Personality in Speech: Assessment and Automatic Classification


Personality in Speech: Assessment and Automatic Classification (2015) .. by Tim Polzehl


Contents

1 Personality Assessment in Psychology … 1
1.1 Definitions of Personality … 1
1.2 Trait Theory of Personality … 3
1.2.1 Allport’s Trait Organization … 3
1.2.2 Eysenck’s P-E-N Theory of Super Factors … 4
1.2.3 Cattell’s 16 Personality Source Traits … 5
1.2.4 Development of the “Big 5” Factor Inventories … 8
1.2.5 Costa and McCrae and the “NEO-” Inventories … 9
1.2.6 The Development of the German NEO-FFI … 12
1.2.7 Super Short Forms of Five Factor Inventories … 13
1.2.8 Trait Theories Comparison and Criticism … 14
1.3 Summary … 16
References … 17

2 Speech-Based Personality Assessment … 21
2.1 Contemporary Terminology in Speech Analysis … 24
2.1.1 Prosodic Information and their Temporal Expansion … 24
2.1.2 Extralinguistic and Paralinguistic Information … 25
2.2 Vocal Cues of Personality Perception … 25
2.2.1 Linking Perceptual Speech Properties and Personality … 26
2.2.2 Correlation between Perceptual Personality and Acoustic Measurements … 28
2.2.3 Work From Speech Synthesis … 29
2.2.4 Signal-Based Automated Personality Modeling … 31
2.2.5 Other Related Studies … 33
2.2.6 Own Prior Work … 34
2.3 Chapter Summary … 35
References … 37

3 Database and Labeling … 43
3.1 Text-Dependent Data Recordings … 44
3.2 Text-Independent Data Recordings … 45
3.3 Multi-Speaker Data Recordings … 48
3.4 Annotating the Recordings with Personality Ratings … 49
3.5 Summary … 51
References … 53

4 Analysis of Human Personality Perception … 55
4.1 Auditory Impressions and Personality Perception Hypotheses … 56
4.2 Distributions and Correlation Analysis of Rating Responses … 59
4.3 Factor Analyzing the NEO-FFI Item Responses … 68
4.4 Analyses of Variance … 71
4.5 Summary … 78
References … 79

5 Automatic Personality Estimation … 81
5.1 Automatic Extraction of Personality Cues from Speech … 82
5.1.1 Intensity … 82
5.1.2 Pitch … 83
5.1.3 Spectrals … 85
5.1.4 Loudness … 86
5.1.5 MFCC … 86
5.1.6 Formants … 87
5.1.7 Other Descriptors … 88
5.2 Voice Activity Detection and Segmentation … 88
5.3 Feature Definition … 89
5.3.1 Intensity … 90
5.3.2 Pitch … 92
5.3.3 Spectrals … 94
5.3.4 Loudness … 95
5.3.5 MFCC … 95
5.3.6 Formants … 95
5.3.7 Other Features … 95
5.4 Feature Selection … 96
5.5 Normalization … 99
5.6 Modeling for Personality Classification and Trait Score Prediction using SVM … 100
5.6.1 Personality Classification Using SVM … 101
5.6.2 Trait Score Prediction Using SVM … 103
5.6.3 Non-Linear Mapping and Parameter Tuning … 105
5.7 Evaluation … 107
5.7.1 Evaluation Metrics … 107
5.7.2 Evaluation Method … 109
5.8 Results from Text-Dependent Data … 110
5.8.1 Results from Automatic Classification … 110
5.8.2 Results from Automatic Trait Score Prediction … 114
5.9 Results from Text-Independent Data … 120
5.9.1 Results from Automatic Classification … 120
5.9.2 Results from Automatic Trait Score Prediction … 126
5.10 Results from Multi-Speaker Data … 128
5.10.1 Results from Automatic Trait Score Prediction … 129
References … 137

6 Discussion of the Results … 139
6.1 Results from Classification of Personality Targets … 139
6.2 Prediction of Individual Traits Scores from Speech … 143
6.2.1 Prediction of Openness … 144
6.2.2 Prediction of Conscientiousness … 146
6.2.3 Prediction of Extroversion … 147
6.2.4 Prediction of Agreeableness … 149
6.2.5 Prediction of Neuroticism … 151
6.3 Discussion of Influencing Factors … 153
6.3.1 Design of Speech Database … 153
6.3.2 Signal-Based Feature Extraction and Model Set-up … 159
References … 162

7 Conclusion and Outlook … 163
7.1 Contributions and Conclusions … 163
7.2 Outlook … 168
References … 172

Appendix A: Label Distributions Text-Dependent Recordings … 173
Appendix B: Label Distributions Text-Independent Recordings … 175

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