Robopsychology Citations


A robopsychologist is a researcher or professional who studies the psychological and cognitive aspects of robots and artificial intelligence. This can include understanding how robots perceive and interact with the world, how they learn and make decisions, and how they can be designed to better understand and interact with humans. Robopsychologists may also study the psychological effects of interacting with robots, such as how people form emotional attachments to them. This field is considered a sub-discipline of cognitive psychology, human-robot interaction and AI ethics.

The references below mention the use of social robots in robotherapy and robopsychology to establish emotional relationships with the elderly to encourage social interaction. The text also mentions the laws that robots are required to follow in order to prevent them from performing immoral or dangerous tasks, and the implications of robopsychology for future research, theory development, and practice. The text also mentions the history of robotic development and the problems that robopsychologists have encountered with robots.


See also:


Bootstrapping vehicles: a formal approach to unsupervised sensorimotor learning based on invariance A Censi – 2013 – … He invented the word “robotics”. Susan Calvin: (1982–2064) Head robopsychologist for the US Robots & Mechanical Men incorporated. One of the writer’s favorite fictional characters. robopsychology: In Asimov’s novels, robopsychology is the fictional study of the person- … Cited by 6 Related articles All 2 versions

Robot-based psychotherapy: Concepts development, state of the art, and new directions D David, SA Matu, OA David – International Journal of Cognitive …, 2014 – Guilford Press … Implications for future research, theory development, and practice are discussed in the context of evidence-based psychotherapy (ie, cognitive-behavior- al therapy/CBT). 1. fRom RoBoTICs ThRough RoBoPsyChology And RoBoTheRAPy To RoBoT-BAsed PsyChoTheRAPy … Cited by 4 Related articles All 2 versions

Isaac Asimov [Born Isaak Judah Ozimov] NJ CULL – Fifty Key Figures in Science Fiction, 2009 – … I, Robot is given a sense of unity by the increasing technical sophistication and social importance of the robots and through the dominant character of Dr Susan Calvin, the founder of the imaginary science of “robopsychology”(ie, robot psychology). … Related articles

Alex Proyas’s I, Robot: Much More Faithful to Asimov Than You Think D Palumbo – Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts, 2011 – … as well as Proyas note, the film is pointedly based on Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics, first articulated in I, Robot’s “Runaround” (1942), which are accurately cited in their entirety at the film’s beginning and then repeated in their entirety by USR’s robopsychologist Susan Calvin … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

Race, Adaptation and the Films I, Robot and I Am Legend W Hart – The Fantastic Made Visible: Essays on the Adaptation …, 2015 – … Calvin is a robopsychologist and all three work for the US Robots and Mechanical Men Corporation. … We are introduced to Calvin, the robopsychologist and a “little lost robot” at the fac- tory. However, it is Spooner, not Calvin that flushes out the robot. … Related articles All 2 versions

Empathy and Dyspathy between Man, Android and Robot in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick and I, Robot by Isaac Asimov M Brand – 2013 – … different environments in terms of political and social climate. In I, Robot, the reader follows the robopsychologist Susan Calvin of USRobot and Mechanical Men throughout nine short stories, and through her interviews with a journalist the readers get to know about bizarre … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

[BOOK] Robot dreams I Asimov – 2010 – … The ?ne pattern appeared on the screen. Calvin said,“Your permission, please, to manipulate your computer.” Permission was granted with a speechless nod. Of course! What could Linda, a new and unproven robopsychologist, do against the Living Legend? … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

The New Human: Robot Evolution in Selection from Asimov’s Short Stories ALS Majed – 2013 – … In a story called “Evidence,” Susan Calvin, a robopsychologist, describes how robots, the human creation, are better than most human beings, God’s creation. In the following passage, she equates the robot to a very good human being: … Cited by 1 Related articles All 4 versions

Buddy Bot–a robotic pet for lonely children in hospital JH Gislason, M Kogutowska, S Catalin – … INTRODUCTION “In 2008 she obtained her Ph.D. and joined United States Robots as a Robopsychologist, becoming the first practitioner of a new science…Robbie was con- structed for only one purpose really – to be the com- panion of a little child. … Related articles All 2 versions

The sleeper must awaken: inside the mind of Dune S Guerrier – The Lancet Psychiatry, 2014 – … At the time, other science-fiction writers were exploring similar ground: Isaac Asimov’s I, Robot (1950) framed previously published short stories as the recollections of “robopsychologist” Dr Susan Calvin, showing how examples of strange behaviour in robots could all be traced … All 2 versions

Robots who care: robotic psychology and robotherapy approach A Libin, E Libin – Caring machines: AI in eldercare: papers from the AAAI …, 2005 – … of uncertainty. Robotic Psychology, or Robopsychology, is defined as a systematic study of compatibility between people and robotic creatures on sensory-motor, emotional, cognitive, and social levels8. Robotic Psychology … Cited by 2 Related articles All 6 versions

Three laws of robotics and surgery M Moran – Journal of Endourology, 2008 – … Sunnyvale, CA. Page 3. Susan Calvin, a robopsychologist, is added. It was during the development of this third robotic piece that Asimov and editor John Campbell worked out the Three Laws of Robot- ics in May 1941.13 In … Cited by 7 Related articles All 5 versions

Unimation G O’Regan – Pillars of Computing, 2015 – Springer … Capek rejected the idea that machines created from metal could think or have human feelings. Asimov wrote several stories about robots in the 1940s including I, Robot, which is a collection of short stories featuring a robopsychologist, Dr. Susan Calvin. …

Why moral philosophers should watch sci-fi movies N Mukerji – 2014 – … But Spooner, who is assigned the case, is suspicious. He finds it unbelievable that Lanning could have broken the bullet-proof glass of his office window and thus starts investigating the case with the help of USR robopsychologist Dr. Susan Calvin. …

Isaac Asimov: The Optimistic Teacher D Fox – Hist – … robots had a built in code of ethics that forced them to comply with the rules of nature that should govern any decent human being. Susan Calvin is the main robopsychologist in Asimov’s robot books and works with the fictional US Robotics company. In the 1946 short story … Related articles

The Post-White Imaginary in Alex Proyas’s “I, Robot” S Brayton – Science Fiction Studies, 2008 – JSTOR … Will Smith). Although the original Asimov story upon which the film is based centered on the character of Dr. Susan Calvin (a “robopsychologist”),1 the cinematic version substitutes a black male protagonist. This shift illustrates … Cited by 6 Related articles All 3 versions

Overview for Reflections and Reviews of Past Predictions HJ Trusell – Proceedings of the IEEE, 2012 – … George Bekey (Life Fellow 1972), in a personal note to us, recently traced his journey from control, to hybrid analog/digital com- puters, to robotics, to autonomous robotics and finally to robot ethics. It seems not far from Isaac Asimov’s vision of robopsychology. … All 4 versions

Geopolitics in Greg Egan’s science fiction D Jorgensen – 2014 – … workers (336). A robopsychologist explains that the robot’s sense of superiority to human beings has overcome the law of obedience that once made it slavish. In Egan too a technological SOUTHERLY 192 Page 8. innovation … Related articles

Robot Birds: Enabling socializing opportunities through human-robot interaction D Gatenby, C Breazeal – … 34, 2004. [3] Libin, Alexander, and Libin, Elena, “Person—Robot Interactions From the Robopsychologist’ Point of View: The Robotic Psychology and Robotherapy Approach,” Proceeding of the IEEE, vol. 92, No. 11, November 2004. … Related articles All 4 versions

Futuristic Interaction Media Using Natural User Interface AV PANDEY – 2012 – … robots. Such type of social robots are also used for robotherapy and robopsychology where they establish emotional relationship with the elderly to encourage social interaction [3,4]. Robotic pets such as AIBO produced similar … Related articles All 4 versions

The Mathematics of the Brain V Eliashberg, Y Eliashberg – 2009 – DTIC Document … The model is simple enough to be theoretically understandable. At the same time it is sufficiently complex to produce some nontrivial robopsychological phenomena. (The term “robopsychology” is borrowed from I. Asimov HO 2.2 An example of a primitive E-machine … Related articles

[BOOK] The voice in the machine: building computers that understand speech R Pieraccini – 2012 – … alien master, Klaatu. And in Isaac Asimov’s 1950 novel I Robot,, Chief Robopsychologist Susan Calvin explains that the first genera- tion of robots could easily understand speech, but they couldn’t produce it. If, however, we … Cited by 54 Related articles All 5 versions

An integrative framework of time-varying affective robotic behavior LV Moshkina – 2011 – Citeseer Page 1. AN INTEGRATIVE FRAMEWORK OF TIME-VARYING AFFECTIVE ROBOTIC BEHAVIOR A Dissertation Presented to The Academic Faculty By Lilia V. Moshkina In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science … Cited by 6 Related articles All 4 versions

The Aesthetics of Critical Habitats* E Apter – 2006 – MIT Press … Chaos theory, paranormal forces, and robopsychology “wire” the outback, transforming it into a force-field of clashing communication systems and inflecting it with manifest spookiness. In “The Savagery of Birds” “live” nature is haunted by the specter of artificial life: … Cited by 16 Related articles All 3 versions

Piercing the Future Fog FPR Futures – 2013 – … or Second Law With these ethical laws in place, humanity thrives in the company of these intelligent machines. Robopsychologist Dr. Susan Calvin explains that strict adherence to these laws prevents robots from performing … Related articles All 2 versions

I, Reader: A Blog Series and a Book Outline J Miedema, L McKechnie, C Ross – 2009 – … The simple puzzles of the early stories grow into mysteries and then paradoxes of koan-like complexity, requiring the assistance of Dr. Susan Calvin, robopsychologist, a character of Sherlock Holmes proportions. The rising complexity is not just good story telling. … Related articles

When Robots would really be Human Simulacra: Love and the Ethical in Spielberg’s AI and Proyas’s I, Robot B Olivier – Film-Philosophy, 2008 – … himself), Spooner is determined to uncover the mystery behind the scientist’s death. Robopsychologist Dr Susan Calvin (Bridget Moynahan) – one of the two femmes fatales in the narrative, the other being VIKI (Virtual Interactive Kinetic Intelligence), the feminine- … Cited by 3 Related articles All 4 versions

Fear the Robots! T Conwell, T Sharood, N Vander Els – … With these ethical laws in place, humanity thrives in the company of these intelligent machines. Robopsychologist Dr. Susan Calvin explains that strict adherence to these laws prevents robots from performing act or undertaking tasks that are immoral, dangerous, or … Related articles

Robots and the sacred in science and science fiction: theological implications of artificial intelligence RM Geraci – Zygon®, 2007 – Wiley Online Library … them. In I, Robot ([1950] 1977), a collection of early short stories, Asimov details a “history” of early twenty-first–century robotic development through the eyes of one of its chief architects, robopsychologist Susan Cal- vin. Although … Cited by 11 Related articles All 6 versions

The comparison between humans and arificial intelligence in different literary pieces throughout human history N Laila – 2015 – … 3 Chapter 1: Human psychology Vs. Robopsychology 1.1: The Mind: ID, Ego and Super-ego 9 1.2: The Additional Factors of the Human Mind 17 1.3 Robopsychology and Human Robot Interaction 21 Chapter 2: Physiology as Opposed to the Mechanics of Metals. …

Biomimetic Robots at War: The Ethical Ramifications of American Military-Industrial Complex N Kostur – 2013 – … industrial complex. Isaac Asimov’s I, Robot is a popular science fiction novel that centers around the recollections of a Dr. Susan Calvin, “robopsychologist.” Calvin recounts the problems she and her team experienced with robot in the form of short story-like anecdotes. … Related articles All 2 versions

Contextual factors in the appearance of consumer robots: exploratory assessment of perceived anxiety toward humanlike consumer robots A Oyedele, S Hong, MS Minor – CyberPsychology & Behavior, 2007 – Page 1. CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR Volume 10, Number 5, 2007 © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089/cpb.2007.9977 Contextual Factors in the Appearance of Consumer Robots: Exploratory Assessment of Perceived Anxiety Toward Humanlike Consumer Robots … Cited by 14 Related articles All 4 versions

Human-Robot Relationship in Anime Films E SOMER – 2014 – … Asimov’s 16 Page 24. robopsychologist character Susan Calvin remarks “ They are a cleaner, better breed than we are” (1991: 16). John Hamilton explains that in the world of science fiction, robots are mechanical persons or animals. … Cited by 1 Related articles

Lovotics: Love+ Robotics, Sentimental Robot With Affective Artificial Intelligence HA SAMANI – 2011 – … Personal level interaction is also established in recreational and pet robots. These robots are also for robotherapy and robopsychology where they establish emotional relationships with the el- derly to encourage social interaction [138, 246]. … Related articles All 2 versions

Empowering elders to self-manage medications using a social robot P Tiwari – 2012 – … one or several health problems Psychomotor The relationship between cognitive functions and physical movement Robopsychology The study of the personalities of intelligent machines Robotherapy A framework of person … Cited by 1 Related articles

[BOOK] Isaac Asimov: the foundations of science fiction J Gunn – 2005 – Page 1. SIMOV The Foundations of Science Fiction, Revised Edition JAMES GLINN Page 2. Page 3. Isaac Asimov Thi s One KXYS-QQ3-345J Page 4. Page 5. Isaac Asimov The Foundations of Science Fiction Revised Edition James Gunn The Scarecrow Press, Inc. … Cited by 54 Related articles

Is the post-human a post-woman? Cyborgs, robots, artificial intelligence and the futures of gender: a case study F Ferrando – European Journal of Futures Research, 2014 – Springer … The range of affects involved in the human/ robotic interactions are a subject of ongoing research in dif- ferent fields: from Robopsychology, a specific form of psy- chology applied to robots, to Affective Computing, the branch of computer science focused on the development of … Cited by 2 Related articles All 3 versions

Ghost in the Machine: Androids in search of humanity in Isaac Asimov’s “The Bicentennial Man” and Philip K. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? J Vainio – 2008 – … technologies, rational explanations and factual reports, and usually has protagonists of the hero type. One good example of such a character is Asimov’s robopsychologist Susan Calvin, who appears in several of his robot stories. She … Related articles All 4 versions

Fear the Robots! A Study on the Perceived Future of Robotics in Modern Society J Castro – … Robopsychologist Dr. Susan Calvin explains that strict adherence to these laws prevents robots from performing act or undertaking tasks that are immoral, dangerous, or generally undesirable. iRobot’s machines clearly violate all three of Asimov’s laws. … Related articles All 2 versions

A prima facie defense of Hobbesian absolutism SD Courtland – Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 2009 – Wiley Online Library … When faced with the prospect of a robotic leader for the human government, Susan Calvin (the main character and robopsychologist) confidently states, ‘By the Laws of Robotics, he’d be incapable of tyranny, of corruption, of stupidity, of prejudice.’ 58 These laws seem to provide … Related articles All 4 versions

O Brave New Worlds: Science Fiction and the American Novel ES Rabkin – A Companion to the American Novel, 2012 – … The stories are woven together with scenes involving Susan Calvin, the world’s leading “robopsychologist” who thinks of robots as like people except “essentially decent.” In the last tale, she confronts the world administrator whom some believe to be a robot controlling us all … All 4 versions

[BOOK] Artificial Culture: Identity, Technology, and Bodies T Leaver – 2011 – … the fictional history ofrobotics with the’real’ work being discussed inthe Macy Conferences in that Asimov describes her as having completed ‘graduateworkin cybernetics’ inthe firstdecade of the twentyfirst century, and she wasthen employed asa ‘robopsychologist’ in2008 bythe … Cited by 2 Related articles All 3 versions

Dialogue Conceptual Diagrams MGB Marietto, RV de Aguiar, WT Botelho… – Page 1. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Dialogue Conceptual Diagrams A New Graphical Representation of the Chatterbots’ Knowledge Maria das Graças Bruno Marietto · Rafael Varago de Aguiar · Wagner Tanaka Botelho · Robson dos Santos França … Related articles

Development of the huggable social robot Probo: on the conceptual design and software architecture J Saldien – 2009 – Page 1. FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Department of Mechanical Engineering Development of the Huggable Social Robot Probo. On the Conceptual Design and Software Architecture. Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements … Cited by 2

Artificial Intelligence Markup Language: A Brief Tutorial MGB Marietto, RV de Aguiar, GO Barbosa… – arXiv preprint arXiv: …, 2013 – Page 1. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE: ABRIEF TUTORIAL Maria das Graças Bruno Marietto¹, Rafael Varago de Aguiar¹, Gislene de Oliveira Barbosa¹, Wagner Tanaka Botelho¹, Edson Pimentel¹, Robson dos Santos França 2 , Vera Lúcia da Silva 3 … Cited by 3 Related articles All 6 versions

Brains, Minds, and Computers in Literary and Science Fiction Neuronarratives JW Ellis – 2012 – Page 1. BRAINS, MINDS, AND COMPUTERS IN LITERARY AND SCIENCE FICTION NEURONARRATIVES A dissertation submitted to Kent State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. by Jason W. Ellis August 2012 Page … Related articles All 3 versions

Individual assessment of humanlike consumer robots: an extended TAM with aesthetic response and tolerance A Oyedele, S Hong, MS Minor – International Journal of …, 2007 – Page 1. Int. J. Technology Marketing, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2007 243 Copyright © 2007 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Individual assessment of humanlike consumer robots: an extended TAM with aesthetic response and tolerance Adesegun Oyedele and Soonkwan Hong* … Related articles All 2 versions

Using I, robot in the technical writing classroom: Developing a critical technological awareness AA Toscano – Computers and Composition, 2011 – Elsevier This article calls for technical writing courses to be more engaged in discussions on critical technological awareness. Being critically aware of technology mea. Cited by 7 Related articles All 4 versions

Religious Robots PJ Nahin – Holy Sci-Fi!, 2014 – Springer … Puzzled by this, Andrew’s owner visits the Chief Robopsychologist of the company that constructed Andrew, one Merton Mansky, 18 who explains that Andrew is the result of random chance: “Robotics is not an exact art … I cannot explain to you in detail, but the mathematics …

Evitable Conflicts, Inevitable Technologies? The Science and Fiction of Robotic Warfare and IHL I Kerr, K Szilagyi – Law, Culture and the Humanities, 2014 – Page 1. Law, Culture and the Humanities 0(0) 1 –38 © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: DOI: 10.1177/1743872113509443 LAW, CULTURE AND THE HUMANITIES Evitable Conflicts, Inevitable … Cited by 3 Related articles All 2 versions

[BOOK] Technophobia!: science fiction visions of Posthuman technology D Dinello – 2005 – Page 1. Science Fiction Visions of Posthuman Technology at fi. n if Page 2. technophobia! Page 3. THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Page 4. TECHNOPHOBIA! science fiction visions of posthuman technology Daniel Dinello university of texas press Austin Page 5. … Cited by 29 Related articles All 3 versions

[BOOK] Cyberculture, cyborgs and science fiction: Consciousness and the posthuman WS Haney – 2006 – Page 1. Cyberculture, Cyborgs and Science Fiction Consciousness and the Posthuman WILLIAM S. HANEY 11 lOOOt, III 00 Ooroi !! Page 2. Page 3. Cyberculture, Cyborgs and Science Fiction Th± s One N93K-6X2-AB35 Page 4. … Cited by 49 Related articles All 2 versions

[BOOK] Technical Legality: Law, Technology and Science Fiction K Tranter – 2010 – Page 1. i Technical Legality: Law, Technology and Science Fiction Kieran Tranter Bachelor of Science (Griffith University) Bachelor of Laws (Hon 1) (Griffith University) Socio-Legal Research Centre, Griffith Law School, Griffith University, Queensland … Related articles All 2 versions

The Rhetoric of Technical Communication AA Toscano – Marconi’s Wireless and the Rhetoric of a New …, 2012 – Springer Logo Springer. Search Options: … Related articles All 2 versions

[BOOK] Neuroscience in Science Fiction Films S Packer – 2014 – Page 1. |||S|| || | Hilfis | Sharon Packer, MD Page 2. Neuroscience in Science Fiction Films Page 3. ALSO BY SHARON PACKER, MD Cinema’s Sinister Psychiatrists: From Caligari to Hannibal (McFarland, 2012) Page 4. Neuroscience … Related articles All 2 versions

[BOOK] We, Robot: Skywalker’s Hand, Blade Runners, Iron Man, Slutbots, and how Fiction Became Fact M Meadows – 2010 – Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Also See Other Books By Mark Stephen Meadows: Pause &Effect: TheArtofInteractive Narrative I, Avatar: The Culture andConsequences ofHaving a SecondLife Tea Time with Terrorists:A Motorcycle JourneyInto the HeartofSriLanka’s Civil War Page 4. … Cited by 3 Related articles All 2 versions

Science fiction prototyping: designing the future with science fiction BD Johnson – Synthesis Lectures on Computer Science, 2011 – Page 1. Foreword by James Frenkel Science Fiction Prototyping Designing the Future with Science Fiction Science Fiction Prototyping Brian David Johnson Brian David Johnson Includes conversations with: Cory Doctorow, Chris Warner, Sidney Perkowitz M O R G A N & … Cited by 45 Related articles All 4 versions

The android and our cyborg selves: What androids will teach us about being (post) human AM Bodley – 2015 – … 89 UNCANNY INTERACTION: THE HUMAN IN THE HUMANOID ….. 95 ROBOPSYCHOLOGY AND THE UNCANNY ….. 108 THE UNCANNY AND ANTHROPOMORPHISM ….. 115 …

The posthuman: hostis humani generis?: science fiction allegories/social narratives MBB Smith – 2008 – Page 1. University of Warwick institutional repository: A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of PhD at the University of Warwick This thesis is made available online and is protected by original copyright. … Related articles All 4 versions

[BOOK] Apocalyptic AI: Visions of heaven in robotics, artificial intelligence, and virtual reality RM Geraci – 2010 – Page 1. Page 2. APOCALYPTIC Al Page 3. APOCALYPTIC AI VISIONS OF HEAVEN IN ROBOTICS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, AND VIRTUAL REALITY ROBERT M. GERACI OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Page 4. OXFORD … Cited by 39 Related articles All 3 versions

[BOOK] Race in American science fiction I Lavender – 2011 – Page 1. iSiah LavendeR iii Page 2. Race in American Science Fiction Page 3. indiana university press Bloomington & Indianapolis Page 4. Race in AmericAn Science Fiction IsIah LavendeR III Page 5. This book is a publication … Cited by 29 Related articles All 3 versions

A New Probabilistic Methodology to Support an Emotive Dialog Between a Human and a Robot JAS Prado – 2012 – Page 1. A NEW PROBABILISTIC METHODOLOGY TO SUPPORT AN EMOTIVE DIALOG BETWEEN A HUMAN AND A ROBOT José Augusto Soares Prado PHD THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING … Related articles All 5 versions

A Critical Postmodern Response S BRAYTON – 2008 – Page 1. © Sean Brayton, 2008 A CRITICAL POSTMODERN RESPONSE TO MULTICULTURALISM IN POPULAR CULTURE by SEAN BRAYTON BA, The University of Lethbridge, 2002 MA, The University of Alberta, 2004 A … Related articles

Roboethics in film F Battaglia, N Weidenfeld – 2014 – Page 1. RoboLaw Series 4 directed by E. Palmerini, RE Leenes, K. Warwick and F. Battaglia Page 2. Page 3. Roboethics in Film edited by Fiorella Battaglia and Nathalie Weidenfeld Page 4. © Copyright 2014 by Pisa University … Related articles All 2 versions

[BOOK] Science Fiction and the Sublime DJ Jorgensen – 2005 – Page 1. “Science Fiction and the Sublime” Darren J Jorgensen BA (Hons.) This thesis has been awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with Distinction at the University of Western Australia. English, Communication and Cultural Studies 2005. Page 2. 2 Acknowledgements … Related articles