Conceptual Graphs & Dialog Systems


Conceptual graphs are a graphical representation of knowledge that was developed by John F. Sowa in the 1970s. They are used to represent concepts, relationships between concepts, and the meaning of sentences or phrases in a formal, logical way.

In a dialog system, conceptual graphs can be used to represent the knowledge that the system has about the topic being discussed and to reason about the meaning of user input. For example, a conceptual graph representing the topic of “dogs” might include concepts such as “canine,” “puppy,” and “breed,” as well as relationships between these concepts such as “is-a” and “has-a.” The system could then use this knowledge to understand and respond to user input related to dogs.

Conceptual graphs can be useful in dialog systems because they provide a structured, logical representation of knowledge that can be easily processed and queried by a computer. This can be especially useful in natural language processing tasks, where the meaning of text may not be immediately clear and must be interpreted using contextual knowledge.


See also:

Concept Mapping & Dialog SystemsGraph-Based Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

[BOOK] Questions and information systems TW Lauer, E Peacock, AC Graesser – 2013 – … QUESTIONING KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION Marianne LaFrance KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION WITH QUESTION PROBES AND CONCEPTUAL GRAPH STRUCTURES Sallie E … In mixed initiative dialogue systems, the computer both asks and answers questions; similarly, the … Cited by 45 Related articles All 12 versions

Tutorial dialog in natural language AM Olney, AC Graesser, NK Person – Advances in Intelligent Tutoring …, 2010 – Springer Page 1. R. Nkambou et al. (Eds.): Advances in Intelligent Tutoring Systems, SCI 308, pp. 181–206. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 Chapter 9 Tutorial Dialog in Natural Language Andrew M. Olney1, Arthur C. Graesser1, and Natalie K. Person2 … Cited by 12 Related articles All 4 versions

Report on the SIGIR 2010 workshop on the simulation of interaction L Azzopardi, K Järvelin, J Kamps, MD Smucker – ACM SIGIR Forum, 2011 – … evaluations. The approach is based upon the PARADISE framework used in dialogue systems in conjunction with a simulated user. … analysis. This paper proposes that concept graphs and expression graphs be created for test topics. … Cited by 21 Related articles All 8 versions

What’s next? Target concept identification and sequencing L Becker, RD Nielsen, I Okoye, T Sumner… – … of QG2010: The Third …, 2010 – … Most QG applications can be conceived of as dialogue systems, where the question generated will depend not only on the text or database … key concepts (Fig- ure 1) consists of three steps: 1) identification of supporting concepts, 2) concept linking and 3) concept graph analysis. … Cited by 5 Related articles All 9 versions

Ontology Based User Modeling for Personalized Information Access. PK Bhowmick, S Sarkar, A Basu – IJCSA, 2010 – … [Aroyo et al. (2006)] provides method for automatic acquisition of user knowl- edge through an ontology based dialog system. … (SWULPM). The user model consists of personal ontology which is represented through concept graph. [Zeng et al. … Cited by 11 Related articles All 6 versions

A system for the semantic multimodal analysis of news audio-visual content V Mezaris, S Gidaros, W Kasper, J Steffen… – EURASIP Journal on …, 2010 – … of multimodal techniques range from semantic multimedia analysis to audio-visual speech recognition [7], discourse processing in dialogue systems [8], and … In [21], a generic approach to fusion is also proposed based on the use of conceptual graphs; however, the focus is on … Cited by 9 Related articles All 21 versions

Algebraic properties of ?-trees (I) N Tandareanu, C Zamfir – Annals of the University of Craiova-Mathematics …, 2010 – … of conceptual graphs was first published by John Sowa ([7]). Since then various studies based on this concept were obtained such as nested conceptual graphs and conceptual graphs with negation … Finally we intend to apply these results to design intelligent dialogue systems. … Cited by 5 Related articles All 5 versions

Integrating web service and semantic dialogue model for user models interoperability on the web F Cena – Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, 2011 – Springer … In particular, by means of a dialogue, systems can approximate the response when the exact one is not available or can find better … A statement on a knowledge model may be represented in different ways, for example using conceptual graph (Sowa 1984) like in Dimitrova (2001 … Cited by 4 Related articles All 8 versions

Incorporating graphics design and realization into the multimodal presentation system WIP T Rist, E André – 2013 – Page 1. Deutsches Forschungszentrum tiir Kiinstliche lntelligenz GmbH Research Report RR-92-44 Incorporating Graphics Design and Realization into the Multimodal Presentation System WIP Thomas Hist, Elisabeth André … Cited by 14 Related articles

Slices and extensions of ?-trees N Tandareanu, C Zamfir – Annals of the University of Craiova-Mathematics …, 2011 – … and graph theory were applied successfully in knowledge representation and various applications were presented: risk management ([2]), conceptual graphs ([3], [9 … was developed in [8]. The partial algebra of conditional binary relations was used to model a dialogue system ([17 … Cited by 3 Related articles All 2 versions

Towards a surface realization-oriented corpus annotation L Wanner, S Mille, B Bohnet – Proceedings of the Seventh International …, 2012 – … Conceptual graphs in the sense of Sowa (Sowa, 2000) are structures of this kind;3 see Figure 1 for illustration (‘Cmpl’ = ‘Completion’, ‘Rcpt’ = ‘Recipient’, ‘Strt’ = ‘Start’, ‘Attr’ = Attribute, ‘Chrc’ = ‘Characteristic’, and ‘Amt … Stochastic language generation for spoken dialogue systems. … Cited by 4 Related articles All 7 versions

Evaluation of the Scusi? spoken language interpretation system–A case study T Kleinbauer, I Zukerman, SN Kim – IJCNLP2013–Proceedings of the …, 2013 – … The third stage applies mapping rules to the parse trees to generate Uninstanti- ated Concept Graphs (UCGs) that represent the semantics of the utterance (Sowa, 1984). The fi- nal stage produces Instantiated Concept Graphs … Cited by 3 Related articles All 3 versions

Assessing plausibility of explanation and meta-explanation in inter-human conflicts BA Galitsky, B Kovalerchuk, JL de la Rosa – Engineering Applications of …, 2011 – Elsevier … Below we will be using the predicate. similar(Object1, Object2, CommonSubObject) which yields the third argument given the first and the second arguments; it is implemented as some adjustment of anti-unification to the dialog systems ( Galitsky and Kuznetsov, 2008a). … Cited by 4 Related articles All 4 versions

A configurable conversational agent to trigger students’ productive dialogue: a Pilot Study in the CALL domain S Tegos, S Demetriadis, T Tsiatsos – International Journal of Artificial …, 2014 – Springer … stores them in a computational format. More specifically, when the teacher enters a fact, the system renders it dynamically, visualizing the nodes and their relationship as a concept graph. This graph constitutes a domain knowledge … Cited by 4 Related articles All 2 versions

Speaking and Pointing–from Simulations to the Laboratory I Zukerman, A Mani, Z Li, R Jarvis – … in Practical Dialogue Systems, 2011 – … Introduction DORIS (Dialogue Oriented Roaming Interactive System) is a spoken dialogue system designed for a household robot. … UCG user Figure 2: UCG, ICG and pointing for a sample utterance sively mapped into two representations based on Concept Graphs (Sowa 1984 … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

Influence of gestural salience on the interpretation of spoken requests. G Kowadlo, P Ye, I Zukerman – INTERSPEECH, 2010 – … … Figure 1: UCG and ICG for a sample utterance tiated Concept Graphs (ICGs). … 8. References [1] E. Makalic, I. Zukerman, and M. Niemann, “A spoken language interpretation component for a robot dialogue system,” in Inter- speech 2008, 2008, pp. 195–198. … Cited by 1 Related articles All 8 versions

A noisy channel approach to error correction in spoken referring expressions SN Kim, I Zukerman, T Kleinbauer… – Proceedings of the 6th …, 2013 – … The third stage applies mapping rules to the parse trees to generate concept graphs (Sowa, 1984) that represent the semantics of the utterance. The final stage instantiates the concept graphs within the current context. For example … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

Texterra: A framework for text analysis DY Turdakov, NA Astrakhantsev, YR Nedumov… – … and Computer Software, 2014 – Springer … In order to solve this problem, the algorithm of searching for clus ters in the concept graph is used [23]. … in social networks and forums to determine hidden demographic attributes [25]; • design of question answering systems, automatic summarization systems, dialog systems, etc … Cited by 1

Trends in semantic and digital media technologies M Grzegorzek, M Granitzer, S Rüger, M Sintek… – Multimedia tools and …, 2013 – Springer … relations. They model the spatial relations with conceptual graphs. Additionally, they … W3C USDL XG). His scientific activity focus on dialog systems knowledge based interaction with content (see the IKS ( Cited by 1 Related articles All 5 versions

Design of Dialog-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Simulate Human-to-Human Tutoring S D’Mello, A Graesser – Where Humans Meet Machines, 2013 – Springer … We move beyond the basic AutoTutor system to novel dialog systems that model and respond to emotions and disengagement … and its progeny have incorporated other forms of world-knowledge representation, such as textbooks, glossaries, and conceptual graph structures. … Cited by 3 Related articles All 3 versions

Indexing as an ontological support for legal reasoning E Schweighoferf – Technologies for Supporting Reasoning …, 2011 – … It is then up to legal practice to implement these “simplified syllo- gisms” in knowledge systems, dialog systems etc. … With the advent of legal ontologies, the various representation tech- niques (semantic networks, conceptual graphs, concept frames, object-orientedprogramming … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

Building Modular Knowledge Bases for Conversational Agents D Mac?as-Galindo, L Cavedon… – … Practical Dialogue Systems, 2011 – Proceedings of the 7th IJCAI Workshop on Knowledge and Reasoning in Practical Dialogue Systems, pages 16–23, Barcelona, July 2011 Building Modular Knowledge Bases for Conversational Agents Daniel Mac?as-Galindo and Lawrence Cavedon and John Thangarajah … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

Response Generation Based on Hierarchical Semantic Structure with POMDP Re-ranking for Conversational Dialogue Systems JF Yeh, YC Chu – Sixth International Joint Conference on Natural … – … Ig- noring semantic relations among semantic ob- jects causes the exactly extracting the values from spoken utterance hard in traditional spoken dialogue systems. Conceptual graph is adopted as the knowledge representation for describing the semantic relations in this paper. … Related articles All 3 versions

Editorial Y Ledeneva – Polibits, 2010 – … Also, the paper evaluates performance using 35 participants to determine the effectiveness of the proposed dialogue system. … The paper “Learning of Chained Rules for Construction of Conceptual Graphs” studies chained rules for generating new rules that can help to … All 4 versions

Probabilistic Type Theory for Incremental Dialogue Processing J Hough, M Purver – EACL 2014, 2014 – … has been parsed)–see Figure 2. We implement DS-TTR parsing and genera- tion mechanisms in the DyLan dialogue system 5 within … parse state edge IUs between ver- tices Sn groundedIn the corresponding word hypothesis edge IU • output: a concept graph consisting of … Cited by 1 Related articles All 4 versions

A methodology for obtaining concept graphs from word graphs M Calvo, JA Gómez, LF Hurtado… – … International Workshop on …, 2012 – … work, we describe a methodology based on the Stochastic Finite State Trans- ducers paradigm for Spoken Language Under- standing (SLU) for obtaining concept graphs from word … An area where SLU systems are typically applied is the construction of spoken dialog systems. … Related articles All 6 versions

Interpreting pointing gestures and spoken requests: a probabilistic, salience-based approach I Zukerman, G Kowadlo, P Ye – … of the 23rd International Conference on …, 2010 – … 1 Introduction DORIS (Dialogue Oriented Roaming Interactive System) is a spoken dialogue system designed for a household robot. … During semantic interpretation, parse trees are successively mapped into two representations based on Concept Graphs (Sowa, 1984). … Related articles All 7 versions

Curriculum Vitae Kees van Deemter K van Deemter – Computing, 2013 – … of workshop ‘Modelling Coherence for Generation and Dialogue Systems’, associated with esslli-2006, Malaga, Spain.) – Paraboni, Ivandre, Kees van Deemter and Judith Masthoff (2006). … A conceptual-graph approach to the generation of referring expressions. In procs. … Related articles All 5 versions

Representing Syntactic-Semantic Knowledge from English Texts R Guidry Jr, J Chen – … Clearly the conceptual graphs approach could be seen as addressing this issue. 3 The Proposed Representation: the … [1] James Allen, George Ferguson, Bradford W. Miller, Eric K. Ringger, and Teresa Sikorski Zollo. Dialogue systems: From theory to practice in TRAINS96. …

Structuring automated learning discussions using dialog games and cognitive maps I Yengin, M Saerbeck – Information Technology Based Higher …, 2012 – … Ideally, spoken dialog systems should not pose any constraints on language use on the user. This is especially important for education applications. … The focus of the conversation can move freely through the concept graph. … Related articles

Computational Modeling of Discourse and Conversation AC Graesser, DS McNamara, V Rus, A Graesser… – … representations (Glenberg, 1997). Conceptual graph structures (CGS’s) contain a set of nodes (referring to noun-like concepts or propositions) that are interrelated by labeled, … the vision of building dialogue systems. The current conversational systems are not … Related articles All 2 versions

UMIS: A Service for User Model Interoperability F Cena, R Furnari – 2012 – … R. Dieng and S. Hug, “Comparison of ‘Personal Ontologies’ Represented through Conceptual Graphs,” Proceedings of the European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2005, pp. … 1-12. A. Kobsa, “User Modeling in Dialog Systems: Potential and Hazards,” AI and Society, Vol. … Related articles All 3 versions

Tools And Techniques Concerning Modeling Of Learner, Influencing Algorithmic Factors And Approches (Knowledge Level, … S RAZAGHI – … Zapata-Rivera et al, 2000), transferable opinion (VanLabeke et al, 2007) and knowledge driven models (Corbett, 1997) and models created through conceptual graphs. … AAAI Fall Symposium: Building Dialogue Systems for Tutorial Applications, North Falmouth, MA., AAAI Press. … Related articles

Managing multilinguality in organizations J Cardeñosa, C Gallardo – Learning Organization, The, 2013 – … These are knowledge delivery systems ranging from user dialogue systems to web portals. … Interlinguas have been long used for knowledge representation in artificial intelligence, being conceptual graphs (Sowa, 2008) and semantic networks (Navigli, 2012) commonly used … Related articles All 3 versions

Natural language semantics and compiler technology J Nerbonne, J Laubsch, AK Diagne, S Oepen – 2011 – … translation. N LL2FS was implemented to provide semantic feedback to parsing and search in the ASL speech understanding system and for generation in the COSMA dialogue system. NLL2FS has just completed implementation. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 3 versions

A semi-automated method for acquisition of common-sense and inferentialist knowledge V Pinheiro, V Furtado, T Pequeno, W Franco – Journal of the Brazilian …, 2013 – Springer … 0 pos 0 pos 0.2 pos 0.7 pos Baseline – 12 pre n/a – 240 pre n/a – – – – the heuristics, we compared the conceptual graphs of the six concepts, after the inclusions and exclusions made by the users, and the baseline conceptual graph. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 4 versions

Semantic Network Language Generation based on a Semantic Networks Serialization Grammar Y Dai, S Zhang, J Chen, T Chen, W Zhang – World Wide Web, 2010 – Springer … Then a semantic network can be generally denoted as G={V,E}. Sowa’s Conceptual Graph [50] can be view as a specific implementation of … Typical semantic networks in ontology systems, Semantic Wiki systems or SN based dialogue systems are all classified semantic networks … Cited by 5 Related articles All 6 versions

Knowledge sharing in change management: A case study in the French railways company A Remillieux, C Petitmengin… – Journal of …, 2010 – … for interfaces of dialog systems, OCM’s objective is to allow actors to share their knowledge. We have chosen a specific model adapted to our aim. This model is an ontology that represents change management knowledge in the formalism of conceptual graphs (Sowa 1984). … Cited by 1 Related articles All 6 versions

PLUS: plan-based user support final project report F Berger, T Fehrle, K Klöckner, V Schölles, MA Thies… – 2011 – Page 1. Deutsches Forschungszentrum fUr KOnstliche Intelligenz GmbH PLUS Research Report RR-93-15 Plan-based User Support Final Project Report Frank Berger, Thomas Fehrle, Kristof Kleckner, Volker Schelles, Markus A. Thies, Wolfgang Wahlster March 1993 … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

Data analysis and integration of environmental sensors to meet human needs AF Santamaria, F De Rango… – SPIE Sensing …, 2014 – … [7] introduces Spoken Dialogue Systems (SDS) within ambient intelligence which enables universal access to ambient intelligence for … [8] John F. Sowa, Eileen C. Way, Implementing a Semantic using conceptual graphs, IBM 1. Res. Develop. Vol. 30, n. 1, Jenuary (1986). … Related articles

A novel approach for question answering and automatic diagnosis based on pervasive agent ontology in medicine Q Guo – International Journal of Intelligent Systems, 2010 – Wiley Online Library Page 1. A Novel Approach for Question Answering and Automatic Diagnosis Based on Pervasive Agent Ontology in Medicine Qing-lin Guo1,2,? 1School of Computer Science and Technology, North China Electric Power University … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Computational generation of referring expressions: A survey E Krahmer, K Van Deemter – Computational Linguistics, 2012 – MIT Press … 2008) needs to generate spatial descriptions for areas with low or high pollen levels (“the central belt and further North”), and a robot dialogue system that assembles construction toys together with a human user (Giuliani et al. … Cited by 73 Related articles All 12 versions

QAS (Question Answering System) SD Joshi – … Since 1960s, a variety of natural language database frontends, dialog systems and language understanding systems were created … diverse arrangement imply idea alteration .Concept extraction and question structuring are correlated progression under pinged in concept graph. …

Natural language generation and semantic web technologies N Bouayad-Agha, G Casamayor… – Semantic Web …, 2012 – … In Janzen and Maas’s dialogue system [68], NLG starts from a layered OWL-DL knowledge repository that contains a complete model about question answer- ing and an instantiation of the domain model (in their case, in-store shopping dialogues). … Cited by 3 Related articles All 2 versions

Turing test as a defining feature of AI-completeness RV Yampolskiy – Artificial intelligence, evolutionary computing and …, 2013 – Springer … Assistants 28(2) (2007) [19] Horvitz, E., Paek, T.: Complementary Computing: Policies for Transferring Callers from Dialog Systems to Human … txt [38] Salloum, W.: A Question Answering System based on Conceptual Graph Formalism … Cited by 5 Related articles All 6 versions

AI-Complete, AI-Hard, or AI-Easy: Classification of Problems in Artificial Intelligence RV Yampolskiy – 2011 – … [16] E. Horvitz and T. Paek, Complementary Computing: Policies for Transferring Callers from Dialog Systems to Human Receptionists, User Modeling … [35] W. Salloum, A Question Answering System based on Conceptual Graph Formalism, The 2nd International Symposium on … Related articles All 2 versions

Natural Language Generation in the context of the Semantic Web N Bouayad-Agha, G Casamayor, L Wanner – Semantic Web, 2013 – IOS Press … Over the years, different types of semantic representations have been experimented with—including first-order logics and related formalisms [6,30,112], Schank’s scripts [70,105], Sowa’s conceptual graphs [110], a variety of frame representations such as KL-ONE and LOOM [ … Cited by 7 Related articles All 3 versions

Semantic Analysis Of Multi Meaning Words Using Machine Learning And Knowledge Representation M Alirezaie – 2011 – … This is required in various applications, such as spell and grammar checkers, text summarization, or dialogue systems. The automatic processing of languages contains several levels of analysis as follows: • Morphological Analysis • Syntactic Analysis • Semantic Analysis … Related articles

Ontological Engineering and the Semantic Web JM Gómez-Pérez, C Ruiz – Advanced Techniques in Web Intelligence-I, 2010 – Springer Page 1. Chapter 8 Ontological Engineering and the Semantic Web José Manuel Gómez-Pérez and Carlos Ruiz Abstract. This chapter focuses on ontologies as means of representing knowledge and reason across the various domains. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 4 versions

Query Failure Explanation in Inconsistent Knowledge Bases Using Argumentation A Arioua, N Tamani, M Croitoru, P Buche – The 5th International Conference …, 2014 – … References [1] A. Arioua, N. Tamani, and M. Croitoru. On conceptual graphs and explanation of query answering under inconsistency. … [9] Douglas Walton. A Dialogue System Specification for Explanation . Synthese, 182(3), 2011,, Volume 182(3):349–374, 2011. [10] PM Dung. …

AutoTutor and affective AutoTutor: Learning by talking with cognitively and emotionally intelligent computers that talk back S D’mello, A Graesser – ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent …, 2012 – … First, most versions of AutoTutor represent world knowledge as LSA spaces, but some versions of AutoTutor or its progeny have incorporated other forms of world knowledge representation, such as textbooks, glossaries, and conceptual graph structures. … Cited by 32 Related articles All 3 versions

An intelligent tutoring system for learning Chinese with a cognitive model of the learner MK Kosek – 2014 – … between natural language sentences (subsection 4.2.2) and a formal grammar used for encoding the set of possible translations (subsection 4.4.3). The design of the module that provides feedback to the user is informed by the structure of dialogue systems (subsection 4.4.2). 6 …

Domain-And Language-Adaptive Natural Language Controlling Framework P Barabás – 2013 – … My goal is to define and implement a natural language controlling framework using frame- based dialog system which can be applied for robot controlling also. … An extension of RDF with instance level elements is the Conceptual Graph model, which enables the usage of … Related articles All 4 versions

Semantic relations between nominals V Nastase, P Nakov, DÓ Séaghdha… – Synthesis Lectures on …, 2013 – … Semantic Role Labeling Martha Palmer, Daniel Gildea, and Nianwen Xue 2010 Spoken Dialogue Systems Kristiina Jokinen and Michael McTear 2009 Introduction to Chinese Natural Language Processing Kam-Fai Wong, Wenjie Li, Ruifeng Xu, and Zheng-sheng Zhang 2009 … Cited by 7 Related articles All 3 versions

Artificial Conversations for Chatter Bots Using Knowledge Representation, Learning, and Pragmatics C Chakrabarti – 2014 – … 22 2.2 The Syntactic Approach . . . . . 26 2.3 The Semantic Approach . . . . . 27 2.4 Dialogue systems . . . . . 27 viii Page 9. Contents 2.5 Limitations of existing approaches . . . . . 29 …

Execution Crew Assistant (MECA) lite-Knowledge modelling to support the crew/machine interaction D Esser – 2014 – … modelling (section 4.1.3) is being described, added by the different approaches of possible dialogue systems (section 4.1.4). … Popular conceptual modelling languages include Entity Relationship Model (ER) (Chen, 1976), Conceptual Graph (CG)(Sowa, 1984), Unified Modelling …

Specification of user profiling and contextualisation D Tsatsou, M Loli, V Mezaris, R Klein, M Kober, T Kliegr… – 2012 – … model. In general “a user model is the knowledge about a user that a system stores which contains explicit assumptions on all aspects of a user that might be relevant to the conduct of the dialogue system and its representation. … Cited by 1 Related articles

Probabilistic concatenation modeling for corpus-based speech synthesis S Sakai, T Kawahara, H Kawai – IEICE TRANSACTIONS on …, 2011 – … boundary. Figure 2 presents conceptual graphs that de- pict the relationships between the tail and the head of two consecutive units in two extreme cases, using i-th compo- nents of hypothetical spectral feature vectors. Figure … Cited by 1 Related articles All 5 versions

A semantic framework for social search J Stan – 2011 – … edge. Numerous applications of such systems exist for example in the area of natural language understanding and dialogue systems, in computer-based educational systems and online learning environments, in systems for computer supported collaboration and recommender … Cited by 1 Related articles All 5 versions

On Applying Controlled Natural Languages for Ontology Authoring and Semantic Annotation BP Davis – 2013 – Page 1. On Applying Controlled Natural Languages for Ontology Authoring and Semantic Annotation Brian Patrick Davis Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy PRIMARY SUPERVISOR: Prof. … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Biometric and Intelligent Decision Making Support A Kaklauskas – 2015 – Springer Page 1. Intelligent Systems Reference Library 81 Arturas Kaklauskas Biometric and Intelligent Decision Making Support Page 2. Intelligent Systems Reference Library Volume 81 Series editors Janusz Kacprzyk, Polish Academy …