Artificial Cognition Architectures


Artificial Cognition Architectures (2014) .. edited by James A. Crowder, etc


Contents

1 Introduction … 1
1.1 Striving for Artificial Intelligence … 1
1.2 Historical Concepts of Intelligent Robots … 3
1.2.1 Ancient Automatons … 3
1.3 Hollywood’s Views on Robots and Artificial Intelligence … 6
1.4 What Are Artificial Cognitive Systems and Why Do We Need Them? … 7
1.5 Layout of the Book … 8

2 The Information Continuum … 11
2.1 Information Flow Within a Synthetic Continuum … 12
2.2 Information Processing Models… 14
2.3 Discussion … 15

3 The Psychology of Artificial Intelligence … 17
3.1 Artificial Psychology … 17
3.2 Artificial Cognition: What Does It Mean to Be Cognitive? … 19
3.3 Artificial Intuition: What Does It Mean to Be Intuitive? … 19
3.4 Human Versus Machine Emotions … 20
3.4.1 Basic Emotions … 21
3.5 Human Perception of Artificial Intelligence … 22
3.6 Human Acceptance of Artificial Intelligence … 22
3.7 Artificial Intelligence Perception Design … 23
3.8 The Psychology of Human-Robot Collaboration … 24
3.9 Discussion … 26

4 Cognitive Intelligence and the Brain: Synthesizing Human Brain Functions … 27
4.1 The Artificial Cognitive Neural Framework (ACNF) Architecture … 27
4.1.1 Cognitrons … 29
4.2 The Artificial Prefrontal Cortex (The Mediator) … 29
4.2.1 Artificial Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive Control … 30
4.2.2 Artificial Prefrontal Cortex Framework … 31
4.2.3 Artificial Prefrontal Cortex Architecture … 32
4.2.4 Artificial Prefrontal Cortex Processing … 35
4.3 Self-Evolving, Cognitrons: The Heart of the SELF … 37
4.3.1 Self-Adapting Cognitrons … 38
4.3.2 Cognitron Tasking … 39
4.3.3 The Cognitron Dialectic Search Argument (DSA) … 40
4.3.4 The Cognitron Software Architecture … 41
4.3.5 Teaching Cognitrons to Learn and Reason … 42
4.4 Continuously Recombinant Neural Fiber Threads … 46
4.4.1 Self-Adaptive Cognitive Neural Fibers … 47
4.4.2 Stochasto-Chaotic Differential Constraints … 49
4.4.3 Continuously Recombinant Neural Fiber Topology … 50
4.5 Discussion … 52

5 Artificial Memory Systems … 53
5.1 Artificial Context in Memory Systems … 53
5.2 Sensory Memories … 56
5.3 Short-Term Artificial Memories … 57
5.3.1 Short-Term Memory Attention Processing … 57
5.4 Long-Term Artificial Memories … 60
5.4.1 Explicit or Declarative Long-Term Memories … 60
5.4.2 Long-Term Spatio-temporal Memories … 63
5.4.3 Long-Term Semantic Memories … 64
5.4.4 Long-Term Implicit Memories … 65
5.4.5 Procedural Memory Description … 67
5.5 Group Consciousness and Memory Sharing … 69
5.6 Emotional Memory … 70
5.6.1 SELF Artificial Autonomic Nervous System States and Emotional Memories … 71
5.6.2 SELF Artificial Autonomic Nervous System States … 73
5.7 Memory Recall in the SELF: Memory Reconstruction… 75
5.7.1 Constructivist Memory Theory … 75
5.7.2 Artificial Memory Reconstruction… 75
5.8 Discussion … 78

6 Artificial Consciousness … 79
6.1 Artificial Neural Cognitrons … 80
6.2 The SELF Mixture of Experts Architecture … 83
6.2.1 Dynamic Cognitron Growing and Pruning … 84
6.3 Artificial Metcognition: Cognitive Regulation … 85
6.3.1 Artificial Cognition with Metacognition … 86
6.3.2 Metacognition: Cognitive Self-Awareness and Assessment … 87
6.4 Artificial Metamemory: Cognitive Understanding and Learning… 89
6.4.1 Cognitive Visibility and Governance … 91
6.5 Metacognitive and Metamemory Structures … 92
6.6 Extended Metacognition: Artificial Locus of Control Within the SELF … 93
6.6.1 Artificial Locus of Control … 95
6.6.2 Constructivist Learning … 96
6.6.3 Bounded Conceptual Reality (Cognitive Economy) … 97
6.7 Cognitive System Management … 99
6.7.1 SELF Memory Management … 100
6.7.2 SELF Learning Management … 101
6.7.3 SELF Decision Management… 102
6.7.4 SELF Rules Management … 103
6.7.5 SELF Cognitron Management … 104
6.8 Discussion … 107

7 Learning in an Artificial Cognitive System … 109
7.1 Autonomous Heterogeneious Level Learning Environment … 110
7.2 Autonomous Genetic Learning Environments … 111
7.3 SELF Emotional Learning … 112
7.4 Decision Analytics in Real-Time (DART) … 113
7.4.1 Case-Based DART … 113
7.5 Cognitronic Learning … 115
7.5.1 Cognitron Autonomy … 115
7.5.2 Cognitronic Cognition … 116
7.5.3 Conscious Cognitrons … 116
7.5.4 Autonomous Learning Mechanisms … 117
7.5.5 Autonomous Behavior Learning … 118
7.5.6 Behavior Learning and Human Interaction … 120
7.6 DART Occam Learning … 123
7.6.1 DART Pattern Discovery … 123
7.6.2 DART Pattern Discovery Concepts … 125
7.6.3 DART Computational Mechanics and Occam Learning … 127
7.7 DART Constructivist Learning Concepts … 129
7.7.1 Adaptation of Constructivist Learning Concepts to the SELF … 132
7.8 Discussion … 133

8 Synthetic Reasoning … 135
8.1 Human Reasoning Concepts … 135
8.1.1 Human Thinking … 136
8.1.2 Modular Reasoning … 136
8.1.3 Distributed Reasoning … 136
8.1.4 Collaborative Reasoning … 137
8.2 Types of Reasoning … 138
8.2.1 Logical Reasoning … 138
8.2.2 Humans and Inductive/Deductive Reasoning … 139
8.2.3 Moral and Ethical Reasoning … 139
8.3 SELF Reasoning … 140
8.4 Abductive Reasoning: Possibilistic, Neural Networks … 141
8.4.1 Artificial Creativity … 141
8.4.2 Creativity Through Problem Solving … 141
8.4.3 Dialectic Reasoning Framework … 142
8.4.4 FuNN Creating DAS … 146
8.4.5 DAS Reasoning Approximation … 147
8.4.6 Cognitron Archetype Descriptions … 148
8.4.7 The Fuzzy, Unsupervised, Active Resonance Theory, Neural Network (FUNN) … 150
8.5 Cognitron Theory … 151
8.5.1 Intelligent Software Agent Defi nition … 152
8.5.2 Weak Intelligent Software Agents … 153
8.5.3 Intelligent Software Agents … 153
8.5.4 Software Agents and Intelligence … 154
8.5.5 The Cognitron … 155
8.6 Knowledge Relativity and Reasoning … 157
8.6.1 Knowledge Relativity … 158
8.6.2 Knowledge Relativity Threads … 161
8.6.3 Frameworks for Contextual Knowledge Refi nement … 164
8.7 Knowledge Density Mapping Within a SELF … 165
8.7.1 Knowledge Density Mapping: Pathway to SELF Metacognition … 166
8.7.2 Analytical Competency … 168
8.8 Discussion … 171

9 Artificial Cognitive System Architectures… 173
9.1 Cognitronic Artificial Consciousness Architecture … 174
9.1.1 Synthetic Neocortex Adaptation … 174
9.1.2 Cognitronic Information Flow … 176
9.1.3 Artificial Abductive Reasoning … 179
9.1.4 Elementary Artificial Occam Abductivity … 180
9.1.5 Synthesis of Artificial Occam Abduction … 184
9.1.6 Artificial Occam Abductive Hypothesis Evaluation Logic … 185
9.1.7 SELF’s Overall Cognitive Cycle … 187
9.1.8 SELF Sensory Environment … 189
9.1.9 ISAAC’s Lower Brain Function Executives … 191
9.1.10 ISAAC as an Artificial Central Nervous System … 193
9.2 The Cognitive, Interactive Training Environment (CITE) … 197
9.2.1 SELF Cognitive Resiliency … 198
9.2.2 SELF Cognitive Resiliency and Memory Development … 200
9.2.3 SELF Procedural Memory Development and Resiliency … 200
9.3 Discussion … 201

10 Artificial Cognitive Software Architectures … 203
10.1 Artificial Prefrontal Cortex Genesis … 206
10.2 Cognitron Service Instantiation … 208
10.3 Cognitron Personalities … 210
10.4 Cognitron Flexibility … 212
10.4.1 Mediator Service … 212
10.4.2 Data Acquisition Service … 213
10.4.3 Signal Processing Service … 214
10.4.4 The Data Flow Service … 215
10.4.5 Alerts and Alarms Service … 215
10.4.6 Health Assessment Service … 216
10.4.7 Inference Engine Service… 217
10.4.8 Prognostic Service … 219
10.4.9 Decision Reasoning Service … 220
10.4.10 Histories Service… 220
10.4.11 Confi guration Service … 221
10.4.12 Human Systems Interface Service … 221
10.4.13 Proxy Service … 221
10.5 SELF Service Node Strategies … 222
10.6 Discussion … 222

11 SELF Physical Architectures … 223
11.1 The Reconfigurable Advanced Rapid-Prototyping Environment (RARE) … 223
11.2 Physically Modularity and Scalability … 225
11.3 Discussion … 226

12 Cyber Security Within a Cognitive Architecture … 229
12.1 SELF Cognitive Security Architecture … 230
12.2 SELF Cognitive Security Architecture: Threat … 233
12.3 SELF Cognitive Security Architecture: Vulnerability… 233
12.4 SELF PENLPE Security Management Ontology … 234
12.5 SELF Security Management: Self-Diagnostics and Prognostics … 235
12.6 PENLPE Prognostic Security Management (PSM) … 237
12.7 Abductive Logic and Emotional Reasoners … 237
12.8 Self-Soothing Mechanisms … 238
12.8.1 SELF Self-Soothing: Acupressure … 238
12.8.2 SELF Self-Soothing: Deep Breathing … 238
12.8.3 SELF Self-Soothing: Amplifi cation of the Feeling … 239
12.8.4 SELF Self-Soothing: Imagery … 239
12.8.5 SELF Self-Soothing: Mindfulness … 240
12.8.6 SELF Self-Soothing: Positive Psychology … 240
12.9 SELF Internal Information Encryption … 240
12.10 Discussion … 242

13 Conclusions and Next Steps… 243
13.1 The Future SELF … 244
13.2 Zeus: A Self-Evolving Artificial Life Form … 244
13.3 Early Research into Cognitrons: Adventures in Cyberspace … 246
13.4 What’s Next? … 246

Acronyms … 249
References … 251
Index … 261

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