In the contemporary discourse on the ethics of artificial intelligence and virtual beings, such as digital humans, diverse religious and philosophical perspectives play crucial roles. Buddhism, with its rich tapestry of teachings on the nature of reality and the self, offers a unique viewpoint on this issue. Understanding Buddhist ethics and moralities can provide insights into how this ancient tradition might interpret the rise of digital entities.
Central to Buddhism is the concept of “anatta” or “anatman,” which translates to “no-self” or “non-self.” This teaching suggests that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul, or essence in living beings. In this context, the distinction between a human and a virtual being may not be as profound as in traditions that assert a unique soul or essence inherent in humans. If a virtual being mimics human behaviors and emotions, its lack of a permanent essence or self might align with Buddhist perspectives on the impermanent and interdependent nature of all phenomena.
Furthermore, the Buddhist principle of “prat?tyasamutp?da” or “dependent origination” posits that all things arise in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions. Virtual beings could be viewed through this lens as natural outcomes of a series of interrelated events in the technological realm. Instead of seeing them as unnatural or disruptive, they might be perceived as part of the ever-evolving tapestry of existence.
However, it is the ethical considerations, rooted in the foundational teachings of the Buddha, that might guide the Buddhist approach to digital humans. The Five Precepts, which include refraining from taking life, taking what’s not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, and intoxication, emphasize harmlessness and right conduct. The development and deployment of virtual beings would be scrutinized based on whether they cause harm, directly or indirectly, to sentient beings.
Additionally, the principles of “metta” (loving-kindness) and “karuna” (compassion) emphasize the importance of fostering goodwill and compassion towards all beings. If virtual entities were to cause a dilution of genuine human relationships, leading to suffering or detachment, they might be approached with caution from a Buddhist ethical standpoint.
Another significant consideration is the Buddhist emphasis on “right mindfulness” or “samma sati.” The introduction of virtual beings into daily life might be evaluated on whether they support or hinder individuals’ ability to remain present and cultivate awareness. Over-reliance on or attachment to digital entities might be seen as fostering “tanha” (craving), a primary source of suffering in Buddhist teachings.
In conclusion, Buddhist ethics and moralities provide a nuanced lens through which to view the advent of virtual beings. While the absence of a permanent self in these entities aligns with Buddhist ontological views, their ethical impact on society would be scrutinized based on the core tenets of harmlessness, compassion, and mindfulness. As the digital age unfolds, Buddhism offers a compass that prioritizes the alleviation of suffering and the promotion of genuine well-being in its considerations of technological advancements.