Consciousness and Robot Sentience


Consciousness and Robot Sentience (2012) .. by Pentti O. Haikonen


Contents
Dedication v
Preface vii

Chapter 1 1
Introduction 1
1.1. Towards Conscious Robots 1
1.2. The Structure of This Book 3

Chapter 2 5
The Problem of Consciousness 5
2.1. Mind and Consciousness 5
2.2. The Apparent Immateriality of the Mind 6
2.3. Cartesian Dualism 7
2.4. Property Dualism 10
2.5. The Identity Theory 11
2.6. The Real Problem of Consciousness 12

Chapter 3 15
Consciousness and Subjective Experience 15
3.1. Theories of Consciousness 15
3.2. The Subjective Experience 20
3.3. The Internal Appearance of Neural Activity 21

Chapter 4 25
Perception and Qualia 25
4.1. Perception and Recognition 25
4.1.1. What is a Percept? 25
4.1.2. Is Perception the Same as Recognition? 27
4.2. Qualia 30
4.2.1. What Are Qualia? 30
4.2.2. The Privacy of Qualia 33
4.2.3. No Qualia, No Percepts 35
4.2.4. Different Qualities of Qualia 35
4.2.5. Amodal Qualia 37
4.2.6. Externalization, the Apparent Location of Percepts 41

Chapter 5 47
From Perception to Consciousness 47
5.1. No Percepts – No Consciousness 47
5.2. Attention and Consciousness 48
5.3. The Difference Between Conscious and Non-Conscious Perception 50
5.4. Information Integration and Consciousness 52
5.5. What is Consciousness? 53

Chapter 6 55
Emotions and Consciousness 55
6.1. Emotions and Feelings 55
6.2. The Qualia of Emotions 56
6.3. The System Reactions Theory of Emotions (SRTE) 58
6.4. Emotions and Motivation 59
6.5. FreeWill 60
6.6. Decision Making 61

Chapter 7 63
Inner Speech and Consciousness 63
7.1. Natural Language 63
7.2. Consciousness and Inner Speech 66
7.3. Conscious Perception ofInner Speech 67

Chapter 8 73
Qualia and Machine Consciousness 73
8.1. Human Consciousness vs. Machine Consciousness 73
8.2. Preconditions for Machine Qualia 74

Chapter 9 79
Testing Consciousness 79
9.1. Requirements for Consciousness Tests 79
9.2. Tests for Consciousness 82
9.2.1. The Turing Test 82
9.2.2. Picture Understanding Test 83
9.2.3. The Cross-Examination Test 84
9.3. Tests for Self-Consciousness 85
9.3.1. Self-Consciousness 85
9.3.2. The Mirror Test 86
9.3.3. The Name Test 87
9.3.4. The Ownership Test 87
9.3.5. The Cross-Examination Test 88
9.4. Requirements and Tests for Machine Consciousness in Literature 88
9.4.1. Aleksander’s Axioms 88
9.4.2. TheConsScale 89

Chapter 10 91
Artificial Conscious Cognition 91
10.1. Which Model for Artificial Cognition? 91
10.2. Sub-symbolic vs. Symbolic Information Processing 93
10.3. What Is a Cognitive Architecture? 96

Chapter 11 99
Associative Information Processing 99
11.1. What Is Associative Information Processing? 99
11.2. Basic Associative Processes 100
11.2.1. Pavlovian Conditioning 100
11.2.2. Hebbian Learning 102
11.2.3. Autoassociation and Heteroassociation 103
11.3. The Representation of Information 104
11.4. Distributed Signal Representations 105

Chapter 12 107
Neural Realization of Associative Processing 107
12.1. Spiking Neurons or Block Signal Neurons? 107
12.2. Associative Neurons and Synapses 109
12.3. Correlative Learning 114
12.4. The Associative Neuron as a Logic Element 117
12.5. Associative Neuron Groups 119
12.5.1. The Operation of an Associative Neuron Group 119
12.5.2. The Association of Vectors with Vectors 121
12.5.3. Autoassociative Memory 122
12.5.4. Temporal Sequences 122

Chapter 13 125
Designing a Cognitive Perception System 125
13.1. Requirements for Cognitive Perception 125
13.2. The Perception/Response Feedback Loop 128
13.2.1. The Basic Principle 128
13.2.2. The Realization of Priming 129
13.2.3. Match, Mismatch and Novelty Detection 130
13.2.4. Sensory Attention in the Perception/Response Feedback Loop 132
13.2.5. The Realization of Visual Searching 133
13.2.6. Predictive Perception 134
13.2.7. Conscious Introspection of Imaginations 135

Chapter 14 139
Examples of Perception/Response Feedback Loops 139
14.1. The Auditory Perception/Response Feedback Loop 139
14.1.1. The Purpose 139
14.1.2. Auditory Pre-Processes 139
14.1.3. The Outline 142
14.2. The Visual Perception/Response Feedback Loop 144
14.2.1. The Purpose 144
14.2.2. Visual Pre-Processes 145
14.2.3. The Outline 146
14.3. The Touch Perception/Response Feedback Loop 148

Chapter 15 151
The Transition, to Symbolic Processing 151
15.1. From Distributed Signals to Symbols 151
15.2. Requirements for a Natural Language 151
15.3. Association of Meaning 153

Chapter 16 155
Information Integration with Multiple Modules 155
16.1. Cooperation and Interaction of Multiple Modules 155
16.2. Sensorimotor Integration 157
16.3. Feedback Control Loops 158
16.4. Hierarchical Control Loops 160

Chapter 17 163
Emotional Significance of Percepts 163
17.1. The Significance of Percepts 163
17.2. Emotional Evaluation of Percepts 164

Chapter 18 167
The Outline of the Haikonen Cognitive Architecture (HCA) 167
18.1. General Overview 167
18.2. The Block Diagram of HCA 169
18.3. Control, Motivation and Drivers 172
18.4. Information Integration, Coalitions and Consciousness 172

Chapter 19 175
Mind Reading Applications 175
19.1. Mind Reading Possible? 175
19.2. The principle of the Imaging of Inner Imagery 176
19.3. The Perception/Response Feedback Loop in the Imaging of Inner Imagery 179
19.4. Inner Speech and Unvoiced Speech 182
19.5. Silent Speech Detection with the Perception/Response Loop 182

Chapter 20 185
The Comparison of Some Cognitive Architectures 185
20.1. Introduction 185
20.2. Baars Global Workspace Architecture 186
20.2.1. Baars Concept of Consciousness 186
20.2.2. Baars Model 187
20.2.3. What Is Explained by the Baars Model 190
20.2.4. What Is Not Explained by the Baars Model 190
20.3. Shanahan Global Workspace Architecture 191
20.3.1. Shanahan Concept of Consciousness 191
20.3.2. Shanahan Model 192
20.3.3. What Is Explained by the Shanahan Model 194
20.3.4. What Is Not Explained by the Shanahan Model 195
20.4. Haikonen Cognitive Architecture 196
20.4.1. Haikonen Concept of Consciousness 196
20.4.2. Haikonen Model 197
20.4.3. What Is Explained by the Haikonen Model 198
20.5. Baars, Shanahan and Haikonen Architectures Compared 200

Chapter 21 203
Example: An Experimental Robot with the HCA 203
21.1. Purpose and Design Principles 203
21.2. Architecture 204
21.3. The Auditory Module 206
21.3.1. The Auditory Perception/Response Feedback Loop 206
21.3.2. Speech Recognition 207
21.3.3. Speech Production 207
21.4. The Visual Module 208
21.4.1. Visual Perception/Response Feedback Loops 208
21.4.2. Object Recognition 210
21.4.3. Direction Detection 210
21.4.4. The Selection and Searching of a Target 212
21.5. The Emotional Module 212
21.5.1. Pain and Pleasure 212
21.5.2. Non-Events 213
21.5.3. Emotional Significance 213
21.5.4. Self-Concept 214
21.6. The Gripper Module 215
21.7. The Wheel Drive Module 217
21.8. Self-Talk 218
21.9. Cross-Associative Information Integration 220
21.9.1. The Verbal-Corporal Teaching Experiment 220
21.10. Consciousness in the XCR-1 221

Chapter 22 225
Concluding Notes 225
22.1. Consciousness Explained 225
22.2. The Conclusion 228

Bibliography 229
Index 235

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