Lexical Analysis & Dialog Systems


Lexical analysis, also known as lexing or tokenization, is the process of breaking down a stream of text into smaller units called tokens. Lexical analysis is a fundamental step in natural language processing (NLP) and is often used in dialog systems to analyze and understand user input.

During lexical analysis, a lexer or tokenizer program reads through a stream of text and identifies the individual words, punctuation marks, and other elements that make up the text. The lexer then assigns a specific meaning or role to each element, such as “noun,” “verb,” or “punctuation.” This process is often referred to as “tagging” or “part-of-speech tagging.”

The output of the lexical analysis process is a list of tokens, each of which represents a single element of the input text. The tokens are typically used as the input for subsequent NLP tasks, such as parsing or semantic analysis, which involve further processing and interpretation of the text.

In a dialog system, lexical analysis is used to identify and classify the individual elements of user input, such as words, phrases, and punctuation marks. This information can then be used to understand the meaning and intent of the user’s input and generate an appropriate response. For example, a chatbot might use lexical analysis to identify the verb in a user’s input and use this information to determine

Morpho-lexical analysis is the process of analyzing the morphological and lexical structure of a language. Morphological analysis involves identifying the root form of a word, called the stem, and the inflections or modifications that are added to the stem to indicate tense, mood, number, gender, and other grammatical categories. Lexical analysis, as described above, involves breaking down a stream of text into smaller units called tokens and assigning a specific meaning or role to each element.

Combined, morpho-lexical analysis involves the analysis of both the morphological and lexical structure of a language, and can be used to identify the underlying meaning and grammatical relationships of words and phrases in a text. Morpho-lexical analysis is often used in natural language processing (NLP) and dialog systems to improve the understanding and interpretation of user input.

Semantic analysis is the process of analyzing and interpreting the meaning of a text or conversation. In natural language processing, semantic analysis involves identifying the underlying meaning of words and phrases in a text and determining their relationships to each other. This can involve identifying the relationships between words, such as subject-verb-object relationships, as well as identifying the broader context and meaning of the text.


See also:

100 Best Natural Language Parsing Videos | ANTLRWorks (ANTLR GUI)Chart Parser & Dialog Systems | Connexor MachineseDoc2mat | FrameNetGrammatical Analysis & Dialog Systems | Joke GeneratorsLIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count) & Dialog SystemsN-gram Grammars | NVivo | OWL API 2014Psychotherapy & Natural Language Processing 2014Sentence ExtractionSnowball 2014WordNet & Dialog Systems 2014

The nature of dialog: structural and lexical markers of dialogic teacher/learner interactions S Feller – Proceedings of the Workshop at SIGGRAPH Asia, 2012 – dl.acm.org … The lexical analysis has revealed that these keywords are used for five dialog functions: turn confirma- tion, agreement, acceptance, answer, and … begun to implement important aspects of dialog into some of its applications including cultural models for dialog systems that are … Related articles

[BOOK] Language Production, Cognition, and the Lexicon N Gala, R Rapp, G Bel-Enguix – 2015 – Springer … Part II addresses the Lexicon and Lexical Analysis. … Jamet disusses issues on natural language generation by presenting a resource integrating a linguistically motivated ontology; Kristiina Jokinen describes an interactive open-domain spoken dialog system generating speech … All 3 versions

Advanced Language Understanding and Dialogue Management for Language Learning JF Quesada, C Nunez – Conference proceedings. ICT …, 2013 – conference.pixel-online.net … By contrast to task-oriented dialogue systems or search engines where it is enough to capture the main points in the user’s input, in … the presence of oral mispronunciations or spelling mistakes to the simultaneous use of words of the native language, the lexical analysis of the … Related articles All 2 versions

User feedback in human-robot interaction: Prosody, gaze and timing G Skantze, C Oertel, A Hjalmarsson – Feedback, 2013 – Citeseer … However, systems that make use of user acknowledgements [eg 22,23,24,25] do not typically perform any prosodic or lexical analysis of the feedback. … This setting is typical for many dialogue system domains, such as troubleshooting [26] and turn-by-turn navigation [27]. … Cited by 5 Related articles All 6 versions

On the Importance of Subtext in Recommender Systems P Grasch, A Felfernig – icom, 2015 – degruyter.com … tagged with explicit disfluency markers. 3.2.2 Paralinguistic Analysis. Spoken language input affords more insight into the user’s actual, hidden preferences than a lexical analysis of the input could ever detect. In real-life sales … Cited by 1

Resource Evaluation for Usable Speech Interfaces: Utilizing Human-Human Dialogue. P Stavropoulou, D Spiliotopoulos, G Kouroupetroglou – LREC, 2012 – Citeseer … customers and live agents in the customer care department, prior to the development and deployment of the automated dialog system. … differences between spoken corpora collected under diverse conditions (Turunen et al., 2006; Ai et al., 2007) Lexical analysis measures were … Related articles All 4 versions

Acoustic and lexical representations for affect prediction in spontaneous conversations H Cao, A Savran, R Verma, A Nenkova – Computer speech & language, 2015 – Elsevier … We use the same training and test corpus definitions as the AVEC 2012 challenge; the results are therefore comparable with the challenge benchmarks and with results published by other particpants. For lexical analysis, we rely on manual speech transcripts to extract features. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 6 versions

The role of affect analysis in dialogue act identification N Novielli, C Strapparava – Affective Computing, IEEE …, 2013 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … goal of a given utterance [2] (eg asking for information, stating facts, expressing opinions, agreeing or disagreeing with the interlocutor) and there is a large number of applications that could benefit from automatic DA annotation, such as dialogue systems, blog analysis … Cited by 4 Related articles All 9 versions

Automated analysis of essays and open-ended verbal responses AC Graesser, DS McNamara – APA handbook of research methods …, 2012 – Page 1. 307 DOI: 10.1037/13619-017 APA Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology: Vol. 1. Foundations, Planning, Measures, and Psychometrics, H. Cooper (Editor-in-Chief) Copyright © 2012 by the American Psychological Association. All rights reserved. C HAPTER 16 … Cited by 12 Related articles All 3 versions

Speech and language processing for adaptive training D Litman – Adaptive Technologies for Training and Education, 2012 – books.google.com … whether linguistic features that have proved useful for predicting emotion in previous research on (nontutorial) spoken dialogue systems are also … 2 54 LITMAN Similar features to ours, as well as others based on more sophisticated lexical analysis (eg, categorizing lexical items … Cited by 5 Related articles

Incremental dialogue act understanding V Petukhova, H Bunt – … of the Ninth International Conference on …, 2011 – dl.acm.org … Traditional models of language understanding for dialogue systems, by contrast, are pipelined, mod- ular, and operate on complete utterances. … following tasks: (1) segmentation: identification of relevant segments in the input, such as sentences;(2) lexical analysis: lexical lookup … Cited by 15 Related articles All 12 versions

[BOOK] Stochastically-based semantic analysis W Minker, A Waibel, J Mariani – 2012 – books.google.com Page 1. Page 2. STOCHASTICALLY-BASED SEMANTIC ANALYSIS Page 3. THE KLUVVER INTERNATIONAL SERIES IN ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE Page 4. STOCHASTICALLY BASED SEMANTIC ANALYSIS … Cited by 41 Related articles All 5 versions

Automatic detection of uncertainty in spontaneous German dialogue T Schrank, B Schuppler – Sixteenth Annual Conference of the …, 2015 – spsc.tugraz.at … An example can be seen in Figure 1. These four degrees of uncertainty correspond to possible action performed as response by a dialogue system. … 3.2. Feature selection Especially due to brute-force lexical analysis (1320 features), there is a total of 1430 features. …

Incremental Recognition and Prediction of Dialogue Acts V Petukhova, H Bunt – Computing Meaning, 2014 – Springer … Traditional models of language understanding for dialogue systems are pipelined and modular, and operate on complete utterances. … the following tasks: 1. segmentation: identification of relevant segments in the input, such as sentences; 2. lexical analysis: lexical lookup … Related articles All 3 versions

Turn-taking, feedback and joint attention in situated human–robot interaction G Skantze, A Hjalmarsson, C Oertel – Speech Communication, 2014 – Elsevier … and Schlangen, 2009, Reidsma et al., 2011 and Buschmeier and Kopp, 2011), none of these perform any prosodic or lexical analysis of the … This setting is typical for many dialogue system domains, such as troubleshooting (Boye, 2007) and turn-by-turn navigation (Boye et al … Cited by 9 Related articles All 4 versions

Developing of Natural Language Interface to Robot-an Arabic Language Case Study AT Imam, T Al-Rousan, A Odeh – Computers and Software, 2014 – researchgate.net … robot. ANLI2ROBOT is also considered as a written dialogue system (WDS) that uses Arabic written (not spoken) language. In … tokens. These tokens are the input for the next processing step, which is the lexical analysis. Often … Related articles All 3 versions

Design of an emotion aware e-learning system M Feidakis, T Daradoumis… – … of Knowledge and …, 2012 – inderscienceonline.com Cited by 13 Related articles All 5 versions

A modular system oriented to the design of versatile knowledge bases for chatbots G Pilato, A Augello, S Gaglio – ISRN Artificial Intelligence, 2012 – downloads.hindawi.com … The simplest way to implement a conversational agent is to use chatbots [4], which are dialogue systems based on a pattern … elements oriented to specific reasoning capabilities (modules oriented to semantic retrieval of information, modules oriented to the lexical analysis of the … Cited by 4 Related articles All 5 versions

[BOOK] Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology S Chan – 2014 – books.google.com … of the 1980s. Dr Ahrenberg’s research spans several areas of NLP including dialogue systems, grammar formalisms and syntactic analysis, corpus linguistics, terminology extraction, and translation technologies. He has published … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

The Knowledge Web Meets Big Scholars K Wang – Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on …, 2015 – dl.acm.org … First initiated in [9] and by the industry in general [5, 12], the goal of the knowledge web is to go beyond the lexical analysis and elevate all aspects of search algorithms to the semantic level. … [13] K. Wang. A plan-based dialog system with probabilistic inferences. … Related articles All 5 versions

Natural Language Processing BK Sidhu – International Journal of Computer Technology …, 2013 – search.proquest.com … It is believed that utilization of all the levels of language processing explained above offer the potential for truly habitable dialogue systems. … Searching must not require an education in SQL, Boolean logic, lexical analysis, or the underlying structures of information repositories. … Related articles

Human-Computer Interaction System Based on Standard Arabic T Hanane, H Maamar, A Hamid – International Journal of …, 2014 – search.proquest.com … are positioned at the crossroads of computing (because the synthesizers are software), linguistics (each voice synthesis system is based on lexical analysis, syntactic, morphological … Typical HCI dialog systems cover a well-defined application and perform several tasks within. … All 3 versions

Natural language processing: past, present and future DA Dahl – Mobile Speech and Advanced Natural Language …, 2013 – Springer … Lexical analysis Morphological analysis Lexical lookup Part-of-speech tagging dictionary … As these systems have been deployed in IVR systems and other spoken-dialog systems, a number of re fi nements in best practices have been learned. For example, Page 16. 64 DA Dahl … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

A Comprehensive Study on Natural Language Processing and Natural Language Interface to Databases U Shafique, H Qaiser – International Journal of Innovation and …, 2014 – researchgate.net … In NLP, Lexical Analysis [4] is the process of converting string of word into tokens and tokens are the meaningful … application over the period including in Machine and Automatic Translation, Information Retrieval (IR), Information Extraction (IE), Dialogue Systems and Question … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Financial Dialogue Games: A Protocol for Earnings Conference Calls K Budzynska, A Rocci… – Computational …, 2014 – comma2014.arg.dundee.ac.uk … A strategy further developed in [4], which combines a qualitative analysis of the genre structure with the lexical analysis of an unannotated corpus. … the reader to understand how ECC sharply differ from the dialogues tackled by standard dialogue systems. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 2 versions

Towards an Expressive Embodied Conversational Agent Utilizing Multi-Ethnicity to Augment Solution Focused Therapy. M Allison, LM Kendrick – FLAIRS Conference, 2013 – researchgate.net … Currently, within our implementation, the sys- tem receives affective cues from lexical analysis of the text inputted by the user. … The mood it- self will trigger a change in the dialog system to allow EMO to converse with the user in a different manner while in dif- ferent moods. … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Language Technology Support for Serbian D Vitas, L Popovi?, C Krstev, I Obradovi?… – The Serbian Language …, 2012 – Springer … 9: Speech-based dialogue system … As part of undergraduate studies at the Faculty of Mathemat- ics in Belgrade, courses in lexical analysis and text min- ing are offered, in addition to courses providing basic mathematical knowledge necessary in the field of nat- ural language … Cited by 1 All 2 versions

Statistical Framework with Knowledge BaseIntegration for Robust Speech Understanding of theTunisian Dialect M GRAJA, M Jaoua, L Belguith – 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … ONTOLOGY-BASED METHOD FOR CONCEPTUAL LABELING The lexical analysis of the TUDICOI corpus shows that utterances are characterized by … uses ontology to provide a domain-independent semantic representation of the understanding module in a dialogue system. …

Topic identification techniques applied to dynamic language model adaptation for automatic speech recognition JD Echeverry-Correa, J Ferreiros-López… – Expert Systems with …, 2015 – Elsevier … such as in information retrieval systems as part of the ranking function (Zhai, 2008), in spoken dialogue systems for adapting the … Typical preprocessing steps include: structural processing, lexical analysis, tokenization, stopwords removal, stemming and term categorization. … Related articles All 3 versions

Detecting affective states from text based on a multi-component emotion model Y Gao, W Zhu – Computer Speech & Language, 2016 – Elsevier A multi-component emotion model is proposed to describe the affective states comprehensively and provide more details about emotion for the application of expre.

Emotion transplantation through adaptation in HMM-based speech synthesis J Lorenzo-Trueba, R Barra-Chicote… – Computer Speech & …, 2015 – Elsevier … On the other hand, applications such as dialog systems (Lutfi et al., 2013), robots or virtual characters, where simulating a more human … This problem can be focused on from different approaches: lexical analysis (Andersson et al., 2012) for correctly classifying the available data … Cited by 1 Related articles

A Computational Approach for Analyzing and Detecting Emotions in Arabic Text AF El Gohary, TI Sultan, MA Hana, MM El – International Journal of …, 2013 – Citeseer … Other researches [14], [15], [16] involve a lexical analysis of the text in order to identify words that are predictive of the … specific emotions towards the topic of interest, identifying what emotions a newspaper headline evoke, and create automatic dialogue systems that respond … Cited by 4 Related articles All 3 versions

Language Technology Support for Irish G Rehm, H Uszkoreit – The Irish Language in the Digital Age, 2012 – Springer … InIreland,anumberofsmallcompaniesandvariousaca- demic groups provide component language technolo- gies for lexical analysis and similar tasks which could be employedinwebsearch. … 5: Speech-based dialogue system flexibly – prompted by a How may I help you? … All 2 versions

Research on Entity-Based Interactive Query Interface in Chinese Natural Language for Databases W ZHU, X HUANG – Modern Computer, 2013 – en.cnki.com.cn … Science and Technology,Beijing Institute of Technology,Beijing 100081;Which Is More Effective for Chinese Lexical Analysis:Above-context … of Science & Technology of China, Hefei 230027);POMDP MODEL AND ITS SOLUTION FOR SPOKEN DIALOGUE SYSTEM[J];Journal …

Designing an intelligent dialogue system for serious games F Dernoncourt – 2012 – researchgate.net … Designing an intelligent dialogue system for serious games … If simple heuristics based on regular expressions, ie on finite state automata, are sufficient to perform the lexical analysis of Western languages where words are usually separated by spaces, it does not suffice in some … Cited by 2 Related articles All 4 versions

A computational linguistic approach to natural language processing with applications to garden path sentences analysis J DU, P YU – Editorial Preface, 2012 – Citeseer … system. Figure 1 Zhou & Hripcsak’Medical NLP Model Zhou & Hripcsak’medical NLP model comprises three parts, ie “structure”,“analysis” and “challenges”.“Analysis” consists in morphological, lexical, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic parts. Morphology and lexical analysis … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

Representing Syntactic-Semantic Knowledge from English Texts R Guidry Jr, J Chen – … on the International Conference on Artificial …, 2014 – world-comp.org … Fig. 1: Stages in NLP Lexical analysis and tokenization encapsulate linguistic elements into tokens, usually words. … [1] James Allen, George Ferguson, Bradford W. Miller, Eric K. Ringger, and Teresa Sikorski Zollo. Dialogue systems: From theory to practice in TRAINS96. … Related articles All 2 versions

Behavioral signal processing: Deriving human behavioral informatics from speech and language S Narayanan, PG Georgiou – Proceedings of the IEEE, 2013 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … such as the child’s confi- dence or certainty [1] and socio-emotional state such as frustration, engagement, and joy in the activity [2]–[5]. Computing high level states such as uncertainty and engagement from behavioral cues can be used within a spoken dialog system such as … Cited by 54 Related articles All 7 versions

An automatic approach for ontology-based feature extraction from heterogeneous textual resources C Vicient, D Sánchez, A Moreno – Engineering Applications of Artificial …, 2013 – Elsevier … Another domain-dependent system is SOBA (Buitelaar et al., 2008), a sub-component of the SmartWeb (a multi-modal dialog system that derives answers from unstructured resources such as the Web), which automatically populates a knowledge base with information extracted … Cited by 21 Related articles All 5 versions

Preliminary Research and Development on the Problem-Solving Humanoid Machine for K-12 Education X Yu, D Yang, W Ding, W Gan – Educational Innovation through …, 2014 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … This service can be applied to Q&A intelligent interactive dialogue systems for commercial and social services. … 2008 [15] ICTCLAS (Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Lexical Analysis System), http://ictclas.org/index.html [16] iText, http://itextpdf.com/ 104 Related articles All 2 versions

Implementation of a Symbolic Method for the Tunisian Dialect Understanding W Neifar, Y BAHOU, M GRAJA, M JAOUA – Proceedings of 5th …, 2014 – citala.org … I. INTRODUCTION Spontaneous speech understanding is an essential step in a Human-Machine Spoken Dialogue System (HMSDS). … For this, we adapted the lexical database, the conceptual segments and the morpho-lexical analysis. … Cited by 1 Related articles

[BOOK] Man-machine Dialogue: Design and Challenges F Landragin – 2013 – books.google.com … Computer aspects 2.4. Conclusion Chapter 3: The Development Stages of a Dialogue System 3.1. Comparing a few development progresses 3.2. … Conclusion Chapter 10: Multimodal Dialogue System Assessment 10.1. Dialogue system assessment feasibility 10.2. … Related articles

Emotion classification by removal of the overlap from incremental association language features JL Wu, LC Yu, PC Chang – Journal of the Chinese Institute of …, 2011 – Taylor & Francis … 1999. Towards a pure Chinese spoken dialogue system. Journal of the Chinese institute of engineers, 22(5): 581–591. … 1999. Lexical analysis for Chinese-difficulties and possible solutions. Journal of the Chinese institute of engineers, 22(5): 561–571. … Cited by 5 Related articles All 2 versions

[BOOK] Multilingual and Multimodal Corpus-Based Text-to-Speech System-PLATTOS. M Rojc, I Mlakar – 2011 – intechopen.com … The need to repeat and the misinterpretation of speaking terms are common features regarding the majority of users. Such behaviour usually leads towards less-functional and less-efficient spoken dialogue systems (Cassell, 2000). … Cited by 8 Related articles All 5 versions

Unsupervised Learning of Lexical Information for Language Processing Systems G Neubig – 2012 – phontron.com … particularly when encountering unknown words (Neubig and Mori, 2010). There has been significant work on efficient creation of data through ac- tive learning for lexical analysis. Methods have been proposed for creating data both … Cited by 2 Related articles All 2 versions

Content-Based Retrieval in Database Semantics R Hausser – Semantics in Data and Knowledge Bases, 2013 – Springer Page 1. Content-Based Retrieval in Database Semantics A Theoretical Foundation for Practical NLP Roland Hausser Abteilung Computerlinguistik Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (CLUE) Bismarckstr. 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany rrh@linguistik.uni-erlangen.de Abstract. … Related articles All 8 versions

Towards a conversational agent architecture to favor knowledge discovery in serious games F Bellotti, R Berta, A De Gloria… – Proceedings of the 8th …, 2011 – dl.acm.org … The problem of implementing a dialogue system may be tackled also in terms of text retrieval. [10] provides an excellent overview of Text Retrieval (TR) and NLP techniques. … A lexical analysis allows identifying semantic concepts, which are key for a comprehension of the text. … Cited by 2 Related articles

Vocabulary treatment in adventure and role-playing games: A playground for adaptation and adaptivity F Cornillie, I Jacques, S De Wannemacker… – … Approaches to Adaptive …, 2011 – Springer … As stated earlier, we don’t expect interactions with the point-and-click dialogue system to lead to knowledge estimations, but only to contribute to them. … Thus, a detailed lexical analysis of a commercial game’s text is first of all required. … Cited by 6 Related articles All 11 versions

An Investigation of Digital Reference Interviews: A Dialogue Act Approach K Inoue – 2013 – surface.syr.edu … a new aspect for evaluating digital reference services, 2) new data attributes for information extraction / retrieval algorithms (document models), and 3) a prototypical dialogue model for constructing fully-automated dialogue systems. 1.5 Summary … Related articles All 3 versions

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A philosophical investigation in machine understanding. The case of implicit meaning M Wilkowska – Semina Scientiarum, 2013 – w.czasopisma.upjp2.edu.pl … In this context intelligence is equaled with linguistic skills (which are believed to be the base thereof) and so the research focuses on building artificial dialogue systems. Conversational … bits. This is where the lexical analysis takes place. … Related articles All 8 versions

Representing And Processing PKITP WISBER – GWAI-85: 9th German Workshop on Artificial …, 2013 – books.google.com … The question of how to represent and process verbs in the German language dialog system HAM-ANS (HAMburg Application-oriented Natural … Starting the parsing with the appropriate case frame if no full verb is detected during lexical analysis would require processing along … Related articles

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Methods and algorithms for automatic text analysis VA Yatsko – Automatic Documentation and Mathematical …, 2011 – Springer … ALGORITHMS FOR LEXICAL ANALYSIS The basic task of lexical analysis is to recognize the lexical units of a text. … 9, pp. 7–13. 3. Nöth, E., Horndasch, A., Gallwitz, F., and Haas, J., Experiences with Commercial Telephone Based Dialogue Systems, Information technology, vol. … Cited by 1 Related articles All 5 versions

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The EducAgent Platform: Intelligent Conversational Agents for E-Learning Applications D Griol, J García-Herrero, JM Molina – Ambient Intelligence-Software and …, 2011 – Springer … xsi:schemaLocation=”http://www.w3.org/2001/vxml http://www.w3.org/TR/voicexml20/vxml.xsd”>

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