Machine Ethics


Machine Ethics (2011) .. edited by Michael Anderson @Clubdemer etc


Contents

General Introduction page 1

PART I THE NATURE OF MACHINE ETHICS

Introduction 7

1. The Nature, Importance, and Difficulty of Machine Ethics 13

James H. Moor

2. Machine Metaethics 21

Susan Leigh Anderson

3. Ethics for Machines 28

J. Storrs Hall

PART II THE IMPORTANCE OF MACHINE ETHICS

Introduction 47

4. Why Machine Ethics? 51

Colin Allen, Wendell Wallach, and Iva Smit

5. Authenticity in the Age of Digital Companions 62

Sherry Turkle

PART III ISSUES CONCERNING MACHINE ETHICS

Introduction 79

6. What Matters to a Machine? 88

Drew McDermott

7. Machine Ethics and the Idea of a More-Than-Human Moral World 115

Steve Torrance

8. On Computable Morality: An Examination of Machines as Moral Advisors 138

Blay Whitby

9. When Is a Robot a Moral Agent? 151

John P. Sullins

10. Philosophical Concerns with Machine Ethics 162

Susan Leigh Anderson

11. Computer Systems: Moral Entities but Not Moral Agents 168

Deborah G. Johnson

12. On the Morality of Artificial Agents 184

Luciano Floridi

13. Legal Rights for Machines: Some Fundamental Concepts 213

David J. Calverley

PART IV APPROACHES TO MACHINE ETHICS

Introduction 231

a. Overview

14. Towards the Ethical Robot 244

James Gips

b. Asimov’s Laws

15. Asimov’s Laws of Robotics: Implications for Information Technology 254

Roger Clarke

16. The Unacceptability of Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics as a Basis for Machine Ethics 285

Susan Leigh Anderson

c. Artificial Intelligence Approaches

17. Computational Models of Ethical Reasoning: Challenges, Initial Steps, and Future Directions 297

Bruce M. McLaren

18. Computational Neural Modeling and the Philosophy of Ethics: Reflections on the Particularism-Generalism Debate 316

Marcello Guarini

19. Architectures and Ethics for Robots: Constraint Satisfaction as a Unitary Design Framework 335

Alan K. Mackworth

20. Piagetian Roboethics via Category Theory: Moving beyond Mere Formal Operations to Engineer Robots Whose Decisions Are Guaranteed to be Ethically Correct 361

Selmer Bringsjord, Joshua Taylor, Bram van Heuveln, Konstantine Arkoudas, Micah Clark and Ralph Wojtowicz

21. Ethical Protocols Design 375

Matteo Turilli

22. Modeling Morality with Prospective Logic 398

Luís Moniz Pereira and Ari Saptawijaya

d. Psychological/Sociological Approaches

23. An Integrated Reasoning Approach to Moral Decision Making 422

Morteza Dehghani, Ken Forbus, Emmett Tomai and Matthew Klenk

24. Prototyping N-Reasons: A Computer Mediated Ethics Machine 442

Peter Danielson

e. Philosophical Approaches

25. There Is No “I” in “Robot”: Robots and Utilitarianism 451

Christopher Grau

26. Prospects for a Kantian Machine 464

Thomas M. Powers

27. A Prima Facie Duty Approach to Machine Ethics: Machine Learning of Features of Ethical Dilemmas, Prima Facie Duties, and Decision Principles through a Dialogue with Ethicists 476

Susan Leigh Anderson and Michael Anderson

PART V VISIONS FOR MACHINE ETHICS

Introduction 495

28. What Can AI Do for Ethics? 499

Helen Seville and Debora G. Field

29. Ethics for Self-Improving Machines 512

J. Storrs Hall

30. How Machines Might Help Us Achieve Breakthroughs in Ethical Theory and Inspire Us to Behave Better 524

Susan Leigh Anderson

31. Homo Sapiens 2.0: Building the Better Robots of Our Nature 531

Eric Dietrich