A metagrammar is a formal grammar that specifies the structure and rules of a language for describing the grammars of other languages. It is used to define the syntax and semantics of a language for the purpose of constructing parsers and interpreters for that language.
A metagrammar consists of a set of rules, or productions, that define the structure of the language being described. These rules specify the way in which the different elements of the language can be combined to form valid sentences or phrases. For example, a metagrammar might specify that a sentence in a particular language must consist of a subject, a verb, and an object, and that the subject and object must be noun phrases.
Metagrammars are used in the field of computational linguistics to design and implement programming languages, as well as to analyze and understand the structure of natural languages. They can also be used to define the syntax and semantics of formal languages used in logic and mathematics.
Metagrammars can be used to specify the structure of the language that is used in a dialog system. A dialog system is a computer program that is designed to simulate conversation with human users, either through text-based or spoken interactions. Dialog systems are often used in natural language processing (NLP) applications, such as chatbots, virtual assistants, and conversational agents.
In order to effectively communicate with users, a dialog system must be able to understand and generate natural language. To do this, it must be able to parse the input language and generate appropriate responses. A metagrammar can be used to define the structure of the input language and to specify the rules for generating valid responses.
For example, a metagrammar might specify that a valid input sentence in a dialog system must consist of a verb, a subject, and an object, and that the subject and object must be noun phrases. The metagrammar would also specify the rules for generating appropriate responses based on the input sentence. For example, if the input sentence is a question, the metagrammar might specify that the response should be a statement that answers the question.
- sourcesup.renater.fr/xmg/SemTAG .. a grammar development environment for Tree Adjoining Grammars
- sourcesup.cru.fr/xmg .. eXtensible MetaGrammar is a tool for designing large scaled grammars for natural language
- PATR-II .. a linguistic formalism used in computational linguistics
Metagrammar redux B Crabbé, D Duchier – Constraint Solving and Language Processing, 2005 – Springer Abstract In this paper we introduce a general framework for describing the lexicon of a lexicalised grammar by means of elementary descriptive fragments. The system described hereafter consists of two main components: a control device aimed at controlling how … Cited by 47 Related articles All 24 versions
The metagrammar compiler: An nlp application with a multi-paradigm architecture D Duchier, J Le Roux, Y Parmentier – Multiparadigm Programming in …, 2005 – Springer Abstract The concept of metagrammar has been introduced to factorize information contained in a grammar. A metagrammar compiler can then be used to compute an actual grammar from a metagrammar. In this paper, we present a new metagrammar compiler … Cited by 45 Related articles All 21 versions
From metagrammars to factorized TAG/TIG parsers EV de La Clergerie – Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on …, 2005 – dl.acm.org … From Metagrammars to Factorized TAG/TIG Parsers … Abstract This document shows how the factorized syntactic descriptions provided by Meta- Grammars coupled with factorization op- erators may be used to derive compact large coverage tree adjoining grammars. … Cited by 33 Related articles All 9 versions
The metagrammar goes multilingual: A cross-linguistic look at the V2-phenomenon A Kinyon, O Rambow, T Scheffler, SW Yoon… – Proceedings of the …, 2006 – dl.acm.org Abstract We present an initial investigation into the use of a metagrammar for explicitly sharing abstract grammatical specifications among languages. We define a single class hierarchy for a metagrammar which allows us to automatically generate grammars for … Cited by 16 Related articles All 6 versions
mGGA: The meta-grammar genetic algorithm M O’Neill, A Brabazon – Genetic Programming, 2005 – Springer Abstract A novel Grammatical Genetic Algorithm, the meta-Grammar Genetic Algorithm (mGGA) is presented. The mGGA borrows a grammatical representation and the ideas of modularity and reuse from Genetic Programming, and in particular an evolvable grammar … Cited by 29 Related articles All 11 versions
New meta-grammar constructs in czech language parser synt A Horák, V Kadlec – Text, Speech and Dialogue, 2005 – Springer Abstract In this paper, we present and summarize the latest development of the Czech sentence parsing system synt. The presented system uses the meta-grammar formalism, which enables to define the grammar with a maintainable number of meta-rules. At the … Cited by 26 Related articles All 9 versions
Meta-grammar constant creation with grammatical evolution by grammatical evolution I Dempsey, M O’Neill, A Brabazon – … of the 7th annual conference on …, 2005 – dl.acm.org Abstract This study examines the utility of meta-grammar constant generation on a series of benchmark problems. The performance of the meta-grammar approach is compared to a grammar which incorporates grammatical ephemeral random constants, digit … Cited by 14 Related articles All 13 versions
Describing morphologically-rich languages using metagrammars: A look at verbs in Ikota D Duchier, BM Ekoukou, Y Parmentier… – … for Normalisation of …, 2012 – tshwanedje.com Abstract In this paper, we show how the concept of metagrammar originally introduced by Candito (1996) to design large Tree-Adjoining Grammars describing the syntax of French and Italian, can be used to describe the morphology of Ikota, a Bantu language spoken in … Cited by 8 Related articles All 11 versions
A constraint driven metagrammar J Le Roux, B Crabbé, Y Parmentier – Proceedings of the Eighth …, 2006 – dl.acm.org Abstract We present an operational framework allowing to express a large scale Tree Adjoining Grammar (tag) by using higher level operational constraints on tree descriptions. These constraints first meant to guarantee the well formedness of the grammatical units … Cited by 6 Related articles All 13 versions
XMG: eXtensible MetaGrammar B Crabbé, D Duchier, C Gardent, J Le Roux… – Computational …, 2013 – MIT Press Computational Linguistics Volume 39, Number 3 unification-based compositional semantics. This illustrates both how XMG facilitates the modeling of the tree fragment hierarchies required to specify tree-based grammars and of a syntax/semantics interface between … Cited by 8 Related articles All 16 versions
Xmg: Extending metagrammars to mctag Y Parmentier, L Kallmeyer, T Lichte, W Maier – Atelier sur les formalismes …, 2007 – hal.inria.fr Résumé: In this paper, we introduce an extension of the XMG system (eXtensible MetaGrammar) in order to allow for the description of Multi-Component Tree Adjoining Grammars. In particular, we introduce the XMG formalism and its implementation, and … Cited by 5 Related articles All 15 versions
Metagrammar engineering: Towards systematic exploration of implemented grammars A Fokkens – Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the …, 2011 – dl.acm.org Abstract When designing grammars of natural language, typically, more than one formal analysis can account for a given phenomenon. Moreover, because analyses interact, the choices made by the engineer influence the possibilities available in further grammar … Cited by 6 Related articles All 7 versions
Grammatical bias and building blocks in meta-grammar grammatical evolution E Hemberg, M O’Neill… – … Computation, 2008. CEC …, 2008 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Grammar approach to Grammatical Evolution (GE). Rather than employing a fixed grammar as is the case with canonical GE, under a meta Grammar approach the grammar that is used to specify the construction of a syntactically correct solution is itself allowed to evolve. The … Cited by 8 Related articles All 7 versions
Building factorized TAGs with meta-grammars EV de La Clergerie – The 10th International Conference on Tree …, 2010 – hal.inria.fr Résumé: Highly compacted TAGs may be built by allowing subtree factorization operators within the elementary trees. While hand-crafting such trees remains possible, a better option arises from a coupling with meta-grammar descriptions. The approach has been validated … Cited by 7 Related articles All 5 versions
Positioning as a Metagrammar for Discursive Story Lines R Harré – Telling Stories: Language, Narrative, and Social Life, 2010 – books.google.com POSITIONING THEORY is the most recent in a long-running sequence of efforts to try to make social psychology more scientifically respectable—that is, to make methods of inquiry and theoretical models conform to the nature of the phenomena of interest, namely, … Cited by 4 Related articles
Platform for Full-Syntax Grammar Development Using Meta-grammar Constructs A Horák, V Kadlec – Proceedings of the 20th Pacific Asia …, 2006 – nlp.fi.muni.cz Abstract. This paper describes a combination of tools necessary for full or deep syntactic parsing of natural language–the syntactic parser synt, the graphical Grammar Development Workbench, GDW and the VerbaLex verb valency lexicon tools. Cited by 5 Related articles All 7 versions
Using a meta-grammar for LTAG Korean grammar SW Yoon – Proceedings of TAG, 2004 – cs.rutgers.edu Abstract Generating elementary trees for wide-coverage Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammars (LTAG) is one of the great concerns in the TAG project. We know that the Korean LTAG developed in (Han C.-H. et al., 2000) was not sufficient to handle various syntactic … Cited by 3 Related articles All 2 versions
Metagrammars: a new implementation for FTAG S Barrier, N Barrier – Actes du colloque TAG, 2004 – cs.rutgers.edu Abstract This paper describes work on creating elementary trees for adjective and predicative noun families (Barrier, 2002; Barrier and Barrier, 2003) using Metagrammars, for the FTAG grammar (Abeillé, 1991; Abeillé, 2002). Based on the Candito’s work on … Cited by 2 Related articles All 2 versions
Describing Sao Tomense Using a Tree-Adjoining Meta-Grammar E Schang, D Duchier, BM Ekoukou… – … Workshop on Tree …, 2012 – halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr Abstract In this paper, we show how the interactions between the tense, aspect and mood preverbal markers in Sao Tomense can be formally and concisely described at an abstract level, using the concept of projection. More precisely, we show how to encode the different … Cited by 2 Related articles All 6 versions
Specific Cases of Attributive Metagrammars Application in Formal Structural-Linguistic Description of Alternate Designs and in Layout Programming of Extensible … OI Atakishchev, AA Zhuk… – … and Radio Engineering, 2005 – dl.begellhouse.com ABSTRACT The authors suggest applying the apparatus of the attributive ordinary and graph metagrammars theory for formal structural-linguistic description of alternate designs and in layout programming of extensible telecommunication networks. Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions
A Parallel Metagrammar for Closely Related Languages–A Case Study of Czech and Russian P Smrž – Research on Language and Computation, 2005 – Springer Abstract This paper presents our work on parallel grammars for Czech and Russian. As both languages belong to the Slavic language group it has been possible to employ the same syntactic analyzer based on the notion of metagrammar. Our metagrammar, first … Cited by 1 Related articles All 5 versions
eXtensible MetaGrammar: a modular tool for grammar engineering S Petitjean – Workshop on High-level Methodologies for Grammar … – univ-orleans.fr Designing and maintaining a large scale formal grammar is a long and complex task, because it means manipulating and checking thousands of structures. XMG  is a compiler inspired by the concept of MetaGrammar  created to address this issue. The idea … Related articles All 2 versions
Particularities in Application of Stochastic Metagrammars for Modeling the States of Digital Channels of Communication During Retrieval of Documentary Messages OI Atakishchev, BV Klujkov – Telecommunications and Radio …, 2004 – dl.begellhouse.com ABSTRACT The analysis of main particularities in application of stochastical metagrammars for modeling the states of digital channels of communication during retrieval of documentary messages is carried out. The metagrammars with the extended set of rules of matching … Related articles All 2 versions
Formal Properties of Attributive Grammars. Application of Attributive Metagrammars in Formal Structural-Linguistic Description of Alternate Designs of … OI Atakishchev, AA Zhuk, BV Klujkov… – Telecommunications …, 2005 – dl.begellhouse.com ABSTRACT In this part we will consider formal properties and particular application cases of the suggested subclasses of attributive grammars for structural-parametric description of alternate designs and layout programming for telecommunication networks with … Related articles All 2 versions
SlaviCLIMB: Combining expertise for Slavic grammar development using a metagrammar A Fokkens, T Avgustinova – Workshop on High-level Methodologies for … – univ-orleans.fr Abstract. We present the initial steps and outlook of Slaviclimb, the dynamic component of an effort to develop grammatical resources for Slavic languages around a shared core grammar. The requirements of this component are:(i) it should provide a platform for … Related articles All 5 versions
A possible prolegomena to a metagrammar of genes and language P Guddemi – Cybernetics & Human Knowing, 2006 – ingentaconnect.com A review of The Grammar of Genes: How the Genetic Code Resembles the Linguistic Code by Angel López-García. Published in 2005 as Volume 6 in the series European Semiotics: Language, Cognition, and Culture, edited by Per Aage Brandt, Wolfgang Wildgen, and … Related articles
XMG: A Modular MetaGrammar Compiler S Petitjean – Pristine Perspectives on Logic, Language, and …, 2014 – Springer Abstract XMG (eXtensible MetaGrammar) is a metagrammar compiler which has already been used for the design of large scale Tree Adjoining Grammars and Interaction Grammars. Due to the heterogeneity in the field of grammar development (different …
A Broadly Applicable and Flexible Conceptual Metagrammar as a Basic Tool for Developing a Multilingual Semantic Web VA Fomichov – Natural Language Processing and Information Systems, 2013 – Springer Abstract The paperformulates the problem of constructing a broadly applicable and flexible Conceptual Metagrammar (CM). It is to be a collection of the rules enabling us to construct step by step a semantic representation (or text meaning representation) of practically … Cited by 1 Related articles All 4 versions
Metagrammars and Particularities in their Application to Formal Description of Signals and Protocols OI Atakishchev – Telecommunications and Radio Engineering, 2004 – dl.begellhouse.com ABSTRACT Principal particularities are considered for application of apparatus of metagrammars theory to formal standard description of signals and protocols being recognized. Elements are described of metagrammars that specify syntactic structure of … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions
Describing Music with MetaGrammars S Petitjean – Constraint Solving and Language Processing, 2013 – Springer Abstract This paper aims to show that metagrammars are not only suited for the development of large scale grammars for natural languages, but can also deal with other types of resources. We give the example of some elementary music phenomena, that can … Related articles All 7 versions
A Metagrammar for Vietnamese LTAG LH Ph??ng, NTM Huy?n, A Roussanaly – hal.inria.fr Abstract We present in this paper an initial investigation into the use of a metagrammar for explicitly sharing abstract grammatical specifications for the Vietnamese language. We first introduce the essential syntactic mechanisms of the Vietnamese language. We then show … Related articles All 6 versions
Performance Enhancement of Metaframeworks Through Metagrammars SN Beevi, D Chitraprasad, SSV Chandra – 2013 – confianzit.org Abstract. This paper describes techniques for improving the performance of meta framework developed by combining C++ and Java language segments. Augmented versions of existing languages can be developed by combining good properties of those languages. It … Related articles
A metagrammar for French predicative nouns developed and tested through tree adjoining grammar formalism S Barrier – Lingvisticæ Investigationes, 2007 – ingentaconnect.com In the study we describe in our thesis, we analyze «verb (+ preposition)+ noun» or «noun+ verb» French combinations, known as support verb patterns (also known as light verb patterns in English). The grammar we describe is intended to comply not only with tree … All 4 versions
Wittgenstein’s Legacy: Metagrammar, Meaning, and Ordinary Language D Herman – Postmodern Culture, 2006 – muse.jhu.edu 1. Ambitious in scope, richly integrative, and extensively researched, this study demonstrates its author’s familiarity with ideas from multiple fields of inquiry, including classical as well as modern rhetoric, critical theory, philosophy, and literary modernism. … Related articles All 2 versions
A Metagrammar for Vietnamese LTAG HP Le, TMH Nguyen… – … Workshop on Tree …, 2008 – hal.archives-ouvertes.fr Abstract We present in this paper an initial investigation into the use of a metagrammar for explicitly sharing abstract grammatical specifications for the Vietnamese language. We first introduce the essential syntactic mechanisms of the Vietnamese language. We then show … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions
Features Of Application Meta-Grammar For The Formal Description Of Protocols To Transfer Data In Grid System NI Zanoon, KS ALkharabsheh… – European Scientific …, 2012 – eujournal.org Abstract The main features of the application of the Meta-grammar theory for formal description of the standard data transmission protocols in Grid Systems are determined. The elements of Meta-grammar specifying the syntactic structure of telematics standard … All 3 versions
Meta-PREVI: A Meta-Grammar for the Generation of Social Housing L Teixeira Mendes, JN Beirão, G Celani – 2013 – cumincad.scix.net summary A set of independent small grammars corresponding to design patterns were inferred from the PREVI Lima urban plan by C. Alexander. This pattern language composed of grammars inferred from the plan layout and grammars inferred from the text instructions …
Constant Creation with meta-Grammars I Dempsey, M O’Neill, A Brabazon – Foundations in Grammatical Evolution …, 2009 – Springer Abstract In the previous chapter, the utility of different variations of the Digit Concatenation method for constant creation were examined. Digit Concatenation was also combined with and compared to, Persistent Random Constants. In these experiments, the Digit … All 2 versions
Altering search rates of the meta and solution grammars in the mGGA E Hemberg, M O’Neill, A Brabazon – Genetic Programming, 2008 – Springer … 1 Introduction This paper aims to investigate if the performance of a search using meta- grammars and Grammatical Evolution (GE) can be improved if the grammars sampled by the meta-grammar are explored more thoroughly. … Cited by 6 Related articles All 9 versions