Link Grammar & Dialog Systems


Link Grammar is a syntactic parser that is used to analyze the structure of sentences in natural language. It is a dictionary-based parser, which means that it uses a pre-defined dictionary of words and their possible grammatical roles to identify the parts of speech in a given sentence and to determine how they are related to each other. Link Grammar is unique in that it uses a set of “links” to represent the relationships between words, rather than the traditional tree-like structure used by many other parsers.

Link Grammar is used in dialog systems to analyze and understand the structure of user inputs. By using Link Grammar, a dialog system can identify the subject, verb, and other parts of speech in a user’s input, and can use this information to determine the intended meaning of the input. This can help the dialog system to generate more appropriate and accurate responses to user inputs, and can improve the overall quality of the conversation. Additionally, the Link Grammar parser can be used to identify and correct errors in the user’s input, helping to improve the robustness and reliability of the dialog system.


See also:

Construction Grammar & Dialog SystemsGrammar Checkers & Dialog SystemsModular Grammar & Dialog Systems

Error detection using linguistic features Y Shi, L Zhou – Proceedings of the conference on Human Language …, 2005 – … 2001. Confidence measures for spo- ken dialogue systems. In Proceedings of ICASSP, vol- ume 1, pages 393–396. … 1993. Parsing eng- lish with a link grammar. In Proceedings of the third international workshop on parsing technologies. Rong Zhang and Alexander I. Rudnicky. … Cited by 14 Related articles All 13 versions

Automated Population of Cyc: Extracting Information about Named-entities from the Web. P Shah, D Schneider, C Matuszek, RC Kahlert… – FLAIRS Conference, 2006 – … with a Link Grammar. In Third International Workshop on Parsing Technologies. Tilburg, Germany. Witbrock, M., Baxter, D., Curtis, J., Schneider, D., Kahlert, RC, Miraglia, P., Wagner, P., Panton, K., Matthews, G., Vizedom, A. 2003. An Interactive Dialogue System for Knowledge … Cited by 25 Related articles All 10 versions

User modeling and user-adapted interaction PDA Kobsa – User modeling and user-adapted interaction, 2005 – Springer … expertise. In: A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster (eds.): User Models in Dialog Systems. Berlin: Springer, 133–162. References … below. Memo/technical report: Sletor, DDK and Temperley, D.: 1991, Parsing English with al link grammar. Technical … Cited by 18 Related articles All 5 versions

Syntax-semantic mapping for general intelligence: language comprehension as hypergraph homomorphism, language generation as constraint satisfaction R Lian, B Goertzel, S Ke, J O’Neill, K Sadeghi… – Artificial General …, 2012 – Springer … A pro- totype of the approach created using the link parser and the OpenCog Atom semantic representation is described, and initial results presented. Routes to extending this prototype into something useful for aiding gen- erally intelligent dialogue systems are discussed. … Cited by 7 Related articles All 7 versions

Natural Language Interface Using Shallow Parsing. R Akerkar, M Joshi – IJCSA, 2008 – … In the above NLI 2DB example also we saw use of Link Parser which collects information at syntactic level and it can be used at semantic level. … Page 6. Natural Language Interface using Shallow Parsing 75 Dialogue systems were historically the domain of AI researchers. … Cited by 10 Related articles All 4 versions

Ontology-based utterance interpretation for intelligent conversational interfaces EC Paraiso – Proceedings of the 2008 ACM symposium on Applied …, 2008 – … In her work, she explores the requirements of an ontology specially designed for dialogue systems. … Page 4. relations between pairs of words, based on a link grammar adapted from Link Parser [6]. The statement is classified as a question by the parser so, to be able to follow the … Cited by 5 Related articles All 2 versions

Learning Grounded Language through Situated Interactive Instruction. S Mohan, A Mininger, J Kirk, JE Laird – AAAI Fall Symposium: Robots …, 2012 – … Messages to the agent are fed through the link-grammar (Sleator and Temperley, 1993) parser to extract part of speech tags and sentence structure. … 1. Syntactic Parsing: A syntactic parse is generated based on a static dictionary and grammar using the link-grammar parser. … Cited by 9 Related articles All 5 versions

An intelligent speech interface for personal assistants applied to knowledge management EC Paraiso, JPA Barthès – Web Intelligence and Agent Systems, 2005 – … 31. {31} D. Milward and M. Beveride, Ontology-Based Dialogue Systems , in: Proceedings of International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence … 42. {42} D. Sleator and D. Temperley, Parsing English with a Link Grammar, Third International Workshop on Parsing Technologies … Cited by 5 Related articles All 2 versions

DEXTOR: Reduced Effort Authoring for Template-Based Natural Language Generation. KS Narayan, CL Isbell Jr, DL Roberts – AIIDE, 2011 – … Lafferty, J.; Sleator, D.; and Temperley, D. 1992. Grammatical trigrams: A probabilistic model of link grammar. Technical report, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. … Theune, MA 2003. Natural language generation for dialogue: system survey. Technical Report 2003-22. … Cited by 3 Related articles All 7 versions

Incremental dependency parsing based on headed context-free grammar Y Kato, S Matsubara, K Toyama… – Systems and Computers …, 2005 – Wiley Online Library Page 1. Incremental Dependency Parsing Based on Headed Context-Free Grammar Yoshihide Kato, 1 Shigeki Matsubara, 2 Katsuhiko Toyama, 3 and Yasuyoshi Inagaki 4 1 Graduate School of International Development, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8601 Japan … Cited by 5 Related articles All 4 versions

Ontologies Supporting Intelligent Agent-Based Assistance EC Paraiso, A Malucelli – Computing and Informatics, 2012 – … In her work, she explores the requirements of an ontology specially designed for dialogue systems. … Additional information is collected, by identifying relations between pairs of words, based on a link grammar adapted from Link Parser [37]. … Cited by 3 Related articles All 3 versions

SmartGrammar: A dynamic spoken language understanding grammar for inflective languages V Catania, R Di Natale, AR Intilisano, Y Cilano… – … a case scenario in the Italian language, but the same idea may be extended and reused for other inflectional languages Dialog Systems. … reason, the morphological engine has been combined with a syntactic analyzer that is a specific version of the Link Grammar Parser (LGP … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Using logical relevance for question answering M De Boni – Journal of Applied Logic, 2007 – Elsevier … Initial experiments attempted to automatically derive rules in the following manner: transform the question and answer sentence into logical form using a customised parser based on output of the link parser given by [23]; use and-reduction to simplify the question; finally attempt … Cited by 1 Related articles All 5 versions

Natural language processing at the school of information studies for Africa B Gambäck, G Eriksson, A Fourla – … of the Second ACL Workshop on …, 2005 – … Some problems in current spo- ken dialogue systems were discussed, while text-to- speech synthesis and multimodal synthesis were just briefly … encoding several different strategies: top-down, bottom-up, well-formed sub- string tables, head parsing, and link parsing (a link … Cited by 2 Related articles All 21 versions

Seminar in Computerlinguistik: Robustes Parsing M Hess, M Volk – … hier besonders: (Constraint-) Relaxationstechniken Ingels (1993); Link Grammar 6. Grammatikentwicklung durch beschränktes Parsen Besonders: Corpora-basierte Methoden und beschränktes Parsing … Page 9. 9 systems.” 13. Parsing mit neuronalen Netzen 4. Zeitplan … Related articles All 2 versions

Natural Language Dialogue B Goertzel, C Pennachin, N Geisweiller – Engineering General Intelligence …, 2014 – Springer … Implementing parsing via expressing the link parser dictionary as Atoms in the Atomspace, and using the SAT link parser to do … and other cognitive algorithms to experientially adapt the various portions of the dialogue system that have been moved into the OpenCog core and …

Grammar Representation Forms in Natural Language Interface for Robot Controlling L Kovács, P Barabás – Emergent Trends in Robotics and Intelligent …, 2015 – Springer … AESOP 3000 [8] is a surgical robot which is controlled by voice in heart surgery and does not provide a full dialog system. The implemented prototype systems mainly support only the dominating languages. … A similar formalism is used in the Link Grammar. … Related articles All 3 versions

An Automatic Template Based Question Answering System to Improve E-learning A Gupta, A Mittal – i-Manager’s Journal on Software …, 2008 – … They worked as Natural Language (NL) front—end to databases [7-8], dialogue systems or story comprehension systems in early days of NLP. … SimulTaneously quesTion, asked by learner is parsed using a link grammar based parser for semanTic analysis. … Related articles

From Specialized Syntax to General Logic: The Case of Comparatives R Lian, R Solomon, A Belayneh, B Goertzel… – Artificial General …, 2015 – Springer … significant work remains before we have a generally robust compre- hension system capable for use in a wide variety fo dialogue systems. … architecture described here is, in its current imple- mentation, largely founded on hand-coded linguistic rules: the link-grammar dic- tionary …

Representing Syntactic-Semantic Knowledge from English Texts R Guidry Jr, J Chen – … on the International Conference on Artificial …, 2014 – … The availability of various syntactic parsers such as the Link grammar parser [13], the Stanford Parser [14], and the Malt Parser[15] made it much easier to exploit the results of syntactic parsing in building shallow semantic … Dialogue systems: From theory to practice in TRAINS96. … Related articles All 2 versions

Language Learning via Unsupervised Corpus Analysis B Goertzel, C Pennachin, N Geisweiller – Engineering General Intelligence …, 2014 – Springer … As reviewed above, Word Grammar theory (implic- itly) uses connectors similar to those of Link Grammar, but allows each connec- tor to be marked as the head of a link or not. … A similar, related issue can be termed “the richness of the MV link type in Link Grammar”. …

Computer Assisted Language Learning MG Kosta – 2011 – … Dialogue systems allow the student to interview characters and perform goal-oriented tasks, thus practicing both speaking and listening … of Science and Technology), the word jumble exercises of Cognitive Tutor (Carnegie Mellon University) and the Link Grammar parser which … Related articles

Modern Computer Intelligent Recognition Technology of Natural Language Processing Research Progress and Application [J] LI Cui-xia – Science Technology and Engineering, 2012 – … Communication University of China, Beijing 100024, China);Improving the recognition rate of speech for dialogue system using expectation[J … University, Shenyang 110004, China.;Automatic Acquisition of English-Chinese E-Chunk Based on LINK-GRAMMAR[J];JOURNAL OF … Related articles

Semantic Network Language Generation based on a Semantic Networks Serialization Grammar Y Dai, S Zhang, J Chen, T Chen, W Zhang – World Wide Web, 2010 – Springer … If the label set of a semantic network is a classification hierarchy, the semantic network is called a classified semantic network. Typical semantic networks in ontology systems, Semantic Wiki systems or SN based dialogue systems are all classified semantic networks. … Cited by 5 Related articles All 6 versions

Data-driven dependency parsing for Romanian M Calacean – 2008 – … sentence. Parsers, the modules that perform this process, are found in many different NLP applications, ranging from spoken dialog systems to informa- tion extraction and machine translation programs. The syntactic representation assigned to a sentence through parsing is … Cited by 6 Related articles All 2 versions

Literature review on patient-friendly documentation systems H Åhlfeldt, L Borin, N Grabar, C Hallett, D Hardcastle… – 2006 – … 37 4.8 Text Simplification and Dialogue . . . . . 38 4.8.1 Text simplification . . . . . 38 4.8.2 Dialogue systems . . . . . 38 4.9 Automated acquisition of lexicon . . . . . … Cited by 6 Related articles All 14 versions

An investigation of linguistic information for speech recognition error detection Y Shi – 2008 – … 15 2.3.3 Linguistic features used for dialogue systems . . . . . 16 2.3.4 Linguistic features used for monologue applications . . . . . … 37 5.2.1 Features Extracted from Link Grammar . . . . . 37 … Cited by 9 Related articles All 4 versions

Providing Language Instructor with Artificial Intelligence Assistant K Pietroszek – International Journal of Emerging Technologies in …, 2007 – … E. 3 We are currently testing an open source grammar checker, Link Grammar, developed in the School of Computer Science at the Carnegie Mellon University [25] … Official website: e35a477 [25] Link Grammar. … Cited by 1 Related articles All 6 versions

A critical survey on the use of fuzzy sets in speech and natural language processing JP Carvalho, F Batista, L Coheur – Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE) …, 2012 – … Examples of grammars from the first set are the well-known Context-Free Grammars (CFG) [9]; an example of the second set is the Link Grammar [43]. Many grammars are hand crafted, but there are also systems that try to infer rules. … Cited by 5 Related articles All 4 versions

[BOOK] Procedural Or Non-procedural: That is the Question KK Wu – 2007 – … 51 5.2.1 Link Grammar….. … HAL 9000 computer system in Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey; question answering researchers are likely to contend, quite legitimately, that these are dialogue systems and an entirely … All 2 versions

MOOIDE: natural language interface for programming MOO environments M Ahmad – 2008 – … When you empty the oven, ,7/ D]: Figure 3: MOOIDE Interface Users interact with the natural language dialog system on the left window and they can test the described world in a MOO simulation inside the window on the upper right. The window … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Robust dialog management through a context-centric architecture VC Hung – 2010 – … input is emphasized, this endeavor involves the fundamental issues associated with natural language processing, automatic speech recognition and dialog system design. … 20 Dialog Systems ….. 22 … Cited by 2 Related articles

Generating example contexts to help children learn word meaning L Liu, J Mostow – Natural Language Engineering, 2013 – Cambridge Univ Press … To filter out ungrammatical contexts, we use the Link Grammar Parser (Sleator and Temperley 1993), a syntactic dependency parser, as a grammar checker. VE- GEMATIC eliminates candidates that the parser cannot parse as syntactically valid English. … Cited by 1 Related articles All 9 versions

[BOOK] A glossary of corpus linguistics P Baker, A Hardie, T McEnery – 2006 – … ScoSE (Saarbrücken Corpus of Spoken English) SEC (Lancaster/IBM Spoken English Corpus) SEU (Survey of English Usage) Corpus SGML (Standard Generalised Markup Language) SPAAC (Speech Act Annotated Corpus for Dialogue Systems) SUSANNE (Surface and … Cited by 161 Related articles All 5 versions

Modeling users for adaptive information retrieval by capturing user intent E Santos Jr, H Nguyen – … for improved user modeling. IGI Global, 2009 – Page 106. Chapter V Modeling Users for Adaptive Information Retrieval by Capturing User Intent Eugene Santos, Jr. Dartmouth College, USA Hien Nguyen University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, USA abStraCt In this chapter, we … Cited by 14 Related articles All 7 versions

[BOOK] Engineering General Intelligence, Part 1 B Goertzel, C Pennachin, N Geisweiller – 2014 – Springer Page 1. Engineering General Intelligence, Part 2 The CogPrime Architecture for Integrative, Embodied AGI Ben Goertzel Cassio Pennachin Nil Geisweiller Atlantis Thinking Machines Series Editor:K. – U. Kühnberger Page 2. Atlantis Thinking Machines Volume 6 Series editor … Cited by 12 Related articles All 5 versions

Geographical information resolution and its application to the question answering systems DF Domenech, HR Hontoria – 2007 – Citeseer … simple rules that detected important words in the person’s input. GUS was a dialog system for airline reservation. … Human-Machine interaction is done by dialog systems that allow to do ques- tions in the context of previous interactions. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 2 versions

Hierarchical parallel markov models for interactive social agents R Zubek – 2005 – … 116 Figure 4-10. System processing time, excluding the Link parser…..117 Figure 4-11. … Conversation trees, on the other hand, are similar to finite-state dialog systems; they represent structure in detail, but disallow free-form inputs. … Cited by 3 Related articles All 11 versions

Spatial, Temporal, and Semantic Models for American Sign Language Generation: Implications for Gesture Generation M Huenerfauth – International Journal of Semantic Computing, 2008 – World Scientific Page 1. International Journal of Semantic Computing Vol. 2, No. 1 (2008) 21–45 c© World Scientific Publishing Company SPATIAL, TEMPORAL, AND SEMANTIC MODELS FOR AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE GENERATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR GESTURE GENERATION … Cited by 7 Related articles

NaLIX: A generic natural language search environment for XML data Y Li, H Yang, HV Jagadish – ACM Transactions on Database Systems ( …, 2007 – … Management]: Languages—Query lan- guages; H.4.0 [Information Systems Applications]: General General Terms: System, Design, Algorithms, Experimentation Additional Key Words and Phrases: Natural language interface, iterative search, XQuery, XML, dialog system … Cited by 27 Related articles All 10 versions

EReXS: Event and Relations Extraction for SWHi P Olango – 2006 – Citeseer … of Gold IE Information Extraction IST Information Society Technologies JAPE A Java Annotation Patterns Engine LG Link Grammar LR Language … 3] entitled, ‘Ontology-based Information Extraction with SOBA’, as a sub-component of the SmartWeb multi-modal dialog system. … Related articles All 6 versions

Domain-And Language-Adaptive Natural Language Controlling Framework P Barabás – 2013 – … Notation KQML Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language LCRF Linear-Conditional Random Field LG Link Grammar NER Named … QLF Quasi-Logical Form RDF Resource Description Framework SDK Software Development Kit SDS Speech Dialog System SNLP Stanford … Related articles All 2 versions

Third-party error detection support mechanisms for dictation speech recognition L Zhou, Y Shi, A Sears – Interacting with Computers, 2010 – Elsevier … One study (Skantze and Edlund, 2004) demonstrated the efficacy of utterance hypotheses in third-party error detection in a ‘spoken dialogue’ system. … in w and syntactic features (eg, number of links related to w) extracted from the output of parsers such as Link Grammar. … Cited by 5 Related articles All 5 versions

Knowledge Mining over Scientific Literature and Technical Documentation F Rinaldi – 2008 – … In fact, in an evaluation up to 90% of the sentences in a software manual were parsed by the publicly-available Link Grammar parsing system after incorporating specific lexicon [Sutcliffe and McElligott, 1996a]. Current parsing systems have improved since. … Related articles All 2 versions

Computational-Linguistic Approaches to Biological Text Mining AB Clegg – 2008 – … and gesture processing can be ignored wholesale, as can the large bodies of work dealing with multi-agent dialogue systems, emotional tone … A similar shortcut is provided by the fact that some NLP methodologies, such as Link Grammar (Sleator and Temperley, 1993), explicitly … Cited by 13 Related articles All 4 versions

Learning from communication data: Language in electronic business negotiations M Sokolova – 2006 – Citeseer Page 1. Learning from Communication Data: Language in Electronic Business Negotiations by Marina Sokolova Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies In partial fulfillment of the requirements For … Cited by 9 Related articles All 4 versions

Natural Language Process P Touset – Citeseer Page 1. Natural Language Process A dialogue system for the me … Page 4. Page | 4 Page 5. Page | 5 Abstract This report describes the improvement of the natural language processing capabilities of a dialogue system called the ‘Psychometer’. … All 2 versions

Pre-Processing MRSes T Bruland – In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on …, 2013 – … ACE can parse and generate using the compiled grammar. Our goal is to create a pipeline for the NorSource grammar and use it to create small question-answer systems or dialogue systems. The first step in the pipeline is the parsing process with ACE. … Cited by 1 Related articles All 9 versions

An error detection and correction framework to improve large vocabulary continuous speech recognition Z Zhou – 2009 – … 135 9.3.3 Adapting to Other Languages ….. 139 9.3.4 Incorporation in Spoken Dialogue Systems….. 140 9.4 Future Directions for Discriminative Language Modeling….. 140 … Cited by 1 Related articles All 4 versions

How the Web helps people turn ideas into code J Brandt, PJ Guo, J Lewenstein… – No Code Required: …, 2010 – Page 464. How the Web helps people turn ideas into code 23 1, 2 2 1 Joel Brandt, Philip J. Guo, 1 Joel Lewenstein, 1 Mira Dontcheva, Scott R. Klemmer 1Stanford University 2Adobe Systems, Inc. ABSTRACT This chapter investigates … Related articles

Mathematical Modeling N Sancisi, V Parenti-Castelli – Editorial Board, 2011 – Page 408. The 4th Congress of the Turkic World Mathematical Society (TWMS) Baku, Azerbaijan, 1-3 July, 2011 SECTION VIII Mathematical Modeling COMPUTATIONAL ISSUES IN THE SYNTHESIS OF PARALLEL MECHANISMS … Related articles

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Approaches to Recognizing Textual Entailment DP der Philosophischen – 2011 – … Each utterance in the interpreted version is actually implied or entailed by the utterances in the original conversation. Con- sequently, if we want to build a dialogue system, dealing with this kind of implication or entailment is one of the key challenges. Let alone there … Related articles All 4 versions