Spoken Language Understanding


Spoken Language Understanding: Systems for Extracting Semantic Information from Speech (2011)


Table of Contents

List of Contributors

Forward

Preface

1 Introduction (Gokhan Tur and Renato De Mori)

1.1 A Brief History of Spoken Language Understanding

1.2 Organization of the Book

PART 1 SPOKEN LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING FOR HUMAN/MACHINE INTERACTIONS

2 History of Knowledge and Processes for Spoken Language Understanding (Renato De Mori)

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Meaning Representation and Sentence Interpretation

2.3 Knowledge Fragments and Semantic Composition

2.4 Probabilistic Interpretation in SLU Systems

2.5 Interpretation with Partial Syntactic Analysis

2.6 Classification Models for Interpretation

2.7 Advanced Methods and Resources for Semantic Modeling and Interpretation

2.8 Recent Systems

2.9 Conclusions

References

3 Semantic Frame-based Spoken Language Understanding (Ye-Yi Wang, Li Deng and Alex Acero)

3.1 Background

3.2 Knowledge-based Solutions

3.3 Data-driven Approaches

3.4 Summary

References

4 Intent Determination and Spoken Utterance Classification (Gokhan Tur and Li Deng)

4.1 Background

4.2 Task Description

4.3 Technical Challenges

4.4 Benchmark Data Sets

4.5 Evaluation Metrics

4.6 Technical Approaches

4.7 Discussion and Conclusions

References

5 Voice Search (Ye-Yi Wang, Dong Yu, Yun-Cheng Ju and Alex Acero)

5.1 Background

5.2 Technology Review

5.3 Summary

References

6 Spoken Question Answering (Sophie Rosset, Olivier Galibert and Lori Lamel)

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Specific Aspects of Handling Speech in QA Systems

6.3 QA Evaluation Campaigns

6.4 Question-answering Systems

6.5 Projects Integrating Spoken Requests and Question Answering

6.6 Conclusions

References

7 SLU in Commercial and Research Spoken Dialogue Systems (David Suendermann and Roberto Pieraccini)

7.1 Why Spoken Dialogue Systems (Do Not) Have to Understand

7.2 Approaches to SLU for Dialogue Systems

7.3 From Call Flow to POMDP: How Dialogue Management Integrates with SLU

7.4 Benchmark Projects and Data Sets

7.5 Time is Money: The Relationship between SLU and Overall Dialogue System Performance

7.6 Conclusion

References

8 Active Learning (Dilek Hakkani-Tür and Giuseppe Riccardi)

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Motivation

8.3 Learning Architectures

8.4 Active Learning Methods

8.5 Combining Active Learning with Semi-supervised Learning

8.6 Applications

8.7 Evaluation of Active Learning Methods

8.8 Discussion and Conclusions

References

PART 2 SPOKEN LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING FOR HUMAN/HUMAN CONVERSATIONS

9 Human/Human Conversation Understanding (Gokhan Tur and Dilek Hakkani-Tür)

9.1 Background

9.2 Human/Human Conversation Understanding Tasks

9.3 Dialogue Act Segmentation and Tagging

9.4 Action Item and Decision Detection

9.5 Addressee Detection and Co-reference Resolution

9.6 Hot Spot Detection

9.7 Subjectivity, Sentiment, and Opinion Detection

9.8 Speaker Role Detection

9.9 Modeling Dominance

9.10 Argument Diagramming

9.11 Discussion and Conclusions

References

10 Named Entity Recognition (Frédéric Béchet)

10.1 Task Description

10.2 Challenges Using Speech Input

10.3 Benchmark Data Sets, Applications

10.4 Evaluation Metrics

10.5 Main Approaches for Extracting NEs from Text

10.6 Comparative Methods for NER from Speech

10.7 New Trends in NER from Speech

10.8 Conclusions

References

11 Topic Segmentation (Matthew Purver)

11.1 Task Description

11.2 Basic Approaches, and the Challenge of Speech

11.3 Applications and Benchmark Datasets

11.4 Evaluation Metrics

11.5 Technical Approaches

11.6 New Trends and Future Directions

References

12 Topic Identification (Timothy J. Hazen)

12.1 Task Description

12.2 Challenges Using Speech Input

12.3 Applications and Benchmark Tasks

12.4 Evaluation Metrics

12.5 Technical Approaches

12.6 New Trends and Future Directions

References

13 Speech Summarization (Yang Liu and Dilek Hakkani-Tür)

13.1 Task Description

13.2 Challenges when Using Speech Input

13.3 Data Sets

13.4 Evaluation Metrics

13.5 General Approaches

13.6 More Discussions on Speech versus Text Summarization

13.7 Conclusions

References

14 Speech Analytics (I. Dan Melamed and Mazin Gilbert)

14.1 Introduction

14.2 System Architecture

14.3 Speech Transcription

14.4 Text Feature Extraction

14.5 Acoustic Feature Extraction

14.6 Relational Feature Extraction

14.7 DBMS

14.8 Media Server and Player

14.9 Trend Analysis

14.10 Alerting System

14.11 Conclusion

References

15 Speech Retrieval (Ciprian Chelba, Timothy J. Hazen, Bhuvana Ramabhadran and Murat Saraçlar)

15.1 Task Description

15.2 Applications

15.3 Challenges Using Speech Input

15.4 Evaluation Metrics

15.5 Benchmark Data Sets

15.6 Approaches

15.7 New Trends

15.8 Discussion and Conclusions

References

Index