A Legal Theory for Autonomous Artificial Agents


A Legal Theory for Autonomous Artificial Agents (2011) .. by Samir Chopra etc


Contents

Acknowledgments ix

Introduction 1

Chapter 1 / Artificial Agents and Agency 5

1.1. Agency and the Intentional Stance 11

1.2. Artificial Agents and Legal Agency 18

1.3. The Implications of Applying Agency Doctrine to Artificial Agents 25

1.4. A Note on Terminology and Scope 27

Chapter 2 / Artificial Agents and Contracts 29

2.1. The Contracting Problem 29

2.2. Solutions to the Contracting Problem in Closed Systems 31

2.3. Solutions to the Contracting Problem in Open Systems 32

2.4. Evaluating the Application of Agency Doctrine to Artificial Agents 43

2.5. Legislative Responses 61

2.6. Bot Contracting: Register v. Verio and eBay v. Bidder’s Edge 67

2.7. Conclusion 69

Chapter 3 / Attribution of Knowledge to Artificial Agents and Their Principals 71

3.1. Attributing Knowledge to Artificial Agents 72

3.2. Law’s Epistemology 82

3.3. Corporate Knowledge and Artificial Agents 85

3.4. Applications of the Analysis and the Legal Doctrines 98

3.5. Conclusion 117

Chapter 4 / Tort Liability for Artificial Agents 119

4.1. Navigating Analogies 119

4.2. Liability Schemes for Artificial Agents Understood as Instrumentalities 123

4.3. Liability Schemes for Artificial Agents Understood as Actors and Agents 127

4.4. Liability of Suppliers of Artificial Agents 135

4.5. Responsibility and Liability of the Artificial Agent 145

4.6. Conclusion 150

Chapter 5 / Personhood for Artificial Agents 153

5.1. Could Artificial Agents Be Legal Persons? 153

5.2. According Dependent Legal Personality to Artificial Agents 160

5.3. According Independent Legal Personality to Artificial Agents 162

5.4. Philosophical Objections to Personhood for Artificial Agents 171

5.5. The Significance of Personhood Jurisprudence 182

5.6. Recognizing Artificial Agents as Persons 186

5.7. Conclusion 189

Notes 193

References 221

Index 243