Adaptive Multimodal Interactive Systems


Adaptive Multimodal Interactive Systems (2011) .. by Matthias Bezold etc


Contents

Preface … v

1 Introduction … 1

1.1 Adaptive Multimodal Interactive Systems … 3

1.1.1 Multimodal Interactive Systems … 3

1.1.2 User Behavior … 4

1.1.3 Adaptations … 5

1.2 Structure of Adaptive Interactive Systems … 5

1.2.1 General Structure of Adaptive Interactive Systems … 6

1.2.2 Models in Adaptive Interactive Systems … 8

1.3 Causes of Adaptation … 12

1.4 Outline … 13

2 Related Work … 15

2.1 Adaptive Interactive Systems … 16

2.1.1 Adaptive Hypertext and Adaptive Websites … 17

2.1.2 Adaptive Graphical Interfaces … 19

2.1.3 Adaptive Speech Interfaces … 23

2.2 User Modeling for Adaptive Interactive Systems … 27

2.2.1 User Modeling Algorithms … 28

2.2.2 Plan Recognition and Task Models … 30

2.2.3 UserModelingArchitectures … 31

2.3 Design Patterns for Adaptations … 32

2.3.1 Interface and Adaptation Patterns … 33

2.3.2 Formalization of Design Patterns … 34

2.4 Semantics in Interactive Systems … 35

2.4.1 Ontologies in Dialog Systems … 36

2.4.2 Architectures for Adaptive Interactive Systems … 37

2.5 Discussion … 38

3 User Modeling in Interactive Systems … 41

3.1 User Behavior in Interactive Systems … 42

3.1.1 User Behavior as a Sequence of Events … 42

3.1.2 Behavior as Actions and Data … 44

3.2 Recognizing User Actions in Event Sequences … 45

3.2.1 Probabilistic Deterministic Finite-state Automata … 46

3.2.2 Describing User Behavior using PDFAs … 48

3.3 Modeling Tasks in Interactive Systems … 50

3.3.1 Task Modeling … 51

3.3.2 ConstructingTaskModels … 53

3.3.3 Task Models in Adaptive Systems … 54

3.4 Predicting User Actions … 57

3.4.1 Predicting One User Action … 58

3.4.2 Predicting a Sequence of User Actions … 60

3.4.3 Invoking User Actions … 64

3.5 Discussion … 64

4 Adaptation Patterns for Interactive Systems … 67

4.1 General Considerations for Adaptation Patterns … 68

4.1.1 Predictability … 69

4.1.2 Transparency … 70

4.1.3 Controllability … 70

4.1.4 Unobtrusiveness … 71

4.1.5 Privacy … 71

4.2 Creating Patterns … 72

4.2.1 Identifying Patterns … 72

4.2.2 A Pattern Format for Adaptation Patterns for Interactive Systems … 73

4.3 An Adaptation Pattern Collection for Interactive Systems … 74

4.3.1 Component Emphasis … 75

4.3.2 List Element Selection … 76

4.3.3 Alternative Elements … 76

4.3.4 Adaptive Help Presentation … 77

4.3.5 Shortcut Area … 78

4.4 Discussion … 79

5 AdaGUIDE – An Adaptation Framework … 81

5.1 Overview of the Architecture … 82

5.2 A Semantic Representation of Interactive Systems … 84

5.2.1 Ontologies … 84

5.2.2 An Ontology for Interactive Adaptive Systems … 85

5.2.3 Instantiating the Models … 88

5.3 A Framework for Modeling User Behavior … 89

5.3.1 The User Modeling Component … 90

5.3.2 The User Model … 92

5.3.3 Connecting the User Model and the Ontology … 95

5.4 Applying Adaptation Patterns … 96

5.4.1 Representation of Adaptations in the Framework … 96

5.4.2 Executing Adaptations … 98

5.5 Implementation … 99

5.5.1 Reference Implementation … 99

5.5.2 Applying the Framework to a Non-Adaptive Interactive System …102

5.6 Discussion …104

6 Evaluation … 107

6.1 Evaluating Adaptive Interactive Systems …108

6.2 Attitudes of Users towards Adaptive Interactive Systems … 110

6.2.1 Users of Adaptive Systems …110

6.2.2 Cultural In uence …110

6.3 Evaluation of the User Modeling Algorithms …112

6.3.1 Test Data …112

6.3.2 Action Recognition …113

6.3.3 Action Prediction …115

6.4 Evaluation of the Adaptation Approach …116

6.4.1 Test Setup …117

6.4.2 Adaptation Pattern: Adaptive Help Presentation … 119

6.4.3 Adaptation Pattern: Component Emphasis … 122

6.4.4 Adaptation Pattern: List Element Selection … . 125

6.4.5 Adaptation Pattern: Alternative Elements … 128

6.4.6 Adaptation Pattern: Shortcut Area …131

6.4.7 Evaluation Summary …135

6.5 Discussion …136

7 Summary and Outlook. 139

7.1 Summary …140

7.2 Outlook …142

A Adaptation Patterns for Interactive Systems … 145

A.1 ComponentEmphasis …145

A.2 List Element Selection …146

A.3 Alternative Elements …149

A.4 Adaptive Help Presentation …150

A.5 Shortcut Area …152

B The Evaluation Questionnaire … 155

List of Figures … 161

List of Tables … 165

References … 167

Index … 183