Metaphor Program


The Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) is a research organization within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) of the United States. IARPA conducts high-risk, high-payoff research in support of the intelligence community.

IARPA’s Metaphor Program is a research program that aims to improve the ability of natural language processing (NLP) systems to understand and use metaphors in text. The program focuses on developing new methods and technologies for identifying, extracting, and analyzing metaphors in natural language texts, and on improving the performance of NLP systems that use metaphors.

The Metaphor Program is designed to address several challenges related to the use of metaphors in NLP, including:

  • Identifying and extracting metaphors from text: This involves developing methods for identifying the words and phrases that are being used metaphorically in a text, and for extracting the underlying conceptual mappings that make up the metaphor.
  • Understanding the meaning and context of metaphors: This involves developing methods for interpreting the meaning and context of metaphors, including the source and target domains of the metaphor and the nature of the mapping between them.
  • Using metaphors in NLP applications: This involves developing methods for incorporating metaphors into NLP systems, such as machine translation systems, and for improving the performance of these systems when they use metaphors.

Overall, the IARPA Metaphor Program aims to improve the ability of NLP systems to understand and use metaphors in natural language texts, which can have a variety of applications, including text analysis, language learning, and natural language generation.

The references below discuss the importance of metaphors in various contexts and the ways in which they can be studied and understood. It also mentions the development and application of methods and technologies for analyzing metaphors, as well as the potential applications of these methods in fields such as psychology, law, and medicine.

  • The use of metaphors in different contexts, such as in language, culture, and communication
  • The role of metaphors in expressing and understanding beliefs and worldviews
  • The development and application of methods and technologies for identifying and analyzing metaphors, including cross-lingual and supervised approaches
  • The use of metaphors in fields such as psychology, law, and medicine
  • The role of metaphors in narrative and storytelling
  • The use of metaphors in information visualization and data analysis
  • The relationship between metaphors and critical thinking
  • The use of metaphors in teaching and training contexts




See also:

Heather McCallum-Bayliss

Troping the Enemy: Metaphor, Culture, and the Big Data Black Boxes of National Security
R Albro – Secrecy and Society, 2018 –
… Here I consider IARPA’s Metaphor Program in greater depth because it is a particularly revealing example of critical analytic challenges posed by the … field of metaphor studies. Secrecy, Semiotics, and Silos IARPA’s Metaphor program, and comparable agency initiatives, help us …

A Review of Metaphor Research by American Intelligence Agency
SYP Weibing – Journal of Intelligence, 2013 –
The recent ” Metaphor Program ” launched by IARPA in 2011,based on the Conceptual Metaphor Theory,intends to study metaphor use in English,Farsi,Russian and Spanish in order to explore the ideologies and cultural beliefs underlying language use,to develop the …

Conceptual Metaphor At The Service Of The US Intelligence
EV Budayev – ???????????? ????????, 2008 –
… The paper deals with the main characteristics of the research project “The Metaphor Program” elabo- rated by Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), a United States research agency under the Director of National Intelligence’s responsibility who is subject to …

Time-series analysis of blog and metaphor dynamics for event detection
BJ Goode, JIM Reyes, DR Pardo-Yepez… – Advances in Cross …, 2017 – Springer
… The metaphors referenced in the text were identified using software, called the Metaphor Detection System (MDS), developed on the IARPA Metaphor program. 2 The MDS detects linguistic metaphors in Spanish, and has a detection F-score of 0.74 (precision 0.82, recall 0.68) …

Why not translate metaphor in French crime fiction? The case of Caryl Férey’s Utu’
E Carter, É des Hautes Études – The Journal of Specialised Translation, 2014 – Citeseer
… doi:10.1080/13520529809615503 • Hill, Reginald (2009). Midnight fugue. London: HarperCollins. • IARPA (nd). “Metaphor Program.” Metaphor/metaphor.html (consulted 27.02.2014). • Jahn, Manfred (1999) …

Event Detection from Blogs Using Large Scale Analysis of Metaphorical Usage
BJ Goode, DR Pardo-Yepez, GL Canale… – … Conference on Social …, 2016 – Springer
… Linguistic metaphors were extracted using software, the Metaphor Detection System (MDS), developed on the IARPA Metaphor program 1 . The goal of this program was to develop automated systems to identify the beliefs and world-views of different cultures by examining their …

Literal and metaphorical sense identification through concrete and abstract context
P Turney, Y Neuman, D Assaf, Y Cohen – Proceedings of the 2011 …, 2011 –
… The ability to recognize metaphorical word usage is a core requirement in the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activ- ity (IARPA) Metaphor Program (Madrigal, 2011).1 Our approach to the problem of distinguishing lit- eral and metaphorical senses is based on an algo …

Cross-lingual Semantic Generalization for the Detection of Metaphor.
M Mohler, MT Tomlinson, B Rink – Int. J. Comput. Linguistics Appl., 2015 –
… representation of the relation between a 3 These domains correspond to those under consideration as part of the IARPA Metaphor program. 124 MICHAEL MOHLER, MARC TOMLINSON, BRYAN RINK Page 9. source and target within a …

MRL Petruck – 2018 –
… 127 167 195 197 Page 7. Page 8. Preface Why would the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), the intelligence branch of the US Defense Department, start a Metaphor Program? If you were an intelligence …

Generating Ethnographic Models from Communities’ Online Data
T Strzalkowski, A Newheiser, N Kemper, N Sa… – Proceedings of the …, 2020 –
… We use the automated system developed during the IARPA Metaphor Program (Strzalkowski et al., 2013) in order to extract examples of metaphors across a variety of information outlets … The complete list of 67 source domains was compiled by the IARPA Metaphor Program …

Commentary: Theoretical Approaches
T Nevalainen – Current Methods in Historical Semantics, 2011 –
… Bern: Francke. Traugott, Elizabeth Closs and Richard B. Dasher 2002 Regularity in Semantic Change. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer- sity Press. 1. The IARPA Metaphor Program Broad Agency Announcement (May 20, 2011) is available online at: https://www. fbo. gov/index …

Semantics in Support of Collaboration
KB Laskey, I Emmons, PCG Costa – 2014 –
… Metaphor Program is based on the hypothesis that automated systems can reveal the underlying beliefs and worldviews of cultures by examining their use of metaphorical language. The talk will delve into the status and results of these research efforts. Information about IARPA …

The Significance of Metaphors in International Relations Theory
MP Marks – Revisiting Metaphors in International Relations Theory, 2018 – Springer
… objectives. The IARPA Metaphor Program discussed in the previous section demonstrates that there is an awareness among policymakers and other political officials that political discourse incorporates metaphorical concepts. The …

Building Better Mousetraps: A Linguist in NLP
EL Tonkin – Working with Text: Tools, Techniques and …, 2016 –
… There followed a string of other roles, many of which were linguistics-related.“Two years ago the federal government invested in a metaphor program. I was offered a job to work at Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA http://www. iarpa. gov/index …

Hits and Misses in Teaching Russian in the US: The Perspectives of Instructors, Students, and Enrollment
L Isurin – Russian Language Journal/??????? ????, 2013 – JSTOR
… For example, a recent comprehensive study by the US Census Bureau in 2010 (Isurin, in press) and an open announcement of the Metaphor project by the US Intelligence Community in 2011 (IARPA-BAA-11-04) involved the Russian language …

7 “NEURINT” and Neuroweapons
R Wurzman, J Giordano – Neurotechnology in National Security …, 2014 –
… influences on behavior. Programs such as Sociocultural Content in Language (SCIL) and the Metaphor program at IARPA are geared toward obtaining insight to how to better recognize norms across cultures. The Narrative Networks …

Towards a new romanticism: Derrida and Vico on metaphorical thinking
AE Pierce – Thesis Eleven, 2014 –
This essay addresses Jacques Derrida’s theory of metaphor, as it has been handed to literary theory and continental philosophy. Our aim is to reassess the relationship between metaphor and metaphys…

An introduction to the “Warring with Words” project
M Hanne – Warring with Words. Narrative and Metaphor in …, 2014 –
Page 12. 1 An Introduction to the “Warring with Words” Project Michael Hanne Introduction „When a surgeon… cuts and cleans and amputates, and the wound bleeds, do we say to him your hands are stained with blood? Or …

LCMEK Mahood –
… to understanding. For that reason IARPA has developed a metaphor program to understand cultural nuances on the Internet.41 Most interestingly, hidden meanings in language may be unintentionally added by social media …

More than Words: Metaphor in the Mind, Brain, and Literature
LF Weisberg – Unpublished honours thesis), Brown …, 2012 –
… relationship with specific concepts. In fact, the American intelligence establishment has committed hundreds of millions of dollars to a long-term research program with just this premise in mind. The Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), which Page 7. 6 …

Reframing the Dynamics of Engaging with Otherness
A Judge – 2011 –
… and I Ching. — / –. Produced on the occasion of the open solicitation for proposals for the The Metaphor Program of the US Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity with participation of the US Army Research Laboratory …

About ICSI
I FUNDING – Citeseer
… US federal funding in 2012 came from a range of grants to support research institute-wide. Most of this funding came from the National Science Foundation, IARPA, and DARPA, with other Federal funds coming from AFRL, ARL, California Connects, DOC, DOE, NIH, and ONR …

12 Useful Strategies in the War of Words
WD Crano – Warring with words: Narrative and metaphor in …, 2014 –
Page 283. 12 Useful Strategies in the War of Words William D. Crano In the pages that preceded this final chapter, the authorsÊ expressed views were clear, strongly argued, and persuasive, so I feel no need to attempt to sum …

Complex event processing for content-based text, image, and video retrieval
EK Bowman, BD Broome, VM Holland… – 2016 International …, 2016 –
… Several US Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) programs have advanced the state of the art in TA in recent years. The Metaphor program was an attempt to exploit the use of metaphors by different societies to gain insight into their cultural norms …

A Corpus-Based Analysis of Student Loan Debt Metaphors in US Media
E Lederman – 2020 –
… societal attitudes toward solutions for these problems. Strikingly, the US government, through the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), an organization within the National Intelligence Agency of the US government, is using the metaphor research from …

Forthcoming Major Revolution in Global Dialogue
A Judge – 2013 –
Challenging new world order of interactive communication.

Using Metaphors in Sociology: Pitfalls and Potentials
R Swedberg – Springer
… 246). 6 A mention should at this point also be made of IARPA’s ambitious Metaphor Program (2011-), which represents an attempt to reconstruct the way that people think by studying the metaphors they use (eg Madrigal 2011) …

Revisiting metaphors in international relations theory
MP Marks – 2018 – Springer
Page 1. Revisiting Metaphors in International Relations Theory Michael P. Marks Page 2. Revisiting Metaphors in International Relations Theory Page 3. Michael P. Marks Revisiting Metaphors in International Relations Theory Page 4 …

New metaphors for global living
SR Fishel – 2011 –
Page 1. NEW METAPHORS FOR GLOBAL, LIVING by Stefanie R. Fishel A dissertation submitted to Johns Hopkins University in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Baltimore, MD October …

Living within a Self-engendered Simulation
A Judge –
Re-cognizing an alternative to living within the simulation of an other.

Identification and Interpretation of Figurative Language with Computational Semantic Models
A Gerow – 2014 –
Page 1. Identification and Interpretation of Figurative Language with Computational Semantic Models Aaron Gerow March 2014 Page 2. 2 Page 3. i Page 4. ii Page 5. Summary This thesis is about the automatic extraction of metaphors as they appear in English text …

Crossroads? Some Remarks on the Future of Law and Literature
G Jeanne – Pólemos, 2012 –
Page 1. DOI 10.1515/pol-2012-0002 Pólemos 2012; 6(1): 7 – 31 Jeanne Gaakeer Crossroads? Some Remarks on the Future of Law and Literature Abstract: In this article I will continue my exploration of the relevance of the hu …

Anticipating When Blackbirds Sing Chinese
A Judge – 2014 –
… The above mentioned IARPA Metaphor Program could well be understood as an element in the design of some such memetic radar system — purportedly focused as it is on the interpretative translation of metaphors of significance to measures of defence …

Engendering Viable Global Futures through Hemispheric Integration
A Judge – 2014 –
… Current possibilities can be discussed in terms of Psychosocial potential of analogy detection (2013), notably in the light of the Metaphor Program initiated by the US Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) to build a world repository of metaphors enabling a …

Being a Waveform of Potential as an Experiential Choice
A Judge – 2013 –
… for governance: It is unfortunate that Hofstadter and Sander fail to indicate any implications of their insights for the problematic conditions of society — in a period when the US Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) has initiated a Metaphor Program to build a …

Insider threat indicator ontology
DL Costa, MJ Albrethsen, ML Collins – 2016 –
Page 1. An Insider Threat Indicator Ontology Daniel L. Costa Michael J. Albrethsen Matthew L. Collins Samuel J. Perl George J. Silowash Derrick L. Spooner May 2016 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2016-TR-007 CERT® Division Page 2 …

Affinity, Diaspora, Identity, Reunification, Return
A Judge – 2013 –
Reimagining possibilities of engaging with place and time.