Just Ordinary Robots: Automation from Love to War


Just Ordinary Robots: Automation from Love to War (2016) .. by Lamber M. M. Royakkers, etc


Contents

Foreword
Acknowledgment
Authors

Chapter 1 Robots Everywhere 1

1.1 With Vision 3
1.2 Technically Speaking 6
1.2.1 From Automata to Robots 6
1.2.2 Robot-Friendly Environments 8
1.2.3 The Robot Body 10
1.2.3.1 Appearance Is Important 10
1.2.3.2 Opportunities for Physical Activity 12
1.2.3.3 Artificial Senses 13
1.2.4 The Robot Brain 14
1.2.4.1 Strong and Weak Artificial Intelligence 14
1.2.4.2 Predictions from the Past 15
1.2.4.3 Through Trial and Error 16
1.2.4.4 Brute Computational Power 17
1.2.4.5 Artificial Social Intelligence 18
1.2.4.6 Artificial Morality 21
1.2.5 Networked Robots and Human-Based Computing 23
1.3 Seen Socially 25
1.3.1 Information Technology 25
1.3.2 A Lifelike Appearance 26
1.3.3 Level of Autonomy 26
1.3.4 Robotization as Rationalization 27
1.3.4.1 Irrationality of Rationality 30
1.4 More Explorations 31
Interview with Luciano Floridi (Philosopher and Ethicist of Information at Oxford University, United Kingdom) 32
References 38

Chapter 2 Home Is Where the Robot Is: Mechanoids, Humanoids, and Androids 43

2.1 Introduction 43
2.2 Mechanoid Robots: The Vacuum Cleaner 44
2.2.1 Experiences of Early Adaptors: Roombarization 48
2.2.2 Reducing the Complexity of Household Tasks 50
2.2.3 Liability of Home Robots 53
2.3 Humanoid Robots: The Companion 55
2.3.1 The Robot Body 56
2.3.2 Human–Robot Interaction (HRI) 65
2.3.3 Social De-Skilling 68
2.4 Android Robots: The Sex Robot 69
2.4.1 Roxxxy 70
2.4.2 Benefits of Sex Robots 72
2.4.3 Social and Ethical Issues 74
2.4.3.1 Cultural Acceptance of Sex Robots 74
2.4.3.2 Dehumanization 75
2.4.3.3 Sex with Child Robots 76
2.5 Observational Conclusions 78
2.5.1 Household Robots 79
2.5.2 Companion and Sex Robots 80
2.5.2.1 Expectations 80
2.5.2.2 Social, Ethical, and Regulatory Issues 81
Interview with Kerstin Dautenhahn (Professor of Artificial Intelligence, University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom) 82
References 85

Chapter 3 Taking Care of Our Parents: The Role of Domotics and Robots 91

3.1 Introduction 91
3.2 Domotics for the Care of the Elderly 94
3.2.1 Paradigmatic Shift in Care 96
3.2.2 Ethical Issues 97
3.2.2.1 Privacy 97
3.2.2.2 Human Contact and Quality of Care 99
3.2.2.3 Competence of Caregivers and Care Recipients 99
3.3 From Home Robotics to Robots in the Home 101
3.3.1 Increasing the Pace of the Paradigmatic Shift in Care 101
3.3.2 General Ethical Issues Relating to Care Robots 105
3.3.2.1 Safety 105
3.3.2.2 Designing Care Robots 107
3.3.2.3 Physical Appearance 108
3.4 Specific Ethical Issues with Regard to the Role of Care Robots 109
3.4.1 The Robot as a Companion 110
3.4.1.1 Deception 110
3.4.2 The Robot as a Cognitive Assistant for the Care Recipient 111
3.4.2.1 Autonomy 111
3.4.3 The Robot as a (Supporter of the) Caregiver 115
3.4.3.1 Dehumanization 115
3.4.3.2 Quality of Care 116
3.4.3.3 Human Contact 118
3.5 Observational Conclusions: The Long Term 118
Interview with Hans Rietman (Professor of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Twente, the Netherlands) 121
References 125

Chapter 4 Drones in the City: Toward a Floating Robotic Panopticon? 131

4.1 Introduction: Amazon Prime Air 131
4.2 Civil Applications of Drones 135
4.2.1 Recreational Use 135
4.2.2 Drone Journalism 138
4.2.3 Precision Farming 140
4.3 Drones for Law Enforcement 144
4.3.1 Robocops 144
4.3.2 Tasks of Police Drones 147
4.3.3 Examples of Police Drones 148
4.3.4 Legal and Ethical Issues 152
4.4 Safety 154
4.4.1 Aerial Safety 155
4.4.2 Improper Operations 155
4.4.3 Hacking of Drones 157
4.4.4 Drone Hunting 158
4.5 Privacy 159
4.5.1 Reasonable Expectations of Privacy 162
4.5.2 Voyeurism 163
4.5.3 Big Brother Drone Is Watching You 164
4.5.4 The Chilling Effect 165
4.6 The Regulation of Drones 165
4.6.1 Regulations in the United States 166
4.6.1.1 The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration 166
4.6.1.2 The U.S. Federal Government 168
4.6.1.3 Local and State Governments 169
4.6.2 Regulations in the European Union 170
4.6.2.1 The European Commission 170
4.6.2.2 European Countries 172
4.6.3 Proliferation of Drone Regulations 173
4.7 Concluding Observations: Drones Create a Floating Robotic Panopticon 174
Interview with Mark Wiebes (Innovation Manager with the Dutch National Police, the Netherlands) 178
References 181

Chapter 5 Who Drives the Car? 185

5.1 Introduction 185
5.2 Problems for Modern Road Traffic and the Costs 188
5.2.1 Traffic Victims 188
5.2.2 Traffic Congestion 189
5.2.3 Pollution 190
5.3 Driver Assistance Systems (Levels 1 and 2) 191
5.3.1 ABS and ESC 191
5.3.2 Adaptive Cruise Control and Stop-and-Go Systems 194
5.3.3 Pedestrian and Cyclist Airbags 195
5.3.4 Pre-Crash Systems 196
5.4 Limited Self-Driving Automation (Level 3) 196
5.4.1 Traffic Management 197
5.4.2 Cooperative Systems 199
5.4.3 Cooperative Driving 202
5.5 Autonomous Cars (Level 4) 207
5.5.1 Google 210
5.5.2 AutoNOMOS and the Remotely Controlled Community Taxi 213
5.6 Social and Ethical Issues Surrounding Car Robotization 216
5.6.1 Acceptance 216
5.6.2 Privacy 218
5.6.3 Security and Safety 221
5.6.3.1 Reliability 221
5.6.3.2 Negative Behavioral Adaptation 222
5.6.3.3 Cyber Security 223
5.6.4 Better Drivers 223
5.6.5 Liability 227
5.6.5.1 Liability of the Manufacturers 228
5.6.5.2 Liability of the Road Authorities 229
5.6.5.3 Liability of the Driver 229
5.6.6 Legislation for Limited and Full SelfDriving 231
5.7 Concluding Observations 232
5.7.1 Short Term: Driver Assistance Systems (Levels 1 and 2) 233
5.7.1.1 Expectations 233
5.7.1.2 Social, Ethical, and Regulatory Issues 233
5.7.2 Medium Term: Cooperative Systems (Level 3) 235
5.7.2.1 Expectations 235
5.7.2.2 Social, Ethical, and Regulatory Issues 236
5.7.3 Long Term: Autonomous Cars (Level 4) 236
5.7.3.1 Expectations 236
5.7.3.2 Social, Ethical, and Regulatory Issues 238
Interview with Bryant Walker Smith (Assistant Professor of Law, University of South Carolina, United States) 240
References 243

Chapter 6 Armed Military Drones: The Ethics behind Various Degrees of Autonomy 249

6.1 Focus on Teleoperated and Autonomous Armed Military Robots 249
6.1.1 Unarmed Military Robots 250
6.1.2 Armed Military Robots 251
6.2 Autonomy of Military Robots Is High on the Agenda 254
6.3 Military Robots and International Humanitarian Law 259
6.3.1 Tele-Led Drones 260
6.3.1.1 Proportionality Principle 260
6.3.1.2 Discrimination Principle 262
6.3.1.3 Targeted Killing 263
6.3.2 Autonomous Drones 265
6.4 Question of Responsibility 270
6.4.1 Responsibility of the Manufacturers 271
6.4.2 Responsibility of the Human Operators 273
6.4.3 Responsibility of the Commanding Officer 276
6.5 Proliferation and Security 277
6.6 Concluding Remarks 280
6.6.1 Social and Ethical Issues 281
6.6.1.1 Proliferation and Abuse 281
6.6.1.2 Counterproductive Nature 281
6.6.1.3 Humanization versus Dehumanization 282
6.6.1.4 Autonomy 282
6.6.2 Regulation 283
6.6.2.1 Work on an International Ban on Autonomous Armed Robots 283
6.6.2.2 Curbing the Proliferation of Armed Military Robots 284
6.6.2.3 Broad International Debate on the Consequences of Military Robotics 285
Interview with Jürgen Altmann (Physicist and Peace Researcher at TU Dortmund University, Germany) 285
References 290

Chapter 7 Automation from Love to War 297

7.1 Future Expectations and Technical Possibilities 298
7.1.1 Influential Strong AI Pipe Dream 299
7.1.2 Successful and Pragmatic Weak AI Approach 300
7.1.3 Exploring Artificial Social Intelligence 303
7.1.4 Exploring Artificial Moral Intelligence 304
7.2 Expected Social Gains 306
7.3 Robots as Information Technology 310
7.3.1 Monitoring and Privacy 310
7.3.2 Safety, Cyber Security, and Misuse 313
7.4 The Lifelike Appearance of Social Robots 314
7.5 Degree of Autonomy of Robots 317
7.5.1 Systems View on Responsibility and Liability 318
7.5.2 Man-in-the-Loop 318
7.5.3 Man-on-the-Loop 320
7.5.4 Man-out-of-the-Loop 321
7.6 Robot Systems as Dehumanizing Systems 322
7.6.1 Undermining Human Dignity 323
7.6.2 Undermining Human Sustainability 324
7.6.3 Current Relevance 326
7.7 Governance of Robotics in Society 328
7.7.1 Putting Users at the Center 328
7.7.2 Political and Regulatory Issues 329
7.7.3 Balancing Precaution and Proaction 332
7.8 Epilogue 333

References 336
Index 341

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