The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing


The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing (2013) .. edited by Alexander Clark etc


Contents

List of Figures
List of Tables
Notes on Contributors
Preface
Introduction

Part I: Formal Foundations

1 Formal Language Theory

1 Introduction
2 Basic Notions
3 Language Classes and Linguistic Formalisms
4 Regular Languages
5 Context-Free Languages
6 The Chomsky Hierarchy
7 Mildly Context-Sensitive Languages
8 Further Reading

2 Computational Complexity in Natural Language

1 A Brief Review of Complexity Theory
2 Parsing and Recognition
3 Complexity and Semantics
4 Determining Logical Relationships between Sentences

3 Statistical Language Modeling

1 Introduction to Statistical Language Modeling
2 Structured Language Model
3 Speech Recognition Lattice Rescoring Using the Structured Language Model
4 Richer Syntactic Dependencies
5 Comparison with Other Approaches
6 Conclusion

4 Theory of Parsing

1 Introduction
2 Context-Free Grammars and Recognition
3 Context-Free Parsing
4 Probabilistic Parsing
5 Lexicalized Context-Free Grammars
6 Dependency Grammars
7 Tree Adjoining Grammars
8 Translation
9 Further Reading

Part II: Current Methods

5 Maximum Entropy Models

1 Introduction
2 Maximum Entropy and Exponential Distributions
3 Parameter Estimation
4 Regularization
5 Model Applications
6 Prospects

6 Memory-Based Learning

1 Introduction
2 Memory-Based Language Processing
3 NLP Applications
4 Exemplar-Based Computational Psycholinguistics
5 Generalization and Abstraction
6 Generalizing Examples
7 Further Reading

7 Decision Trees

1 NLP and Classification
2 Induction of Decision Trees
3 NLP Applications
4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Decision Trees
5 Further Reading

8 Unsupervised Learning and Grammar Induction

1 Overview
2 Computational Learning Theory
3 Empirical Learning
4 Unsupervised Grammar Induction and Human Language Acquisition
5 Conclusion

9 Artificial Neural Networks

1 Introduction
2 Background
3 Contemporary Research
4 Further Reading

10 Linguistic Annotation

1 Introduction
2 Review of Selected Annotation Schemes
3 The Annotation Process
4 Conclusion

11 Evaluation of NLP Systems

1 Introduction
2 Fundamental Concepts
3 Evaluation Paradigms in Common Evaluation Settings
4 Case Study: Evaluation ofWord-Sense Disambiguation
5 Case Study: Evaluation of Question Answering Systems
6 Summary

Part III: Domains of Application

12 Speech Recognition

1 Introduction
2 Acoustic Modeling
3 Search
4 Case Study: The AMI System
5 Current Topics
6 Conclusions

13 Statistical Parsing

1 Introduction
2 History
3 Generative Parsing Models
4 Discriminative Parsing Models
5 Transition-Based Approaches
6 Statistical Parsing with CCG
7 OtherWork
8 Conclusion

14 Segmentation and Morphology

1 Introduction
2 Unsupervised Learning of Words
3 Unsupervised Learning of Morphology
4 Implementing Computational Morphologies
5 Conclusions

15 Computational Semantics

1 Introduction
2 Background
3 State of the Art
4 Research Issues
5 Corpus-Based and Machine Learning Methods
6 Concluding Remarks

16 Computational Models of Dialogue

1 Introduction
2 The Challenges of Dialogue
3 Approaches to Dialogue System Design
4 Interaction and Meaning
5 Extensions
6 Conclusions

17 Computational Psycholinguistics

1 Introduction
2 ComputationalModels of Human Language Processing
3 Symbolic Models
4 Probabilistic Models
5 Connectionist Models of Sentence Processing
6 HybridModels
7 Concluding Remarks

Part IV: Applications

18 Information Extraction

1 Introduction
2 Historical Background
3 Name Extraction
4 Entity Extraction
5 Relation Extraction
6 Event Extraction
7 Concluding Remarks

19 Machine Translation

1 Introduction
2 The State of the Art: Phrase-Based Statistical MT
3 Other Approaches to MT
4 MT Applications
5 Machine Translation at DCU
6 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
7 Further Reading

20 Natural Language Generation

1 High-Level Perspective: Making Choices about Language
2 Two NLG Systems: SumTime and SkillSum
3 NLG Choices and Tasks
4 NLG Evaluation
5 Some NLG Research Topics
6 NLG Resources

21 Discourse Processing

1 Discourse: Basic Notions and Terminology
2 Discourse Structure
3 Discourse Coherence
4 Anaphora Resolution
5 Applications
6 Further Reading

22 Question Answering

1 What is Question Answering?
2 Current State of the Art in Open Domain QA
3 Current Directions
4 Further Reading

References
Author Index
Subject Index

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