks 489
4. Digital models representing the biomechanical response of the human body in dynamic environments 491
5. Comfort models for humans in dynamic environments 492
6. Summary 495
References 495

Part VII
Cognition and control

36. Probabilistic reliability-physics models in aerospace human-in-the-loop (HITL) problems
Ephraim Suhir

1. Assuring aerospace missions success and safety and the role of uncertainties 499
2. Rationale behind a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) incentive 500
3. Our PRA concept is a predictive (prior) effort, and not a statistical (posterior) one 500
4. Ten PRA “commandments” 500
5. Accelerated testing in aerospace electronics engineering: FOAT versus HALT 501
6. Mental workload (MWL) 501
7. Human capacity factor (HCF) 502
8. Distributions convolution model (DCM) and its application to the HLS situation 502
9. Double-exponential-probabilitydistribution (DEPD) model and its application to the MWL and HCF interaction 507
10. Probabilistic segmentation model and its application to the assessment of an aerospace mission probability of failure 512
11. Conclusion 515
References 515

37. Modeling human cognitive behavior for system design
Frank E. Ritter

1. Introduction 517
1.1 Summary and overview of this chapter 517
1.2 Limitations 517
2. Useful features for using models of cognition in system design 518
2.1 Risk-driven spiral system development approach 518
2.2 Tools for model use 519
2.3 Model builder 519
2.4 Model (task) libraries 519
2.5 Eyes and hands 519
2.6 A way to run the model numerous times 520
2.7 Graphic and textual output displays 520
2.8 How models can be used in design 520
2.9 Summary 520
3. Types of cognitive models used in design 520
3.1 Implicit models 521
3.2 Informal models 521
3.3 Task analysis approaches 521
3.4 Light automatic models 522
3.5 Computational predictive and generative models 522
3.6 Summary 522
4. Conclusion 522
4.1 Greater usability of models 523
4.2 General connection of models to the world 523
Acknowledgments 523
References 523

Part VIII
Fields of applications

38. Task analysis – Ergonomically designed socio-technical work
processes or human-machine interfaces using digital ergonomic
tools and methods
Christiane Kamusella and Martin Schmauder

1. Digital ergonomics tool “Visibility” for the ergonomic assessment of  visuale geometric requirements in the workplace 529
1.1 Introduction 529
1.2 Design recommendations for a VDU workplace 529
1.3 Implementation of ergonomic requirements in the “Visibility” ergonomic tool 530
1.4 Sample application 532
2. Ergonomic tool “Body Forces” 536
2.1 Introduction 536
2.2 Example application for rough planning of favorable force application points for hand-arm forces 537
References 540

39. Rehabilitation
Bruno Bonneche`re and Serge Van Sint Jan

1. Introduction 541
2. The “conventional approach” 541
3. The addition of material in the treatment 542
4. The technology in rehabilitation 542
4.1 The physical agents 542
4.2 Orthoses and smart prosthesis 543
4.3 Robotics 544
4.4 Virtual reality 544
4.5 Serious games 545
5. Conclusion 546
References 546

40. Digital human modeling in aerospace
Rush Frederick Green, Thomas J. Hagale, Tamasi George, Glenn A. Hancock and Steve M. Rice

1. Introduction 549
2. History 549
2.1 Computer graphics 549
2.2 Landing signal officer to first man/second man 549
2.3 BOEMAN 550
2.4 Computerized assessment of reach 552
2.5 Other early modelsdGTI poly, layerman, undeman 552
2.6 Intergraph I/EMS (Engineering modeling system) 553
2.7 Boeing CATIA human model 553
2.8 DHMS/MDHMS/BMDHMS/BHMS 554
2.9 Transition to COTS 554
2.10 FlyThru human model 555
2.11 NASA-ames MIDAS (man-machine interface design and analysis system) 555
2.12 Safework in virtual reality 555
2.13 Integration of CAD and DHM 555
3. DHM applications in commercial airplanes 556
3.1 Flight deck 556
3.2 Maintenance and servicing 556
3.3 Manufacturing 556
3.4 Cabin 556
4. DHM applications in military aircraft and space vehicles 556
4.1 Siemens teamcenter PLM, teamcenter visualization mockup, and VisJack 556
4.2 Flight decks and cockpits 556
4.3 Maintenance and servicing 557
4.4 Applications in space vehicles 557
5. The future 557
6. Conclusion 558
References 558

41. DHM applied to ergonomic design and assessment of diagnostic ultrasound systems
Leonardo Forzoni, Carlo Emilio Standoli, Ramona De Luca and Giuseppe Andreoni

1. Introduction on ultrasound systems and work-related musculoskeletal disorders 559
2. Design guidelines of ultrasound systems 559
3. DHM and its role in designing new US system 562
4. DHM of US systems: example of US system evaluation according to the SDMS criteria with DHM 565
5. DHM in US systems design: future perspectives 566
References 567
Further reading 568

42. Task-based digital human simulation with Editor for Manual work Activities e industrial applications in product design and production planning
Lars Fritzsche, Sascha Ullmann, Sebastian Bauer and Vipin Jayan Sylaja

1. Fields of application 569
2. Example I: assembly operations with hand tools 570
3. Example II: digital planning and optimization of production layout 570
4. Example III: designing logistics processes and long cycles 571
5. Example IV: assessment and testing of process variants 571
6. Example V: humanerobot collaboration 572
7. Example VI: ergonomic design for older and partly restricted workers 572
8. Example VII: Using Motion Capturing Data for work design 573
9. Outlook and future development 574
References 575
Further reading 575

43. Medicine and the Virtual Physiological Human
Saulo Martelli, Rami Al-Dirini and Serge Van Sint Jan

1. The virtual physiological human – the origin 577
2. The virtual physiological human – the vision 577
3. The virtual physiological human – A path to a holistic medicine? 578
4. VPH-inspired modeling 579
5. VPH-inspired personalized exercise treatments 579
6. Patient-specific digital human modeling in hip replacement design evaluation 583
References 586
Further reading 589

44. Use of digital human modeling in product design
Parth Shah and Yan Luximon

1. Introduction 591
2. Stages of product design and DHM 592
2.1 Product conceptualization phase 592
2.2 3D design phase 592
2.3 Prototyping and testing phase 593
2.4 Manufacturing phase 593
3. A digital human modeling based product design example 594
4. Challenges and future scope of using DHM for product design 595
5. Conclusion 597
Acknowledgments 597
References 598

45. Clothing
Juan V. Dura´-Gil, Zorana Kozomara, Alfredo Ballester, Clara Solves-Camallonga and Ana Pierola-Orcero

1. Introduction 599
2. Avatars and fashion 599
2.1 Designing with an avatar 600
2.2 Creating for an avatar 602
2.3 Shopping with an avatar 603
3. Avatars for fashion 605
3.1 Processing of individual body scans 605
3.2 Statistical analysis of body scans 607
4. Conclusion 609
Acknowledgments 609
References 610

46. Human modeling tools for spacesuit and hardware design and assessment
K. Han Kim, Karen Young, Elizabeth Benson, Sarah Jarvis, Linh Vu, Yaritza Hernandez and Sudhakar Rajulu

1. Introduction 613
2. Anthropometry for suit design and fit 613
2.1 Apollo suit: custom fit 613
2.2 Extravehicular mobility unit: modular design based on linear dimension measurements 614
2.3 Z-2: 3D scan and print technology 616
2.4 Z-2.5: Monte-Carlo fit assessment 617
3. Body geometry changes in microgravity 619
4. Suit mechanical limit and human-in-the-loop simulation 619
5. Suited mobility assessments 621
6. Kinematics and body geometry inside the spacesuit 622
7. Conclusion 624
Acknowledgments 624
References 624

47. Individualization of digital human models for planning of human-robot collaboration
Sascha Wischniewski and Dominik Bonin

1. Introduction 627
2. Humanerobot collaboration and DHM 627
3. Data acquisition 628
3.1 Documentation and data transfer format 628
4. Workflow for the individualization of HRC tasks 630
5. Discussion 630
Acknowledgments 630
References 631

48. Anthropometric modeling in forensics
Erik D. Power, Kristen E. Lipscomb and Matthew A. Soicher

1. Introduction 633
1.1 Expert opinion in litigation 633
1.2 HumanCAD software tool 634
2. Forensic applications 635
2.1 Anthropometry 635
2.2 Body COG and balance 636
2.3 Reach Envelopes 638
2.4 Vision Cones 640
3. Conclusions 641
References 641

49. Biomechanical human models for seating discomfort assessment
Xuguang Wang, Le´o Savonnet, Ilias Theodorakos, Georges Beurier and Sonia Duprey

1. Introduction 643
2. Musculoskeletal models 643
3. Finite element human models 645
4. Data for validation 646
4.1 Contact force data from IFSTTAR experimental seat 646
4.2 Open magnetic resonance imaging 647
5. Parametric modeling 647
5.1 Personalizing and positioning musculoskeletal models 650
5.2 Parametric finite element buttock-thigh model 652
6. Concluding remarks 653
Acknowledgments 653
References 653
Further reading 656

Part IX
DHM protocols

50. Standards and norms
Masaaki Mochimaru

1. Background of international standardization 659
2. Body of work 659
2.1 ErgonomicsdISO TC 159 659
2.2 Apparel sizingdISO TC 133 659
2.3 Three-dimensional body processing – IEEE SA 660
References 661

51. DHM data exchange protocols
Markus Peters, Sascha Wischniewski and Gunther Paul

1. Introduction 663
2. Anthropometry 663
3. Scaling 664
4. Biomechanics 664
4.1 Kinematics 664
4.2 Forces 667
5. File formats 668
6. Discussion 668
7. Conclusion 669
References 669

Part X
Integrations

52. Motion analysis of work conditions using commercial depth cameras in real industrial conditions
Pierre Plantard, Hubert P.H. Shum and Franck Multon

1. Introduction 673
2. The validity of Kinect sensor for ergonomic assessment 674
3. Correction of Kinect data 676
4. Evaluation in real work conditions 678
5. Physical modeling of human motion data 680
6. Conclusion 680
References 681

53. Design smart clothing using digital human models
Sofia Scataglini, Femke Danckaers, Toon Huysmans, Jan Sijbers and Giuseppe Andreoni

1. Introduction 683
2. Functional evaluation 686
2.1 Combining accelerometer and physiological data for activity and design evaluation 686
2.2 Ergonomic and biomechanical evaluation 690
3. Conclusion 696
Acknowledgments 696
References 696

54. Integration of commercial pressure measurement technologies
Ewald M. Hennig

1. Introduction 699
2. Sensors for pressure distribution instrumentation 700
3. Relationship between pressure distribution and the perception of comfort and pain 703
4. Industrial applications for sports equipment 704
5. Clinical applications (diabetic foot, ulcer prevention, and healing) 704
6. Finite element modeling 705
7. Electronic skin in robotics 706
8. Summary and conclusion 706
References 706

55. Haptic device integration
Je´roˆme Perret

1. Introduction to haptic devices 709
2. Haptic device integration: problem statement 710
3. Introduction to rigid-body dynamics 710
4. Tactile device integration 712
5. Integration of force-feedback devices 713
6. Use cases in the manufacturing industry 716
7. Conclusion 716
References 716

Part XI
Case studies

56. Application of 3D scanning in design education
Wonsup Lee, Johan F.M. Molenbroek, Lye´ Goto, Anton H. Jellema, Yu Song and Richard H.M. Goossens

1. Ergonomic design based on 3D scanning in our education 721
1.1 Insole design 721
1.2 EXO-L, ankle protector 721
1.3 MI-TP cast 721
1.4 Customized bra 721
1.5 Helmet design 723
1.6 Anthropometry of children’s face for face mask design 724
1.7 Aerodynamic recumbent bicycle (human power team) 724
1.8 Virtual fit mapping 724
1.9 Three-dimensional hand scanner 726
2. Three-dimensional hand scanner 726
3. Processing of 3D scans for the application in product design 729
References 731

57. A virtual platform for lower limb prosthesis design and assessment
Daniele Regazzoni, Andrea Vitali, Caterina Rizzi and Giorgio Colombo

1. Introduction 733
2. Background 734
3. Three-dimensional reconstruction of human body district 734
3.1 Three-dimensional modeling of the residual lower limb 735
3.2 Simulation 736
3.3 Gait analysis 736
4. Traditional manufacturing process 737
5. Acquisition of 3D model 738
6. Socket Modeling Assistant 2 739
6.1 Patient data acquisition 739
6.2 Preliminary modeling 740
6.3 Customized modeling 740
6.4 Simulation and smart additive manufacturing 741
7. Automatic gait analysis detection 742
7.1 Motion capture acquisition 742
7.2 Gait Laboratory 743
8. Pressure data acquisition 743
9. Test and results 745
10. Conclusions 745
References 746

58. Three-dimensional scanning of the torso and breasts to inform better bra design
Deirdre E. McGhee and Julie R. Steele

1. Introduction 747
2. General considerations when scanning women 748
2.1 Which scanner should you use? 748
2.2 Who should you scan? 748
2.3 Preparing your participant for scanning: marker placement 749
2.4 The scanning process 750
2.5 Extracting measurements from the scans 753
2.6 Breast surface and volume 753
3. Potential errors in measurements extracted from three-dimensional scans 753
3.1 Errors associated with outlining the perimeter of the breast 753
3.2 Incomplete visualization of large breasts 756
3.3 Inaccuracies in chest circumference measurements 757
4. Conclusions 758
References 758

59. Building patternmaking theory to better represent the female form
Tanya Dove

1. Introduction 761
2. Sizing systems 761
3. High street sizing of clothing 762
4. Improving pattern design 763
5. Pilot tester experiment 766
6. Results 767
7. Conclusion 767
Appendix 768
References 768

60. Digital human modeling for collaborative robotics
Pauline Maurice, Vincent Padois, Yvan Measson and Philippe Bidaud

1. Introduction 771
2. Requirements of digital human simulation for collaborative robotics 772
2.1 Simulation of robot motion 772
2.2 Simulation of human motion 772
3. A novel DHM controller for humanerobot dynamic simulation 773
3.1 Linear quadratic programming controller 773
3.2 Tasks definition 774
4. Application to humanerobot simulation 774
4.1 Method 775
4.2 Results 776
5. Discussion and conclusion 778
References 778

61. Designing aircraft seats to fit the human body contour
Suzanne Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, Maxim Smulders, Joyce M.A. Bouwens and Peter Vink

1. Introduction 781
2. Method 781
2.1 Participants 781
2.2 Setup and procedure 782
2.3 Data processing 782
3. Results and application of three-dimensional scans 784
3.1 Adjustable seat pan feature for economy class seat 785
3.2 Lateral sleeping design concept for premium economy class seat 785
3.3 Full flat sleeping design concept for business class seat 785
4. Discussion and recommendations 787
5. Conclusion 788
Acknowledgments 788
References 788

62. Posture analysis in extreme sports
Francesco Feletti, Viviana Mucci and Andrea Aliverti

1. Which role for posture analysis in extreme sports? 791
2. Static posturography 792
3. Dynamic posturography 793
4. Extreme sport-specific tools and applications 794
5. Conclusions 796
References 797

63. Predicting vehicle occupant postures using statistical models
Jangwoon Park and Matthew P. Reed

1. Introduction 799
2. Driver posture models 799
3. Passenger posture models 800
4. Conclusion 802
Acknowledgments 802
References 802

Index 805

 

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