PML (Perception Markup Language)


References:

See also:

EMBR (Embodied Agents Behavior Realizer) & BML (Behavior Markup Language)


Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors
S Scherer, S Marsella, G Stratou, Y Xu… – … on Intelligent Virtual …, 2012 – Springer
Modern virtual agents require knowledge about their environment, the interaction itself, and their interlocutors’ behavior in order to be able to show appropriate nonverbal behavior as well as to adapt dialog policies accordingly. Recent achievements in the area of automatic …

Modeling perception-action loops: comparing sequential models with frame-based classifiers
A Mihoub, G Bailly, C Wolf – … of the second international conference on …, 2014 – dl.acm.org
… Oxford University Press, 2008, 75–94. 26. Scherer, S., Marsella, S., Stratou, G., et al. Perception markup language: towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors. Intelligent Virtual Agents, (2012), 455–463. 27 …

A demonstration of the perception system in SimSensei, a virtual human application for healthcare interviews
G Stratou, LP Morency, D DeVault… – 2015 international …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… 116, no. 4, p. 804, 2007. [9] JK Burgoon, LK Guerrero, and K. Floyd, Nonverbal communication. Allyn & Bacon Boston, MA, 2010. [10] S. Scherer, SC Marsella, G. Stratou, Y. Xu, F. Morbini, A. Egan, A. Rizzo, and L.-P. Morency, “Perception markup language: Towards a …

SimSensei demonstration: a perceptive virtual human interviewer for healthcare applications
LP Morency, G Stratou, D DeVault, A Hartholt… – Proceedings of the …, 2015 – ojs.aaai.org
… Computers in Human Behavior 37(0):94 – 100. Scherer, S.; Marsella, SC; Stratou, G.; Xu, Y.; Morbini, F.; Egan, A.; Rizzo, A.; and Morency, L.-P. 2012. Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors …

All together now
A Hartholt, D Traum, SC Marsella, A Shapiro… – … Workshop on Intelligent …, 2013 – Springer
… Page 7. 374 A. Hartholt et al. 4.1 MultiSense MultiSense provides the capabilities of both audio-visual sensing and nonverbal beha- vior understanding, as illustrated in Figure 1. The output messages are broadcast us- ing the Perception Markup Language (PML) [34] …

SimSensei Kiosk: A virtual human interviewer for healthcare decision support
D DeVault, R Artstein, G Benn, T Dey, E Fast… – Proceedings of the …, 2014 – ifaamas.org
Page 1. SimSensei Kiosk: A Virtual Human Interviewer for Healthcare Decision Support David DeVault? , Ron Artstein, Grace Benn, Teresa Dey, Ed Fast, Alesia Gainer, Kallirroi Georgila, Jon Gratch, Arno Hartholt, Margaux …

A transparent and decentralized model of perception and action for intelligent virtual agents
G Anastassakis, T Panayiotopoulos – International Journal on …, 2014 – World Scientific
… BML has been used as part of a number of im- plemented systems and applications (such as the EMBR software32). On the other end, the Perception Markup Language (PML)33 has recently been introduced, aim- ing towards standardization of nonverbal behaviour perception …

Learning joint multimodal behaviors for face-to-face interaction: performance & properties of statistical models
G Bailly, A Mihoub, C Wolf… – Human-Robot Interaction …, 2015 – hal.archives-ouvertes.fr
… in Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA). 2008. Tokyo. p. 37-44. [11] Scherer, S., et al. Perception Markup Language: Towards a Standardized Representation of Perceived Nonverbal Behaviors. in International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA). 2012. Santa Cruz, CA …

Censys: a model for distributed embodied cognition
T Ribeiro, M Vala, A Paiva – International Workshop on Intelligent Virtual …, 2013 – Springer
… were used to create mixed scenarios where agents can migrate between virtual and robotic bodies. Moreover, in order to deal with the other side of the loop, Scherer et al. propose a Perception Markup Language (PML) that should work just like BML [10] …

Social behavior modeling based on incremental discrete hidden Markov models
A Mihoub, G Bailly, C Wolf – International Workshop on Human Behavior …, 2013 – Springer
… Human interactions are paced by multi-level perception-action loops [21] and one major missing aspect of the SAIBA was the perception dimension. The Perception Markup Language (PML) [2] has been recently introduced to fill this gap …

Demonstrating and Learning Multimodal Socio-communicative Behaviors for HRI: Building Interactive Models from Immersive Teleoperation Data
G Bailly, F Elisei – FAIM/ISCA Workshop on Artificial …, 2018 – hal.archives-ouvertes.fr
… Lan- guage (BML). The action-perception loop was then closed by introducing a Perception Markup Language (PML) that converts input multisensory streams into stamped coverbal events [Scherer et al., 2012]. The advent …

An architecture for fluid real-time conversational agents: integrating incremental output generation and input processing
S Kopp, H van Welbergen, R Yaghoubzadeh… – Journal on Multimodal …, 2014 – Springer
… output coordination nor incremental processing. Recent work has started to extend this framework to also include a representation of nonverbal input behavior (the Perception Markup Language, PML) [36]. In contrast to BML …

interaction: performance & properties of statistical models
G Bailly, A Mihoub, C Wolf, F Elisei – core.ac.uk
… in Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA). 2008. Tokyo. p. 37-44. [11] Scherer, S., et al. Perception Markup Language: Towards a Standardized Representation of Perceived Nonverbal Behaviors. in International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA). 2012. Santa Cruz, CA …

What’s going on? multi-sense attention for virtual agents
T Balint, JM Allbeck – International Workshop on Intelligent Virtual Agents, 2013 – Springer
… LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3661, pp. 215–228. Springer, Heidelberg (2005) 11. Scherer, S., Marsella, S., Stratou, G., Xu, Y., Morbini, F., Egan, A., Rizzo, A(S.), Moren- cy, L.-P.: Perception Markup Language: Towards a Standardized Representation of Per- ceived Nonverbal Behaviors …

Speech in action: designing challenges that require incremental processing of self and others’ speech and performative gestures
G Bailly, F Elisei – Natural Language Generation for Human …, 2020 – hal.archives-ouvertes.fr
… Morency, et al. 2012. Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors. In International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents. 455–463. [20] Gabriel Skantze. 2016. Real-time …

Providing Physical Appearance and Behaviour to Virtual Characters
M del Puy Carretero, HV Diez, S García… – … on Articulated Motion …, 2016 – Springer
… 83–90. ACM (2009)Google Scholar. 7. Scherer, S., et al.: Perception markup language: towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors. In: Nakano, Y., Neff, M., Paiva, A., Walker, M. (eds.) IVA 2012. LNCS, vol. 7502, pp. 455–463 …

Modeling sensory-motor behaviors for social robots
A Mihoub, G Bailly, C Wolf – WACAI 2014 Worshop A ects …, 2014 – researchgate.net
… [2] S. Scherer, S. Marsella, G. Stratou, Y. Xu, F. Morbini, A. Egan, et L.-P. Morency,« Perception markup language: towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors», in Intelligent Virtual Agents, 2012, p. 455–463 …

Cicero-towards a multimodal virtual audience platform for public speaking training
L Batrinca, G Stratou, A Shapiro, LP Morency… – … workshop on intelligent …, 2013 – Springer
… 1114–1120. ELRA (2012) 14. Scherer, S., Marsella, S., Stratou, G., Xu, Y., Morbini, F., Egan, A., Rizzo, A(S.), Morency, L.-P.: Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representa- tion of perceived nonverbal behaviors …

Integrating Verbal and Nonvebval Input into a Dynamic Response Spoken Dialogue System
TY Hu, C Raman, SM Maza, L Gui… – Proceedings of the …, 2017 – ojs.aaai.org
… Textrank: Bringing order into texts. Scherer, S.; Marsella, SC; Stratou, G.; Xu, Y.; Morbini, F.; Egan, A.; Rizzo, A.; and Morency, L.-P. 2012. Perception Markup Language: Towards a Standardized Representation of Perceived Nonverbal Behaviors. In IVA. 5092

Learning multimodal behavioral models for face-to-face social interaction
A Mihoub, G Bailly, C Wolf, F Elisei – Journal on Multimodal User …, 2015 – Springer
The aim of this paper is to model multimodal perception-action loops of human behavior in face-to-face interactions. To this end, we propose trainable beha.

Graphical models for social behavior modeling in face-to face interaction
A Mihoub, G Bailly, C Wolf, F Elisei – Pattern Recognition Letters, 2016 – Elsevier
JavaScript is disabled on your browser. Please enable JavaScript to use all the features on this page. Skip to main content Skip to article …

Intelligent Virtual Agents: 12th International Conference, IVA 2012, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, September, 12-14, 2012. Proceedings
Y Nakano, M Neff, A Paiva, M Walker – 2012 – books.google.com
… ECA’s Communicative Intention….. 447 Jeremy Riviere, Carole Adam, and Sylvie Pesty Perception Markup Language: Towards a Standardized Representation of Perceived Nonverbal Behaviors….. 455 Stefan …

The W3C multimodal architecture and interfaces standard
DA Dahl – Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces, 2013 – Springer
… terms of actions, goals, and plans. Another markup language, Perception Markup Language (PML) [11] has been defined for representing perceived non-verbal behaviors. Other markup languages include MIML (Multimodal …

AgentSlang: A New Distributed Interactive System-Current Approaches and Performance
O ?erban, A Pauchet – International Conference on Agents and …, 2014 – scitepress.org
… Sadayuki, F. (2012). Msgpack. http://msgpack.org/. Scherer, S., Marsella, SC, Stratou, G., Xu, Y., Morbini, F., Egan, A., Rizzo, A., and Morency, L.-P. (2012). Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors …

An Investigation on the Effectiveness of Multimodal Fusion and Temporal Feature Extraction in Reactive and Spontaneous Behavior Generative RNN Models for …
HH Huang, M Fukuda, T Nishida – … of the 7th International Conference on …, 2019 – dl.acm.org
… Therefore, there have activities in standardize the development of ECAs like, Behavior Markup Language (BML) [25], Function Markup Language (FML) [8], Perception Markup Language (PML) [19], and SEMAINE API [20]. However …

Intelligent Virtual Agents
YNMN AnaPaiva, M Walker – Springer
… ECA’s Communicative Intention….. 447 Jeremy Riviere, Carole Adam, and Sylvie Pesty Perception Markup Language: Towards a Standardized Representation of Perceived Nonverbal Behaviors….. 455 Stefan …

An emotional engine for behavior simulators
S Carbajal, F Polomeni, J Mugica – Int J Serious Games, 2015 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
… 1999. DOI: 10.1145/301136.301152 [10] Scherer S., Marsella S., Stratou G., Xu Y., Morbini F., Egan A., Rizzo A., and Morency L.-P., Perception Markup Language: Towards a Standardized Representation of Perceived Nonverbal Behaviors …

Engagement with a virtual clinician encourages gesture usage in speakers with aphasia
S Snell, N Martin, EA Keshner – 2017 International Conference …, 2017 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… [16] S. Scherer et al. Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors. 2012 … [21] S. Scherer et al. Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors. 2012 …

Influence of individual differences when training public speaking with virtual audiences
M Chollet, P Ghate, C Neubauer… – Proceedings of the 18th …, 2018 – dl.acm.org
… allows us to synchronously capture inputs from multimodal sensors, detecting multimodal features in real-time, such as facial action units [12] or voice activity, and outputting them regularly (in our case, every second) in the standard PML perception markup language format [29] …

W3C based Interoperable Multimodal Communicator
D Park, D Gwon, J Choi, I Lee… – Journal of Broadcast …, 2015 – koreascience.or.kr
… The behavior markup language. [5] FML The next step towards a functional markup language. [6] PML Perception markup language. Perceived nonverbal behaviors. [7] MML Multimodal dialog description language for Rapid system development. [8] …

Exploring feedback strategies to improve public speaking: an interactive virtual audience framework
M Chollet, T Wörtwein, LP Morency, A Shapiro… – Proceedings of the …, 2015 – dl.acm.org
Page 1. Exploring Feedback Strategies to Improve Public Speaking: An Interactive Virtual Audience Framework Mathieu Chollet?1, Torsten Wörtwein†1, Louis-Philippe Morency‡, Ari Shapiro? , Stefan Scherer? ? Institute for …

Multimodal fusion in human-agent dialogue
E André, JC Martin, F Lingenfelser… – Coverbal Synchrony in …, 2014 – books.google.com
… An attempt towards a language that is not limited to the representation of emotion-related data, but directed to the representation of nonverbal behavior in general has been recently made by Scherer et al.(2012) with PML (Perception Markup Language) …

DESIGN FOR HUMAN-SYSTEM SYMBIOSIS: GLOBAL CONCEPTS AND IMPLEMENTATION PRINCIPLES
BHM Gerritsen, Z Rusák, I Horváth – researchgate.net
Page 1. BG vs. 1/21/2013 10:29:00 AM 1 Copyright © 2013 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference IDETC/CIE 2013 August 4-7, 2013, Portland, OR, USA …

TickTock: A non-goal-oriented multimodal dialog system with engagement awareness
Z Yu, A Papangelis, A Rudnicky – 2015 AAAI Spring symposium series, 2015 – cs.cmu.edu
… Morency, Lp 2012. Perception Markup Language: Towards a Standardized Representation of Perceived Nonverbal Behaviors, In proceedings of Intelligent Virtual Agents Sidner, cL, Kidd, cD, Lee, D., and Lesh, N. 2004. Where to …

Directing Virtual Humans Using Play-Scripts and Spatio-Temporal Reasoning
C Talbot – 2018 – researchgate.net
… Motion Capture Files 17 3.2. Dialogue Trees 18 3.3. Markup Languages 18 3.3.1. Behavior Markup Language 18 3.3.2. Functional Markup Language 19 3.3.3. Perception Markup Language 20 3.4. Robotics 21 3.5. Virtual Agents 22 3.6. Natural Language Processing 23 3.7 …

Usability assessment of interaction management support in LOUISE, an ECA-based user interface for elders with cognitive impairment
P Wargnier, S Benveniste, P Jouvelot… – Technology and …, 2018 – content.iospress.com
BACKGROUND: Embodied conversational agents (ECA) are possible enablers of assistive technologies, in particular for older adults with cognitive impairment. Yet, dedicated interaction management techniques addressing the specificities of this public a.

Nova: Automated analysis of nonverbal signals in social interactions
T Baur, I Damian, F Lingenfelser, J Wagner… – … Workshop on Human …, 2013 – Springer
… IEEE MultiMedia 12(1) (2005) 20. Scherer, S., Marsella, S., Stratou, G., Xu, Y., Morbini, F., Egan, A., Rizzo, A(S.), Morency, L.-P.: Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representa- tion of perceived nonverbal behaviors …

An expressive virtual audiencewith flexible behavioral styles
N Kang, WP Brinkman… – IEEE Transactions …, 2013 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
Page 1. An Expressive Virtual Audience with Flexible Behavioral Styles Ni Kang, Willem-Paul Brinkman, M. Birna van Riemsdijk, and Mark A. Neerincx Abstract—Currently, expressive virtual humans are used in psychological research, training, and psychotherapy …

Adapted Virtual Agents to Improve Usability and Acceptance of Assistive Technologies for Older Adults Living with Dementias
P Wargnier, P Jouvelot – 2014 – cri.ensmp.fr
… The first one ([Kopp et al., 2006]) presents the behavior markup language (BML) and the other one presents the perception markup language (PML). A third rep- resentation language, the function markup language (FML) is presented in [Heylen et al., 2008] …

Multi-Platform Expansion of the Virtual Human Toolkit: Ubiquitous Conversational Agents
A Hartholt, E Fast, A Reilly, W Whitcup… – … Journal of Semantic …, 2020 – World Scientific
… [37] S. Scherer et al., Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors, in Int. Conf. Intelligent Virtual Agents, 2012, pp. 455– 463. [38] M. Schuster, Speech recognition for mobile devices at Google, in Paci¯c Rim Int. Conf …

Ubiquitous virtual humans: A multi-platform framework for embodied AI agents in XR
A Hartholt, E Fast, A Reilly, W Whitcup… – … and Virtual Reality …, 2019 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… Journal of Pain Management (Nov. 2016), 311–321. [24] SCHERER, S., MARSELLA, S., STRATOU, G., XU, Y., MORBINI, F., EGAN, A., MORENCY, L.-P., ET AL. Perception markup language: To- wards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors …

Building a backbone for multi-agent tutoring in GIFT (Work in progress)
BD Nye, D Auerbach, TR Mehta… – Proceedings of the 5th …, 2017 – books.google.com
… p. 87-97). Scherer, S., Marsella, SC, Stratou, G., Xu, Y., Morbini, F., Egan, A., Rizzo, A., Morency, L.(2012), Perception Markup Language: Towards a Standardized Representation of Perceived Nonverbal Behaviors. In The 12th …

Investigating social cue-based interaction in digital learning games
I Damian, T Baur, E André – 2013 – opus.bibliothek.uni-augsburg.de
… [20] S. Scherer, S. Marsella, G. Stratou, Y. Xu, F. Morbini, A. Egan, A. Rizzo, and L.-P. Morency. Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors. In Intelligent Virtual Agents, volume 7502 of LNCS, pages 455–463 …

LOUIS-PHILIPPE MORENCY
C Point – cs.cmu.edu
Page 1. LOUIS-PHILIPPE MORENCY Carnegie Mellon University Language Technologies Institute 5000 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA Phone: +1 (412) 268-5508 E-mail: morency@cs.cmu.edu Homepage: http …

Integrating Sensors and Exploiting Sensor Data with GIFT for Im-proved Learning Analytics
JW Kim, RA Sottilare, K Brawner… – Sixth Annual GIFT …, 2018 – tradem.gifttutoring.org
… Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors. In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents (pp. 455-463). Santa Cruz, CA: Springer …

Investigating the speech characteristics of suicidal adolescents
S Scherer, J Pestian, LP Morency – 2013 IEEE International …, 2013 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… 6, pp. 587–597, 2010. [25] S. Scherer, S. Marsella, G. Stratou, Y. Xu, F. Morbini, A. Egan, A. Rizzo, and L.-P. Morency, “Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representation of perceived nonver- bal behaviors,” in Proceedings of Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA’12) …

Modeling user’s social attitude in a conversational system
T Baur, D Schiller, E André – Emotions and Personality in Personalized …, 2016 – Springer
With the growing number of conversational systems that find their way in our daily life, new questions and challenges arise. Even though natural conversation with agent-based systems has been…

Understanding the nonverbal behavior of socially anxious people during intimate self-disclosure
SH Kang, J Gratch – International Conference on Intelligent Virtual …, 2012 – Springer
… Medical Clinics of North America 85(3), 711–733 (2001) 16. Scherer, S., Marsella, S., Stratou, G., Xu, Y., Morbini, F., Egan, A., Rizzo, A., Morency, L.-P.: Perception Markup Language: Towards a Standardized Representation of Perceived Nonverbal Behaviors …

An always-on companion for isolated older adults
C Sidner, T Bickmore, C Rich, B Barry, L Ring… – 14th Annual SIGdial …, 2013 – cs.wpi.edu
… Conf. on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, Geneva, Switzerland (2013) 9. Scherer, S., Marsella, S., Stratou, C., Xu, Y., Morbini, F., Egan, A., Rizzo, A., Morency, LP: Perception markup language: Towards standardized representation of nonverbal behaviors. In: Proc …

Toward a model for incremental grounding in dialogue systems
T Visser – 2011 – essay.utwente.nl
Page 1. Toward a Model for Incremental Grounding in Dialogue Systems omas Visser thomas.visser@gmail.com University of Twente, EEMCS, HMI Enschede, e Netherlands Prof. dr. DKJ Heylen Dr. ir. HJA op den Akker Dr. M. eune USC Institute for Creative Technologies …

Context-Aware Automated Analysis and Annotation of Social Human–Agent Interactions
T Baur, G Mehlmann, I Damian, F Lingenfelser… – ACM Transactions on …, 2015 – dl.acm.org
Page 1. 11 Context-Aware Automated Analysis and Annotation of Social Human–Agent Interactions TOBIAS BAUR, GREGOR MEHLMANN, IONUT DAMIAN, FLORIAN LINGENFELSER, JOHANNES WAGNER, BIRGIT LUGRIN …

Systematic Representative Design and Clinical Virtual Reality
S Mozgai, A Hartholt, AS Rizzo – Psychological Inquiry, 2019 – Taylor & Francis
The authors of the article, “Causal Inference in Generalizable Environments: Systematic Representative Design”, boldly announce their core point in the opening line of the abstract stating that, “C…

Gesture assessment of teachers in an immersive rehearsal environment
R Barmaki – 2016 – stars.library.ucf.edu
Page 1. University of Central Florida STARS Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019 2016 Gesture Assessment of Teachers in an Immersive Rehearsal Environment Roghayeh Barmaki University of Central Florida Part …

A decade later: looking at the past while sketching the future of ICH through the tripartite digitisation model
K Rodil, M Rehm – International Journal of Intangible Heritage, 2015 – vbn.aau.dk
Page 1. Aalborg Universitet A decade later Looking at the past while sketching the future of ICH through the Tripartite Digitisation Model Rodil, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias Published in: International Journal of Intangible Heritage Publication date: 2015 …

MultiSense—Context-aware nonverbal behavior analysis framework: A psychological distress use case
G Stratou, LP Morency – IEEE Transactions on Affective …, 2017 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
Page 1. MultiSense—Context-Aware Nonverbal Behavior Analysis Framework: A Psychological Distress Use Case Giota Stratou and Louis-Philippe Morency Abstract—During face-to-face interactions, people naturally integrate …

Adaptive tutoring for self-regulated learning: A tutorial on tutoring systems
RA Sottilare, AM Sinatra – 2014 – apps.dtic.mil
Page 1. Adaptive Tutoring for Self-Regulated Learning: A Tutorial on Tutoring Systems by Robert A Sottilare and Anne M Sinatra ARL-SR-0305 December 2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Page 2. NOTICES Disclaimers …

To react or not to react: End-to-end visual pose forecasting for personalized avatar during dyadic conversations
C Ahuja, S Ma, LP Morency, Y Sheikh – 2019 International Conference …, 2019 – dl.acm.org
Page 1. To React or not to React: End-to-End Visual Pose Forecasting for Personalized Avatar during Dyadic Conversations Chaitanya Ahuja cahuja@andrew.cmu.edu Carnegie Mellon University Shugao Ma shugao@fb.com Facebook Reality Labs, Pittsburgh …

A job interview simulation: Social cue-based interaction with a virtual character
T Baur, I Damian, P Gebhard… – … on Social Computing, 2013 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… Available: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2388676.2388686 [18] S. Scherer, S. Marsella, G. Stratou, Y. Xu, F. Morbini, A. Egan, A. Rizzo, and L.-P. Morency, “Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors,” in Intelligent …

Self-reported symptoms of depression and PTSD are associated with reduced vowel space in screening interviews
S Scherer, GM Lucas, J Gratch… – IEEE Transactions …, 2015 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
Page 1. Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression and PTSD Are Associated with Reduced Vowel Space in Screening Interviews Stefan Scherer, Member, IEEE, Gale M. Lucas, Jonathan Gratch, Senior Member, IEEE, Albert ”Skip …

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