Conversation Analysis & Chatbots


Conversation analysis is the systematic study of human communication, with a focus on understanding the structure and dynamics of social interaction. It is a broad field that encompasses a variety of approaches and techniques, and it is used in a wide range of contexts, including chatbots.

In the context of chatbots, conversation analysis can be used to understand how users interact with the chatbot and to design more effective and engaging chatbot experiences. This can involve analyzing chatbot conversations to identify patterns and trends, and using this information to improve the chatbot’s ability to understand and respond to user input.

For example, conversation analysis can be used to identify common types of user input and the chatbot responses that are most effective at addressing these inputs. It can also be used to identify areas where the chatbot may be misunderstanding or misinterpreting user input, and to design strategies to address these issues.


See also:

Dialog Act & Chatbots | Discourse Analysis & Chatbots | Speech Act & Chatbots

Revisiting the DARPA communicator data using Conversation Analysis P Wallis – Interaction studies, 2008 – … Keywords: conversational machines, politeness, social norms, ethnomethodology, conversation analysis, interactive voice response, virtual characters … De Angeli and Car- penter [5] looked at logs for the Jabberwacky chat-bot [4] and found that 10% of the words used by … Cited by 8 Related articles All 4 versions Cite Save

Conversational agents in E-Learning A Kerry, R Ellis, S Bull – Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems …, 2009 – Springer … is a shortage of existing tools in the corpus language [8]. The chatbots may also … material, is provided by the conversational agent, based, like the CALMsystem chatbot, on Lingubot … generally provide a wider range of facilities (such as logging and conversation analysis), as well … Cited by 18 Related articles All 11 versions Cite Save

iAIML: a mechanism to treat intentionality in AIML chatterbots AMM Neves, FA Barros… – Tools with Artificial …, 2006 – … Here, a chatterbot implemented with standard AIML would adopt the strategy of changing the … an mechanism to treat intention in AIML chatterbots, based on the Conversational Analysis Theory. … correcting prob- lems that greatly influence the quality of dialogues with chatterbots. … Cited by 4 Related articles All 4 versions Cite Save

[BOOK] Conversational Agents and Natural Language Interaction: Techniques and Effective Practices D Perez-Marin, I Pascual-Nieto, IGI Global – 2011 – … Chapter 1. From Chatbots to Dialog Systems (pages 1-22). Tina Klüwer. This chapter provides an overview of the technologies used for chatbots on the one hand and research dialog systems on the other hand. … Sample PDF. From Chatbots to Dialog Systems. $37.50. … Cited by 8 Related articles All 3 versions Cite Save

[BOOK] Conversation in Context: what should a robot companion say? P Wallis, S Creer, S Cunningham, V Maier – 2010 – … Conversation Analysis (CA) is a methodology with a strong commitment to naturally occurring data and the ethnomethodological variants have strong links with … For chat-bots, its swearing. … This is not an issue for a chat-bot on a website or a system set up for experiments in a … Cited by 5 Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save More

[BOOK] Spoken dialogue technology: Towards the conversational user interface M McTear – 2004 – Page 1. SPOKEN DIALOGUE TECHNOLOGY Toward the Conversational User Interface 4y Spring Page 2. Page 3. Spoken Dialogue Technology Thl so Page 4. Springer London Berlin Heidelberg New York Hong Kong Milan Paris Tokyo Page 5. … Cited by 259 Related articles All 4 versions Cite Save

Towards Computational Models for a Long-term Interaction with an Artificial Conversational Companion. S Danilava, S Busemann, C Schommer, G Ziegler – ICAART (1), 2013 – … The idea to use conversational agents (chatbots) in second language (?2) acquisition is long of inter- est (Kerly et al … Conversational analysis usually is performed in three steps (cf … CSIEC: A computer assisted english learn- ing chatbot based on textual knowledge and reasoning … Cited by 2 Related articles All 5 versions Cite Save More

A semantic architecture for artificial conversations C Chakrabarti, GF Luger – Soft Computing and Intelligent …, 2012 – … Chatter Bot: Have you taken CS 151? Student: Yes. ChatterBot: Have you taken CS 251? … Conversation Transcript 3: Conversation between our chatter bot and a student trying to resolve a registration issue. … 34, pp. 227–258, 2002. [15] G. GoldKuhl, “Conversational analysis as a … Cited by 2 Related articles All 8 versions Cite Save

Humans and bots in internet chat: measurement, analysis, and automated classification S Gianvecchio, M Xie, Z Wu, H Wang – IEEE/ACM Transactions on …, 2011 – … C. Conversation Analysis In this section, we introduce a metric that estimates how often humans respond to bots in chat. … The main task of the entropy classifier is to capture new chat bots and add them to the chat bot corpus. … Cited by 9 Related articles All 12 versions Cite Save

A Framework for Simulating and Evaluating Artificial Chatter Bot Conversations. C Chakrabarti, GF Luger – FLAIRS Conference, 2013 – … ChatterBot: The Intermediate Plan 2 account is best suited to your requirements. … chatter bot, and seman- tic control techniques using conversation strategies to enable the chatter bot to engage … Conversational analysis as a theoreti- cal foundation for language action aproaches … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save

Semi-supervised algorithm for human-computer dialogue mining CS Montero, K Araki – TextGraphs-2: Graph-Based Algorithms for …, 2007 – … 2 Human-Computer Conversation Analysis Approach During the process of dialogue mining, in order to … vague reply] Two non native English speaker users ranked the enhanced chatbot as having … The third non native En- glish speaker user ranked both chatbots as “poor” due … Cited by 1 Related articles All 8 versions Cite Save More

Data and Text Mining of Communication Patterns for Game Bot Detection AR Kang, J Woo, HK Kim – … of the 3th International Conference on …, 2011 – … 3]. Shanmugasundram Hariharan studies gender identification of the chatters with chat conversation analysis [4]. Steven Gianvecchio et al. analyze behavior patterns of both human and chatbot during real world chat sessions [5]. They distinguish chatbots from humans and … Cited by 2 Related articles Cite Save More

Artificial Intelligence MArkup Language: A Brief Tutorial MGB Marietto, RV de Aguiar, GO Barbosa… – arXiv preprint arXiv: …, 2013 – … And in this sequence the dialogue carries on [6]. The language AIML is used to the development of chatterbots’KB, if the chatterbot adopts the Pattern Recognition technique. The ALICE was the first chatterbot with an AIML language implemented KB. … Cited by 1 Related articles All 6 versions Cite Save

A robot in the kitchen P Wallis – Proceedings of the 2010 workshop on companionable …, 2010 – … This was primarily motivated by the observation that successful NLP technologies such as chatbots and information ex- traction … If you use a chatbot, or trial a demo, you neces- sarily attend to the artifact. … Revisiting the DARPA communi- cator data using Conversation Analysis. … Cited by 10 Related articles All 8 versions Cite Save

Artificial Conversational Companions. S Danilava – AAAI, 2013 – … I use a data-driven approach and conversation analysis methods to build computational models … The resulting models will be integrated in an AIML-based chatbot that helps … in second language acquisition domain (SLA) was investigated using modified chatbots for conversation … Related articles All 4 versions Cite Save

Enriching Chatter Bots With Semantic Conversation Control. C Chakrabarti – AAAI, 2012 – … But communication with these chatter bots takes the form of successive question-answer pairs … The performance of my chatter bot is evaluated according to Grice’s maxims of cooperation (Grice … Conversation Analysis as a Theoretical Foundation for Language Action Approaches … Related articles All 6 versions Cite Save

Why are you Silent?-Towards Responsiveness in Chatbots S Danilava, S Busemann, C Schommer… – Avec le Temps! Time, …, 2013 – … To appear. [3] J. Jia. CSIEC: A computer assisted english learning chatbot based on textual knowledge and reasoning. … [5] Chatbots directory. … [7] EA Schegloff. Sequence Organization in Interaction: Volume 1: A Primer in Conversation Analysis. … Related articles All 3 versions Cite Save

A Modular Framework for Versatile Conversational Agent Building A Augello, M Scriminaci, S Gaglio… – Complex, Intelligent and …, 2011 – … point of view, exploring principles of Conversational Analysis Theory (CAT) and different limits are highlighted. … The web-based architecture for modular smart chatbots is shown in Figure 1. In order to obtain a modular Web architecture we … User: Thanks Chatbot: Don’t mention it. … Related articles All 4 versions Cite Save

Chatbots as Interface to Ontologies A Augello, G Pilato, G Vassallo, S Gaglio – Advances onto the Internet of …, 2014 – Springer … where rules to treat intentional information have been added to Aiml KB, exploiting the Conversational Analysis Theory (CAT … Afterwards, an intuitive component has been added to the chatbot KB, exploiting the associative properties deriving … Chatbots as Interface to Ontologies … Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save

Technologies in use for second language learning M Levy – The Modern Language Journal, 2009 – Wiley Online Library … A chatterbot (or chatbot) is a type of computer program designed to simulate a conversation with one or more human users via auditory or textual methods. Some chatbots interact only via text, whereas more ambitious chatbot interfaces utilise voice recognition and … Cited by 121 Related articles All 10 versions Cite Save

Dialogue Act Classification Exploiting Lexical Semantics N Novielli, C Strapparava – Conversational Agents and Natural …, 2011 – … act annotation of human-ECA (Embodied Conversational Agent) interactions may be used as a preliminary step in conversational analysis for modeling … Chapter 1. From Chatbots to Dialog Systems (pages 1-22). Tina Klüwer. This chapter provides an overview of the technologies … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save

Designing an interactive open-domain question answering system S Quarteroni, S Manandhar – Natural Language Engineering, 2009 – Cambridge Univ Press … According to conversation analysis, a conversation is modelled as turns or pairs of utterances, often … I am ALICE, nice to meet you! Designed for chatting, chatbot dialogue appears … Moreover, since chatbots support a limited notion of context, they offer the means to … Cited by 43 Related articles All 8 versions Cite Save

Closing and closure in human-companion interactions: analyzing video data from a field study S Payr – RO-MAN, 2010 IEEE, 2010 – … and in that the system was intended to render real service to the user (as contrasted with toy robots or chatbots). … Its roots lie in ethnography (especially participant observation), sociolinguistics, ethnomethodology, conversation analysis, kinesics, proxemics, and ethology [12]. … Cited by 4 Related articles All 5 versions Cite Save

[BOOK] Conversational informatics: an engineering approach T Nishida – 2008 – … engineering approach / edited by Toyoaki Nishida. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-0-470-02699-1 (cloth) 1. Conversation analysis. 2. Conversation analysis–Data processing. 3. Communication models. I. Title P95.45.N575 2007 … Cited by 21 Related articles All 3 versions Cite Save

Avatars Go to Law School: Digital Standardized (And Not So Standard) Clients for Law School Teaching A Zariski – 2010 – … Jia, Jiyou. 2009. CSIEC: A Computer-Assisted English Learning Chatbot Based on Textual … 2007. Bringing Chatbots into Education: Towards Natural Language Negotiation of Open Learner Models. … 2008. Was it Good for You Too? Conversation Analysis of Two Interviews. … Related articles All 5 versions Cite Save

Evolutionary trajectories, Internet-mediated expression, and language education SL Thorne, JS Payne – CALICO journal, 2005 – … discourse analysis Page 6. 376 CALICO Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Herring, 2001) and conversation analysis (Thorne, 2000), form a foundation for the continued development of analytic tools to support L2 CMC research. We conclude … Cited by 229 Related articles All 16 versions Cite Save

Discursive psychology and educational technology: beyond the cognitive revolution N Friesen – Mind, Culture, and Activity, 2009 – Taylor & Francis … natural language interfaces or artificially intelligent interlocutors, often referred to as chatbots or intelligent … by examining a particular example of talk-in-action, using conversational analysis techniques as … in part, to underlie the development and design of EllaZ, a chatbot that has … Cited by 2 Related articles All 6 versions Cite Save

Capturing the Implicit–an iterative approach to enculturing artificial agents P Wallis, B Edmonds – … often swear at them [1]. When someone swears at a carefully crafted chat-bot, the human … a conversation between a doctor and a patient taken from the Conversation Analysis literature … This func- tionalist model of sameness applies to everything from chatbots in which something … Related articles All 4 versions Cite Save More

Challenging assumptions: Using sliding window visualizations to reveal time-based irregularities in CSCL processes G Dyke, R Kumar, H Ai, CP Rosé – Proceedings of the 10th …, 2012 – … Methods adapted from Conversational Analysis (eg Suthers, Dwyer, Medina, & Vatrapu, 2010) have had the opposite problem, with their costliness in … This research was conducted to investigate how conversational agents (chatbots) can be used, not only to script the content of … Cited by 7 Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save More

Self-Organization in Human-Human Conversation Applied to the Generation of Phrases for Human-Machine Dialogue CAS Montero – 2007 – … guage generation in order to retrieve system responses. However, hand- crafting a dialogue corpus is a costly process, eg the ALICE chatbot database (ALICE brain) took over 10 years of work to accomplish1 while the Jabberwacky database is being developed since 19882. … Related articles Cite Save More

New trends in using technology in the language curriculum RJ Blake – Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 2007 – Cambridge Univ Press … Increasingly, researchers have turned to conversational analysis as a framework to examine student … feedback to L2 student responses are represented by programs known as chatterbots. Fryer and Carpenter (2006) described how chatterbot programs can give the appearance … Cited by 44 Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save

From data to design P Wallis – Applied Artificial Intelligence, 2011 – Taylor & Francis … From chatbots and Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA) on the Web, through synthetic characters in computer games, and virtual … Revisiting the DARPA communicator data using Conversation Analysis . … 2001 . The unfriendly user: Exploring social reactions to chatterbots . … Cited by 5 Related articles All 5 versions Cite Save

Literacy practices in Schome Park: a virtual literacy ethnography J Gillen – Journal of Research in Reading, 2009 – Wiley Online Library … event and therefore lending itself to a situated approach within an ethnographic stance as opposed to, for example, a Conversation Analysis textual analysis in … Similarly the other entries shown here feature in-group humour, with only chatbot beginning with an actual definition. … Cited by 41 Related articles All 21 versions Cite Save

Socially situated affective systems S Payr, P Wallis – Emotion-Oriented Systems, 2011 – Springer … up Language), initially used to write dialogue instructions for the ALICE chatbot and subsequently … who blended insights and tools from anthropology, linguistics, pragmatics, and conversation analysis into an … pp 305–317. De Angeli A (2006) On verbal abuse towards chatterbots. … Cited by 4 Related articles All 3 versions Cite Save

[BOOK] Voice interaction design: crafting the new conversational speech systems RA Harris – 2004 – … programs of a variety of overlapping and interpenetrating fields: human–computer interaction, conversational analysis, philosophy of language, cognitive psychology, social psychology, computational linguistics, rhetoric, technical communica- tion, chatterbot theory, and … Cited by 49 Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save

Teaching Foreign Language Conversation: A Conversation Norms Approach R Donaldson – 2011 – … match the rules of the written variation led people to dismiss oral language as ‘wrong.’ With the growing popularity of Conversation Analysis and Discourse Analysis (both … conversation analysis and corpus linguistics data, instructors using the Conversation … Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save

The Intentional Interface P Wallis – Proceedings of the Workshop on Computers as Social …, 2013 – … Conversation Analysis [20, 21,14] (CA) is a methodology that enables researchers to notice the detail of language in use and the … made is that the essence of “human-like” interfaces — from embodied conversational agents to robot companions through chat-bots to speech … Cited by 1 Related articles Cite Save More

SLRoute: Learning Spanish in immersive environments through the Way of St. James CM Lorenzo, L Lezcano, C Vecino… – … in Education (SIIE), …, 2012 – … the AIML17 language (Artificial Intelligence Mark-up Language) has been used in combination with chatbots hosted in … Figure 3. Avatar to chatbot interaction … storage, media interaction and integration, on top of which the modules for sequencing, conversation analysis and social … Related articles Cite Save

Towards identifying unresolved discussions in student online forums J Kim, JH Kang – Applied Intelligence, 2014 – Springer … without an answer. 2.1 Forum speech acts: identifying roles that a message plays For conversation analysis, we adopted the theory of Speech Acts (SAs) to capture relations between messages [2, 25]. We define Forum Speech … Cited by 5 Related articles All 11 versions Cite Save

Discourse-based modeling for AAC M Mitchell, R Sproat – Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Speech …, 2012 – … Finally we compare our approach to a state-of-the-art chatbot, and show (not surprisingly) that a sys- tem like ours … Findings from conversational analysis suggest a number of utterances common to conversation, including short conversational openers and closers (hello, goodbye … Cited by 1 Related articles All 7 versions Cite Save

Interactive Question Answering N Konstantinova, C Orasan – Emerging Applications of Natural …, 2013 – … Early versions of dialogue systems were referred to as chatterbots or chatbots (Mauldin, 1994 … All these properties of dialogues are studied by “conversational analysis” (Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson, 1974), a … of the authors with an online version of Eliza, a chatbot that behaves … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save More

[BOOK] Conversational interfaces for task-oriented spoken dialogues: design aspects influencing interaction quality AI Niculescu – 2011 – … 12 2.2.1 Conversational Analysis . . . . . 12 2.2.2 Pragmatics . . . . . … Section 2.2. will review ap- proaches to spoken discourse including conversational analysis, pragmatics, speech act theory and dynamic interpretation theory. … Related articles All 3 versions Cite Save

Language learning in mindbodyworld: A sociocognitive approach to second language acquisition D Atkinson – Language Teaching, 2013 – Cambridge Univ Press … As cooperative conversationalists, then, these chatbots don’t seem wildly successful. … Compared to the chatbot conversation shown earlier, interaction in this sense is like a … a certain amount of alignment if you aren’t familiar with conversation analysis transcription conventions … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save

Natural language and dialogue interfaces K Jokinen – The Universal Access Handbook,, 2009 – … 11 other hand, in linguistic anthropology and conversation analysis, Gumperz and Hymes (1972) … research projects concern, eg, how to make communication with the house a reality, while chatbots and conversational avatars have been introduced as future web surfing method. … Cited by 7 Related articles Cite Save More

The Body in Communication J Cassell – Gesture and the Dynamic Dimension of Language: …, 2007 – … As a point of contrast, consider chat bots or chatterbots. … Chat bots often communicate with viewers only through text, but when embodied, generally they only have a head, and … It led me back to the fields of conversational analysis and ethnomethodology (not a part of the McNeill … Related articles Cite Save

Comparing Human-to-Human and Human-to-AEA Communication in Service Encounters N Salomonson, J Allwood, M Lind… – Journal of Business …, 2012 – … lists 822 (September 24, 2011) artificial agents throughout the world. … the theory of activity-based communication analysis (ACA), which, we believe, in comparison with many other approaches used in earlier studies (for instance, conversational analysis to analyze … Cited by 4 Related articles All 5 versions Cite Save

Automatic intention recognition in conversation processing T Holtgraves – Journal of Memory and Language, 2008 – Elsevier A fundamental assumption of many theories of conversation is that comprehension of a speaker’s utterance involves recognition of the speaker’s intention in. Cited by 27 Related articles All 6 versions Cite Save

Virtual butlers and real people: styles and practices in long-term use of a companion S Payr – Your Virtual Butler, 2013 – Springer Page 1. R. Trappl (Ed.): Your Virtual Butler, LNAI 7407, pp. 134–178, 2013. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 Virtual Butlers and Real People: Styles and Practices in Long-Term Use of a Companion Sabine Payr Austrian … Related articles All 3 versions Cite Save

Embodiment and expressive communication on the Internet E Oberzaucher, K Grammer… – Face-to-Face …, 2011 – … The social preoccupation of the human brain might also explain the success of Web 2.0, which is a social networking tool for creating online communities and sharing social information. The same is true of the existence of chatterbots and virtual agents, which try to exploit users. … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save

Toward an ecological CALL: Update to Garrett (1991) BA Lafford – The Modern Language Journal, 2009 – Wiley Online Library … of analysis is often evidenced by the use of longitudinal, descriptive, and interpretive work (eg, ethnographies) in which conversation analysis and discourse … such as Media Player that manipulate the speed and repetition of key segments of aural texts; and chatterbots that serve … Cited by 20 Related articles All 6 versions Cite Save

The Grasp Analyzer JP Sansonnet – … 9 Page 10. Linguistic domains and related approaches – Chatbots – Dialogue systems Text-based approaches Assisting agents: The Daft corpus covers the domain of the ‘Function of Assistance’ Conversation analysis Natural language as a ‘syntactical system’: … Related articles All 3 versions Cite Save More

Advanced Techniques for Personalized, Interactive Question Answering S Quarteroni – 2007 – … 164 Page 7. 5.3.3 Discussion . . . . . 166 5.3.4 Chatbot-based Interactive Question Answering . . . . . 167 5.4 AWizard-of-OzExperiment . . . . . 172 5.4.1 Design . . . . . 172 5.4.2 Results . . . . . … Cited by 6 Related articles All 10 versions Cite Save More

[BOOK] Re-thinking e-learning research: Foundations, methods, and practices N Friesen – 2009 – … The critique of cognitivism and the introduction to conversational analysis and discursive psychology in this book benefitted from the advice of WM Roth, and from guidance provided by psychologists Jack Martin, Tom Strong, and Henderikus Stam. … Cited by 55 Related articles All 17 versions Cite Save

Multimodal backchannel generation for conversational agents D Heylen – 2007 – … Artificial Listener In the Sensitive Artificial Listening Agent project, we are attempting to build semi-autonomous embodied chat-bots as part of … or similar phenomena with a different name such as response tokens, have been studied in the conversational analysis literature, for … Cited by 9 Related articles All 14 versions Cite Save

[BOOK] Constructive dialogue modelling: speech interaction and rational agents K Jokinen – 2009 – Page 1. Page 2. CONSTRUCTIVE DIALOGUE MODELLING SPEECH INTERACTION AND RATIONAL AGENTS Kristiina Jokinen University of Helsinki, Finland A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication Page 3. Page 4. CONSTRUCTIVE … Cited by 25 Related articles All 5 versions Cite Save

Otros portales de tesis C Varga – … analysed within the Page 24. 8 Cristina VARGA Theoretical Framework Of The Conversation Analysis (Catherine Kerbrat- Orecchioni, Veronique Traverso). Chapter seven represents the analytic part of the present work. The first part … Related articles Cite Save

Companions, Virtual Butlers, Assistive Robots: Empirical and Theoretical Insights for Building Long-Term Social Relationships. D Heylen, B Krenn, S Payr – 2010 – … brainwaves are involved. In Conversation Analysis, such phenomena have been studied under the heading of “alignment” [Bateman 2006, Branigan 2006], but the subtleties cannot be detected with its methods. Instrumental analyses … All 3 versions Cite Save

Action Research on the Effects of an Innovative Use of CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) on the Listening and Speaking Abilities of Chinese University … LIU Xianghu – 2013 – Page 1. Action Research on the Effects of an Innovative Use of CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) on the Listening and Speaking Abilities of Chinese University Intermediate Level English Students Submitted by Xianghu LIU To the University of Exeter … Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save

Meetings in Smart Environments: Implications of Progressing Technologies R Rienks – 2007 – … The assessment of higher-level, and more semantic, knowledge of a meeting is a broad research domain influenced on the one hand by the more sociologically oriented strains in group dynamics and conversation analysis (Bales et al., 1951; Sachs et al., 1974; McGrath, 1984 … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions Cite Save More

A Topical Bibliography on Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). F Kilickaya – Online Submission, 2009 – ERIC Page 1. A Topical Bibliography on Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Ferit KILIÇKAYA September 5, 2009 Page 2. 1 | Page A Topical Bibliography on Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Ferit KILIÇKAYA Middle East Technical University … Cited by 1 Related articles Cite Save

Interacting with embodied conversational agents E André, C Pelachaud – Speech technology, 2010 – Springer … based chat robot that works similar to Weizenbaum’s early Eliza system [ 4 ]. A collection of web-based chatter bots may be … an interdisciplinary effort that may greatly benefit from models developed in the cognitive sciences, social psychology, conversational analysis and many … Cited by 28 Related articles All 4 versions Cite Save

IEnglish Language E Keizer, M Albakry, J Van De Weijer, B Los… – The Year’s Work in …, 2007 – English Assoc … procedural and content-oriented). In chapter 12, Hansung Zhang Waring provides a Conversation Analysis investigation of some interesting ‘other-initiations’ of repair in graduate classroom discussion. What made these initiations … All 7 versions Cite Save