Ontology-Based Interpretation of Natural Language


Ontology-Based Interpretation of Natural Language (2014) .. by Philipp Cimiano, etc


Contents

List of Figures
Preface
Acknowledgements

1. Introduction
1.1 Ontology-based interpretation of natural language
1.2 State of the art in natural language processing
1.3 Relation to the semantic web
1.4 What you need to know about RDF
1.5 What you need to know about soccer

2. Ontologies
2.1 Defining ontologies
2.2 Ontologies in first-order logic
2.3 Ontologies in description logics
2.3.1 OWL DL or SHOIN (D)
2.3.2 OWL 2 DL or SROIQ(D)
2.4 Further reading

3. Linguistic Formalisms
3.1 Form and meaning
3.2 Syntactic representations: LTAG
3.3 Aligning syntactic representations to an ontology
3.4 Semantic representations: DRT
3.5 Aligning semantic representations to an ontology
3.6 From DRT to DUDES: pairing syntactic and semantic representations
3.7 Quantifiers and negation
3.8 Further reading

4. Ontology Lexica
4.1 The lemon model
4.2 Using LexInfo as linguistic ontology
4.3 Modeling word classes in lemon
4.3.1 Proper nouns
4.3.2 Nouns
4.3.3 Verbs
4.3.4 Adjectives
4.3.5 Adverbs
4.4 Further reading

5. Grammar Generation
5.1 From ontology lexica to grammars
5.2 Generating noun entries
5.3 Generating verb entries
5.4 Generating adjective entries
5.5 Implementation
5.6 Further reading

6. Putting Everything Together
6.1 From conceptualizations to meaning representations
6.2 Challenges

7. Ontological Reasoning For Ambiguity Resolution
7.1 Ambiguities in the context of ontology-based interpretation
7.2 Representing and resolving ambiguities
7.2.1 Enumeration
7.2.2 Underspecification
7.3 Further reading

8. Temporal Interpretation
8.1 The time ontology
8.1.1 Temporal entities and their ordering
8.1.2 Temporal relations
8.1.3 The structure of time
8.2 Temporal interpretation with respect to the time ontology
8.3 Further reading

9. Ontology-Based Interpretation For Question Answering
9.1 Question answering over structured data
9.2 Querying structured data
9.3 From natural language questions to answers
9.4 Implementation
9.5 Further reading

10. Conclusion

Bibliography
Authors’ biographies

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