AES (Automated Essay Scoring)


Automated essay scoring (AES) is a type of educational technology that uses artificial intelligence algorithms to evaluate the quality and content of student essays. AES systems are designed to provide automated feedback and grading on student writing, allowing teachers to save time and effort on grading essays, and allowing students to receive more frequent and detailed feedback on their writing.

While AES systems can be helpful in providing rapid feedback and grading on student writing, they are not without their limitations. AES systems are not able to fully replicate the depth and nuance of human evaluation, and they may not be able to accurately assess certain aspects of writing, such as creativity, originality, and style. Additionally, some critics argue that the use of AES systems may encourage students to focus on achieving a high score rather than on developing their writing skills, which could lead to a decrease in the overall quality of student writing.

Overall, while AES systems can be useful in providing automated feedback and grading on student writing, they are not a replacement for human evaluation. Hand-graded essays will always provide the most detailed and accurate assessment of student writing, and they will continue to play a crucial role in teaching and evaluating writing skills.

  • Automated essay evaluation
  • Automated writing evaluation (AWE)




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Assessing writing in MOOCs: Automated essay scoring and calibrated peer review SP Balfour – Research & Practice in Assessment, 2013 – Abstract Two of the largest Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) organizations have chosen different methods for the way they will score and provide feedback on essays students submit. EdX, MIT and Harvard’s non-profit MOOC federation, recently announced … Cited by 68 Related articles All 3 versions

Automated essay scoring: Writing assessment and instruction MD Shermis, J Burstein, D Higgins… – International …, 2010 – In 1973, the late Ellis Page and colleagues at the University of Connecticut programmed the first successful automated essay scoring engine,“Project Essay Grade (PEG)”(1973). The technology was foretold some six years earlier in a landmark Phi Delta Kappan article … Cited by 34 Related articles All 4 versions

On the relation between automated essay scoring and modern views of the writing construct P Deane – Assessing Writing, 2013 – Elsevier This paper examines the construct measured by automated essay scoring (AES) systems. AES systems measure features of the text structure, linguistic structure, and conventional print form of essays; as such, the systems primarily measure text production skills. In the … Cited by 36 Related articles All 5 versions

Performance of a generic approach in automated essay scoring Y Attali, B Bridgeman, C Trapani – The Journal of Technology, …, 2010 – Abstract A generic approach in automated essay scoring produces scores that have the same meaning across all prompts, existing or new, of a writing assessment. This is accomplished by using a single set of linguistic indicators (or features), a consistent way of … Cited by 25 Related articles All 10 versions

Validity and Reliability of Automated Essay Scoring Y Attali – … of automated essay evaluation: Current applications …, 2013 – The purpose of this chapter is to develop a plan to support the use of automated essay scoring (AES) systems. Such a plan involves a clarification of the purpose of AES, how it could achieve this purpose, and what evidence exists that it is successful. This plan … Cited by 16 Related articles

The e-rater automated essay scoring system J Burstein, J Tetreault, N Madnani – … of automated essay …, 2013 – Automated essay scoring (AES) is a well-established technology in educational settings. The technology is now supported by a number of commercial vendors, and is used to evaluate millions of essay responses in instructional and assessment settings in … Cited by 14 Related articles

Automated essay scoring: Psychometric guidelines and practices C Ramineni, DM Williamson – Assessing Writing, 2013 – Elsevier In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e … Cited by 16 Related articles All 4 versions

Automated essay scoring using generalized latent semantic analysis MM Islam – … and Information Technology (ICCIT), 2010 13th …, 2010 – Abstract Automated Essay Grading (AEG) is a very important research area in educational technology. Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is an information retrieval technique used for automated essay grading. LSA forms a word by document matrix and then the matrix is … Cited by 14 Related articles All 8 versions

Validating automated essay scoring for online writing placement C Ramineni – Assessing Writing, 2013 – Elsevier In this paper, I describe the design and evaluation of automated essay scoring (AES) models for an institution’s writing placement program. Information was gathered on admitted student writing performance at a science and technology research university in the northeastern … Cited by 11 Related articles All 4 versions

A differential word use measure for content analysis in automated essay scoring Y Attali – ETS Research Report Series, 2011 – Wiley Online Library Abstract This paper proposes an alternative content measure for essay scoring, based on the difference in the relative frequency of a word in high-scored versus low-scored essays. The differential word use (DWU) measure is the average of these differences across all … Cited by 9 Related articles All 6 versions

Automated essay scoring in innovative assessments of writing from sources P Deane, F Williams, V Weng, CS Trapani – Writing Assessment, 2013 – Abstract This study examined automated essay scoring for experimental tests of writing from sources. These tests (part of the CBAL research initiative at ETS) embed writing tasks within a scenario in which students read and respond to sources. Two large-scale pilots are … Cited by 8

The IntelliMetricTM Automated Essay Scoring Engine—A Review and an Application to Chinese Essay Scoring MT Schultz – … Automated Essay Evaluation: Current Applications …, 2013 – IntelliMetricTM was designed as a tool for scoring essay-type, constructed response questions across a number of environments and content areas, including K—12, higher education, and professional training. This paper describes IntelliMetric and reviews an … Cited by 8 Related articles

The application of the cumulative logistic regression model to automated essay scoring SJ Haberman, S Sinharay – Journal of Educational and Behavioral …, 2010 – Abstract Most automated essay scoring programs use a linear regression model to predict an essay score from several essay features. This article applied a cumulative logit model instead of the linear regression model to automated essay scoring. Comparison of the … Cited by 8 Related articles All 5 versions

Impacts of An Automated Essay Scoring Tool on the Development of Writing Proficiency of Chinese College EFL Learners [J] J Xue-qing, C Jing, T Jin-lan – Shandong Foreign Language …, 2011 – Integration with modern telecommunication technologies has become a distinctive feature of EFL teaching in the new century. Making a case study of a group of subjects from a university in Beijing, this research aimed to identify possible impacts of Writing Roadmap … Cited by 6 Related articles

Online formative assessment using automated essay scoring technology in China and US—Two case studies CS Rich, Y Wang – … technology and computer (icetc), 2010 2nd …, 2010 – Abstract-Automated essay scoring (AES) has benefits such as time saving for teachers, immediate diagnostic feedback and reliable score reporting. This paper reports two case studies of using online automated essay scoring technology as formative assessment tool … Cited by 5 Related articles All 3 versions

A hierarchical classification approach to automated essay scoring DS McNamara, SA Crossley, RD Roscoe, LK Allen… – Assessing Writing, 2015 – Elsevier Abstract This study evaluates the use of a hierarchical classification approach to automated assessment of essays. Automated essay scoring (AES) generally relies on machine learning techniques that compute essay scores using a set of text variables. Unlike previous … Cited by 9 Related articles All 5 versions

A ranked-based learning approach to automated essay scoring H Chen, B He, T Luo, B Li – Cloud and Green Computing (CGC) …, 2012 – Abstract—Automated essay scoring is the computer techniques and algorithms that evaluate and score essays automatically. Compared with human rater, automated essay scoring has the advantage of fairness, less human resource cost and timely feedback. In previous … Cited by 5 Related articles All 2 versions

Automated Chinese essay scoring using vector space models X Peng, D Ke, Z Chen, B Xu – … Symposium (IUCS), 2010 4th …, 2010 – Abstract—This paper presents experiments using several vector space models in Automated Essay Scoring (AES). Firstly, we compare four different Vector Space Models (VSM) which are the Word-based Vector Space Model (W-VSM), the Weight Adapted Word-based … Cited by 9 Related articles All 3 versions

Automated essay scoring and the search for valid writing assessment A Klobucar, P Deane, N Elliot… – … advances in writing …, 2012 – In educational settings, assessment targets determine the need for local validation. Instructional improvement, for example, is validated by examining the relationship between curricular innovations and improvements in criterion measures such as course grades. In … Cited by 6 Related articles All 5 versions

A Differential Word Use Measure for Content Analysis in Automated Essay Scoring. Research Report. ETS RR-11-36. Y Attali – Educational Testing Service, 2011 – ERIC Abstract This paper proposes an alternative content measure for essay scoring, based on the difference in the relative frequency of a word in high-scored versus low-scored essays. The differential word use (DWU) measure is the average of these differences across all … Cited by 5 Related articles

Notice of Retraction Automated Essay Scoring System for CET4 Y Li, Y Yan – … Technology and Computer Science (ETCS), 2010 …, 2010 – Abstract—In this paper, we introduced an automated essay scoring system for CET4 (College English Test band 4, national English level test in the People’s Republic of China). We give score on several components including some surface features, grammar … Cited by 3 Related articles All 5 versions

Automated essay scoring in a high stakes testing environment MD Shermis – Innovative Assessment for the 21st Century, 2010 – Springer Abstract This chapter discusses the use of automated essay scoring (AES) as a possible replacement for an annual statewide high-stakes writing test. The examples provided are drawn from development work in the state of Florida, but might apply to any state in the … Cited by 3 Related articles All 4 versions

Comparison of e-rater® Automated Essay Scoring Model Calibration Methods Based on Distributional Targets M Zhang, DM Williamson, FJ Breyer… – International Journal of …, 2012 – Taylor & Francis This article describes two separate, related studies that provide insight into the effectiveness of e-rater score calibration methods based on different distributional targets. In the first study, we developed and evaluated a new type of e-rater scoring model that was cost-effective … Cited by 3 Related articles All 2 versions

State-of-the-art automated essay scoring: Competition, results, and future directions from a United States demonstration MD Shermis – Assessing Writing, 2014 – Elsevier Abstract This article summarizes the highlights of two studies: a national demonstration that contrasted commercial vendors’ performance on automated essay scoring (AES) with that of human raters; and an international competition to match or exceed commercial vendor … Cited by 8 Related articles All 4 versions

The nature of automated essay scoring feedback S Dikli – CALICO Journal, 2013 – Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore the nature of feedback that English as a Second Language (ESL) students received on their writings either from an automated essay scoring (AES) system or from the teacher. The participants were 12 adult ESL students … Cited by 7 Related articles All 8 versions

A Comparative Study of Automated Essay Scoring Techniques for College Students’ English Writing [J] G Shili – Journal of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, 2010 – The criteria of automated essay scoring include content and, more importantly, the use of language. Chinese college students’ English writing has its unique attributes in language use. In order to find out an efficient automated scoring method for this type of text, in this … Cited by 2 Related articles

The research on CET automated essay scoring based on data mining H Jiang, G Huang, J Liu – Advances in Computer Science and Education …, 2011 – Springer Abstract At present, the studies in foreign on natural language processing for automated essay scoring are in full swing. However, these studies are aimed at native English speakers, and it is essentially different from the focus on domestic CET essay scoring. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 3 versions

Automated essay scoring using multi-classifier fusion L Bin, Y Jian-Min – Computing and Intelligent Systems, 2011 – Springer Abstract The method of multi-classifier fusion was applied to essay scoring. In this paper, each essay was represented by Vector Space Model (VSM). After removing the stopwords, we extracted the features of contents and linguistics from the essays, and each vector was … Cited by 2 Related articles All 3 versions

The use of feedback in the ESL writing class integrating Automated Essay Scoring (AES) J Choi, Y Lee – Society for Information Technology & Teacher …, 2010 – Abstract In spite of the increasing demands for English writing proficiency, English writing instruction has not been effective for teaching and learning because of ineffective and insufficient feedback in class. As an alternative resource of quality feedback, AES is … Cited by 3 Related articles

Automated Essay Scoring for Swedish R Östling, A Smolentzov… – The 8th Workshop on …, 2013 – Abstract We present the first system developed for automated grading of high school essays written in Swedish. The system uses standard text quality indicators and is able to compare vocabulary and grammar to large reference corpora of blog posts and newspaper articles. … Cited by 5 Related articles All 12 versions

Evaluating the validity and applicability of automated essay scoring in two massive open online courses ED Reilly, RE Stafford, KM Williams… – The International Review of …, 2014 – Abstract The use of massive open online courses (MOOCs) to expand students’ access to higher education has raised questions regarding the extent to which this course model can provide and assess authentic, higher level student learning. In response to this need, … Cited by 2 Related articles All 5 versions

An Expert System for Automated Essay Scoring (AES) in Computing using Shallow NLP Techniques for Inferencing AO Ade-Ibijola, I Wakama, JC Amadi – International Journal of Computer …, 2012 – Citeseer ABSTRACT In this paper, we present the report of the development of an Expert System (ES) that; acquires the knowledge of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) in a specific computing field,“Software Engineering”, uses a built-in Inference Engine designed with Shallow … Cited by 4 Related articles All 7 versions

Automated essay scoring based on finite state transducer: towards ASR transcription of oral English speech X Peng, D Ke, B Xu – Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the …, 2012 – Abstract Conventional Automated Essay Scoring (AES) measures may cause severe problems when directly applied in scoring Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) transcription as they are error sensitive and unsuitable for the characteristic of ASR … Cited by 2 Related articles All 8 versions

Automated Essay Scoring feedback for second language writers: How does it compare to instructor feedback? S Dikli, S Bleyle – Assessing Writing, 2014 – Elsevier Abstract Writing is an essential component of students’ academic English development, yet it requires a considerable amount of time and effort on the part of both students and teachers. In an effort to reduce their workload, many instructors are looking into the use of … Cited by 3 Related articles All 2 versions

Automated essay evaluation and scoring J Burstein – The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, 2013 – Wiley Online Library Abstract Automated essay scoring and evaluation technology is now used in instructional and test preparation products and in low-and high-stakes standardized assessments as well as in some public school, community college, and university settings in the USA. Cited by 2 Related articles

The Automatic Detection of Language Errors of Binary Adjacent Word Pairs in Automated Essay Scoring GE Shi-li – Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Education, 2010 – Error is one of the most important features in automated essay scoring (AES) research. The accurate identification and extraction of this feature not only provide support for essay scoring but also offer feedback about language use for writers. The frequencies of binary … Cited by 1 Related articles

Automated Essay Scoring: A Comparative Study XM Yao – Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2013 – Trans Tech Publ Abstract: Automated essay scoring has been the focus of a cross-disciplinary study of computer science and English instruction. In this study, an experiment was conducted to testify the validity and reliability of E-grading Device and to check out whether the holistic score generated … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

An effective automated essay scoring system using support vector regression Y Li, Y Yan – … Technology and Automation (ICICTA), 2012 Fifth …, 2012 – Abstract—In this paper, we introduce an effective automated essay scoring system. To implement the system, we extract several features, including the surface features such as the number of words in the essay, number of words longer than 5, and complex features such … Cited by 1 Related articles All 6 versions

Automated Bangla essay scoring system: ABESS MM Islam, ASML Hoque – Informatics, Electronics & Vision ( …, 2013 – Abstract—Essays are the most useful tool to assess learning outcomes. However, teachers have not enough time to evaluate a student’s writing properly because of their other assigned responsibilities. Several Automated Essay Grading (AEG) systems have been … Cited by 1 Related articles

The Consistency Between Human Raters and an Automated Essay Scoring System in Grading High School Students’ English Writing M Tsai – Action in Teacher Education, 2012 – Taylor & Francis This study investigates the consistency between human raters and an automated essay scoring system in grading high school students’ English compositions. A total of 923 essays from 23 classes of 12 senior high schools in Taiwan (Republic of China) were obtained … Cited by 2 Related articles All 2 versions

Business student writing assessment and improvement utilizing automated essay scoring (AES) technology P Edelblut, P Hilliard, V Learning – online] http://www. fardinpour. …, 2011 – ABSTRACT: Students learn to write by writing. Studies show the amount of writing students complete is positively related to writing ability. Writing-intensive programs providing timely feedback, requiring revision and multiple drafts, have been particularly effective in … Cited by 1 Related articles

Reliability-based feature weighting for automated essay scoring Y Attali – Applied Psychological Measurement, 2014 – Abstract From their earliest origins, automated essay scoring systems strived to emulate human essay scores and viewed them as their ultimate validity criterion. Consequently, the importance (or weight) and even identity of computed essay features in the composite … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Automated Essay Scoring Using Incremental Latent Semantic Analysis M Zhang, S Hao, Y Xu, D Ke… – Journal of Software, 2014 – Abstract Writing has been increasingly regarded by the testers of language tests as an important indicator to assess the language skill of testees. As such tests become more and more popular and the number of testees becomes larger, it is a huge task to score so … Cited by 2 Related articles All 3 versions

Automated Essay Scoring by Maximizing Human-Machine Agreement. H Chen, B He – EMNLP, 2013 – Abstract Previous approaches for automated essay scoring (AES) learn a rating model by minimizing either the classification, regression, or pairwise classification loss, depending on the learning algorithm used. In this paper, we argue that the current AES systems can be … Cited by 6 Related articles All 4 versions

Automated Essay Scoring and The Repair of Electronics D Preston, D Goodman – Technical rep ort, http://snap. stanford. …, 2012 – The Hewlett Foundation sponsored the Automated Student Assessment Prize on kaggle. com, challenging teams to produce essay evaluation models that best approximate human graders. Contestants predicted the scores of standardized-testing essays from grades 7- … Cited by 1 Related articles

Automated essay scoring by capturing relative writing quality H Chen, J Xu, B He – The Computer Journal, 2013 – Br Computer Soc Abstract Automated essay-scoring (AES) systems utilize computer techniques and algorithms to automatically rate essays written in an educational setting, by which the workload of human raters is greatly reduced. AES is usually addressed as a classification … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Automated Essay Scoring: Scoring Essays in Swedish A Smolentzov – 2013 – Abstract Good writing skills are essential in the education system at all levels. However, the evaluation of essays is labor intensive and can entail a subjective bias. Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is a tool that may be able to save teacher time and provide more objective … Cited by 1 Related articles

The impact of automated essay scoring (AES) for improving English language learner’s essay writing J Choi – 2010 – ABSTRACT The growing number of English Language Learners (ELLs) and globalized communications are factors making English writing instruction a critical educational concern in many countries around the world. While empirical research findings and language … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

A validation framework for automated essay scoring systems LF Lu – 2012 – Abstract Writing tests are increasingly being included in large-scale assessment programs and highstakes decisions. However, Automated Essay Scoring (AES) systems developed to overcome issues of marker inconsistency, volume, speed, cost and so on, also raise … Cited by 1 Related articles

Automated Chinese Essay Scoring from Topic Perspective Using Regularized Latent Semantic Indexing S Hao, Y Xu, H Peng, K Su, D Ke – Pattern Recognition (ICPR), …, 2014 – Abstract—Finding out an effective way to score Chinese written essays automatically remains challenging for researchers. Several methods have been proposed and developed but limited in the character and word usage levels. As one of the scoring standards, … Cited by 1 Related articles All 6 versions

Using Automated Scoring to Monitor Reader Performance and Detect Reader Drift in Essay Scoring SM Lottridge, EM Schulz, HC Mitzel – … of Automated Essay …, 2013 – With expediencies such as rapid turnaround time and economic benefits associated with reduced scoring costs, automated scoring is widely viewed as on a path to replace human labor, like so many prior innovative technologies. As a result, the focus of automated … Cited by 3 Related articles

The Research on Focus and Methods of CET Automated Essay Scoring H Jiang, G Huang – International Conference on …, 2012 – ebooks.asmedigitalcollection.asme. … The research on the automatic scoring of essay makes the large-scale machine-scored come true for CET compositions. This paper analyzes the CET compositions, and compares the core technology and the focus of the domestic and foreign Automated Essay Scoring … All 2 versions

The Design and Operation of Teaching Mode of English Writing Based on Automated Essay Scoring Systems S Zhifa – 2011 – Automated Essay Scoring systems have provided a brand-new platform for the innovation of teaching mode of English writing. This paper attempts to explore the design and operation of teaching mode of English writing based on automated essay scoring systems. The new … Related articles

Automated Essay Scoring Using Machine Learning S Song, J Zhao – Abstract We built an automated essay scoring system to score approximately 13,000 essay from an online Machine Learning competition Kaggle. com. There are 8 different essay topics and as such, the essays were divided into 8 sets which differed significantly in their … Related articles

The efficacy of automated essay scoring for evaluating student responses to complex critical thinking performance tasks JT Steedle, S Elliot – 2012 – Abstract Automated essay scoring (AES) is commonly employed to score content-based and persuasive essays, but there exists pervasive skepticism about the use of AES to score essay tasks requiring substantial critical thinking and problem solving abilities. In this … Related articles

Regression based Automated Essay Scoring A Thyagarajan, PK Bhomick – Abstract This paper proposes a regression based approach for automatically scoring essays written in English. We use standard NLP techniques for obtaining the features from the text and integrate it with an existing framework that uses vector space model to improve the …

LSA-Based Automated Essay Scoring in Chinese Context XM Yao – Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2013 – Trans Tech Publ Abstract Since its invention in the 1990s, an immense body of academic literature on LSA regarding to Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has been published. The current study investigated the extent of applicability and usefulness of LSA-based AES for assigning … Related articles All 3 versions

Automated Essay Scoring Feedback (AESF): An Innovative Writing Solution to the Malaysian University English Test (MUET) SY Ng, CH Bong, NK Lee, KS Hong – 2015 – Recent advances in information communication technology (ICT) infrastructure can be harnessed to support and improve the quality of teaching and learning of English writing skills especially for second language context where rule based support is necessary. …

Defeating the Automated Scoring: Is it Possible to Cheat in Automatic Essay Scoring SMF Latifi, K Fung, MJ Gierl, A Mousavi, Q Guo – Citeseer Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is a process where computer technology is used to facilitate scoring of written prose and also providing feedback on student performance. It employs a sequence of natural language processing steps and is now used broadly in educational … All 2 versions

The Impact of Online Automated Essay Scoring System Writing Roadmap 2.0 on Writing Quality of College Students MX GAO, XH LUAN – Journal of Jilin Institute of Chemical …, 2013 – This study, carrying out the experiment in college writing, aims to explore the impact of Online Automated Essay Scoring System Writing Roadmap 2.0, the independent variable on writing quality of college students, the dependent variable. The Independent Samples T- … Related articles

Indices of Semantic Similarity for Automated Essay Scoring (AES) Y Cohen, A Ben-Simon, E Levi – Abstract Content is one of the main writing dimensions on which essays are judged and rated. Since no automated essay scoring (AES) system is capable (yet) of truly understanding the content of an essay and assessing its breadth, depth and relevance, … Related articles

Evaluating the Detection of Aberrant Responses in Automated Essay Scoring M Zhang, J Chen, C Ruan – Quantitative Psychology Research, 2015 – Springer Abstract As automated essay scoring grows in popularity, the measurement issues associated with it take on greater importance. One such issue is the detection of aberrant responses. In this study, we considered aberrant responses as those that were not …

A Tentative Sudy on the Validity of Online Automated Essay Scoring Used in the Teaching of EFL Writing——Exemplified by http// SHI Xiao-ling – Modern Educational Technology, 2012 – The importance of correction and feedback in the teaching of EFL writing cannot be underestimated in terms of improving students’ writing ability. Integration of online automated essay scoring (OAES) into EFL teaching has been considered as an effective … Related articles

Technology integrated ESL writing instruction using Automated Essay Scoring (AES) and the impact in improving writing quality J Choi, Y Lee – World Conference on Educational Multimedia, …, 2010 – Abstract While written feedback is intuitively accepted as the essential component of writing instruction, the lack of teachers’ time and competency has brought about the problematic feedback performance in ESL classrooms. The automated essay scoring (AES), a … Related articles

Experimenting with a Japanese automated essay scoring system in the L2 Japanese environment J Imaki, S Ishihara – The purpose of this study is to provide an empirical analysis of the performance of an L1 Japanese automated essay scoring system which was on L2 Japanese compositions. In particular, this study concerns the use of such a system in formal L2 Japanese classes by … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Flexible Domain Adaptation for Automated Essay Scoring Using Correlated Linear Regression P Phandi, KMA Chai, HT Ng – Abstract Most of the current automated essay scoring (AES) systems are trained using manually graded essays from a specific prompt. These systems experience a drop in accuracy when used to grade an essay from a different prompt. Obtaining a large number …

Short Essay Grading Using Automated Essay Scoring Techniques GR Perera, DN Perera – 2015 – Assessment of the knowledge is considered as one of the most important aspect of the learning process. Conventional class room learning has been shifted and developed towards m-learning and e-learning concepts. Despite its development the underlying …

[BOOK] Improvement of writing at grades 10 and 11: Does automated essay scoring software help students improve their writing skills? DL Gollnitz – 2010 – Abstract Writing skills are considered essential to lifelong success, yet experts cannot agree on one model or set of traits that distinguishes good writing from poor writing. Instructional strategies in developing student writing at the high school level need to include a means … All 3 versions

Ethical Implementation of an Automated Essay Scoring (AES) System: A Case Study of Student and Instructor Use, Satisfaction, and Perceptions of AES in a Business … JK Lewis – 2013 – Abstract A pilot study of a vendor provided automated essay scoring system was conducted in a Business Law class of 27 students. Students answered a business law fact pattern question which was reviewed and graded by the textbook vendor utilizing artificial … Cited by 3 Related articles All 2 versions

Validity and Automated Essay Scoring: A Summary Paper RE Bennett, M Zhang – Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Association for Educational Assessment, Tel Aviv (Israel), October, 2013. Unpublished Work Copyright © 2013 by Educational Testing Service. All Rights Reserved. These materials are an unpublished, proprietary … Related articles

Assessing Writing Fluency Of Non-English-Speaking Student For Automated Essay Scoring MC Yang, MJ Kim, HG Lee, HC Rim – Abstract: Automated essay scoring (AES) systems have provided a computer-based writing assessment comparable to expert raters. However, the existing systems are inadequate to assess the writing fluency of non-Englishspeaking students, while they detect grammatical … Related articles

Scaling and Norming for Automated Essay Scoring KLK Koskey, MD Shermis – Handbook of Automated Essay …, 2013 – In this chapter, we provide an overview of different methods used in scaling and norming essay scores starting with a general comparison of holistic and analytic rubrics. Next, scales applied for rating the quality of writing samples are reviewed with a focus on standardized … Related articles

Combination of Multiple Regressoion and Text Categorization in Automated Essay Scoring of College English Writing S Ge – Information Technology Journal, 2013 – Abstract In order to determine the joint effect of two methods, multiple regression and text categorization, in automated essay scoring (AES) of English writing by Chinese college students, a joint model involving both methods is constructed, applied and evaluated. A … Related articles

Fairness Considerations in Automated Essay Scoring M Zhang, N Dorans, C Li, AA Rupp – Page 1. Fairness Considerations in Automated Essay Scoring Mo Zhang, Neil Dorans, Chen Li, André A. Rupp Educational Testing Service Princeton, NJ … Task 2 results • Summary 2 Page 3. Automated Essay Scoring • Involves machine extraction and aggregation of evidence …

The Effectiveness of Automated Essay Scoring in an EFL College Classroom JE Kim – Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning, 2014 – This study explores two English classes taught in English at a four-year university to investigate the effectiveness of using the Automated Essay Scoring (AES) system on the improvement of essay writing abilities of both high level and low level EFL students. The …

Automated essay scoring and the future of educational assessment in medical education MJ Gierl, S Latifi, H Lai, AP Boulais… – Medical …, 2014 – Wiley Online Library Methods An AES system uses a computer program that builds a scoring model by extracting linguistic features from a constructed-response prompt that has been pre-scored by human raters and then, using machine learning algorithms, maps the linguistic features to the … Cited by 2 Related articles All 5 versions

Features selection of high quality essays in automated essay scoring system M Wang, Y Tan, C Li – Electrical and Control Engineering ( …, 2011 – English learners, and text features such as words, phrases, paragraphs, and chapters. According to the correlation between the scores and these features, we do multiple regression analysis based on the feature recombination and extract the feature sets that … Related articles All 2 versions

A comparison of automated scoring engines and human raters on the assessment of English essay writing KY Chan – 2012 – Essay scoring operates both in the classroom and in high-stakes testing and the results of essay scoring in high-stakes assessment impact on the students’ academic development. Thus, teachers, students and parents are under considerable pressure in the educational … All 3 versions

Automated Essay Scoring Framework for a Multilingual Medical Licensing Examination SMF Latifi – 2014 – Abstract Automated essay scoring (AES) is a technology that efficiently and economically score written responses by emulating intelligence of human scorer. Present study had employed open-source Natural Language Processing technologies for developing AES … Related articles

Research on Automated English Essay Scoring Based on Link Grammar W LIU, L YU – Computer Knowledge and Technology, 2014 – An automated essay scoring (AES) system based on the Link Grammar is proposed after analyzing the relative results on AES both at home and abroad, which can provide real-time writing training for English learners. Firstly, the grammar’s weight of this article is … Related articles

Validating Automated Essay Scoring: A (Modest) Refinement of the “Gold Standard” DE Powers, DS Escoffery… – Applied Measurement in …, 2015 – Taylor & Francis By far, the most frequently used method of validating (the interpretation and use of) automated essay scores has been to compare them with scores awarded by human raters. Although this practice is questionable, human-machine agreement is still often regarded … Related articles

Automated essay scoring using structural and grammatical features A Hassaine – Qatar Foundation Annual Research Forum, 2012 – Automated essay scoring is a research field which is continuously gaining popularity. Grading essays by hand is expensive and time consuming, automated scoring systems can yield fast, effective and affordable solutions that would make it possible to grade essays …

Adopting Automated Essay Scoring Feedback In Malaysia: A Review Of The Literature K Sam – ABSTRACT Assessing essays and providing feedback to learners is undoubtedly a daunting, time consuming task for language teachers especially for formative assessment. Formative assessment requires feedbacks that indicate learning gaps that inform ideas for …

A new linguistic feature for Automated Essay Scoring H Wang, K Zhang, Y Li, Y Yan – … Symposium (IUCS), 2010 4th …, 2010 – Abstract—This study reviews the features used in the previous Automated Essay Scoring (AES) system, and attempts to develop a new linguistic feature-thematic feature for AES systems. According to Functional Grammar, theme is the point of departure for message, … Related articles All 3 versions

An Experimental Research on Applying Automated Essay Scoring System to College English Writing Course Z Qiang – International Journal of English Language Teaching, 2014 – Abstract A lot of network teaching and learning software and programs related to English teaching have emerged in recent years due to the development of computer technology and the application of the new network technology. Automated essay scoring system provides … Related articles All 2 versions

International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE) AutoScor: An Automated System for Essay Questions Scoring A Alzahrani, A Alzahrani, FK Al Arfaj, K Almohammadi… – Abstract The automated scoring or evaluation for written student responses have been, and are still a highly interesting topic for both education and natural language processing, NLP, researchers alike. With the obvious motivation of the difficulties teachers face when … Related articles

A New Automated Essay Scoring: Teaching Resource Program JJ Wang – Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2013 – Trans Tech Publ Abstract. This study focuses on the automated essay scoring system: Teaching Resource Program (TRP) from a cross-disciplinary perspective. Different from previous research, this research emphasized the functions of Teaching Resource Program in the respect of evaluation and the capacity … Related articles All 3 versions

Automated Computer-Based CET4 Essay Scoring System Y Xi, W Liang – … and System (PACCS), 2011 Third Pacific-Asia …, 2011 – Abstract–Automated Essay Scoring is a very significant research subject for the processing of machine scoring. Computer-based College English Test (National English level test) further motivates the research of AES system for Chinese English leaner. In this paper, we … Related articles All 2 versions

Comparison Between Web-based Automated Essay Scoring Software and Human ESL Essay Assessment: A Preliminary Investigation MR Manap – … ON SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES 2012, 2012 – Abstract Advancement in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has benefitted many in so many ways. Educators from all levels of education have comfortably embraced ICT for decades. More and more applications are being developed which has direct and … Cited by 1

The Integration of Automated Essay Scoring Systems into the Equating Process for Mixed-Format Tests S Olgar – 2015 – Abstract With the latest developments in computer based testing, implementing equating techniques that incorporate automated essay scoring systems such as e-rater are encouraging potential new directions for equating mixed-format tests of writing that …

SCESS: a WFSA-based automated simplified chinese essay scoring system with incremental latent semantic analysis S Hao, Y Xu, D Ke, K Su… – Natural Language …, 2015 – Cambridge Univ Press Abstract Writing in language tests is regarded as an important indicator for assessing language skills of test takers. As Chinese language tests become popular, scoring a large number of essays becomes a heavy and expensive task for the organizers of these tests. … Related articles All 3 versions

Automated essay evaluation and the computational paradigm: Machine scoring enters the classroom CM Barrett – 2015 – Abstract Grading papers is a” tedious, repetitive, and time-consuming” undertaking, one that invites the sort of sympathies one might receive upon the” death of a pet'(Baker, 2014, p. 36). Perhaps, though, the only thing more distasteful for an English professor than having to …

Automated Essay Scoring of College English Writing S Ge – 2013 – Abstract: In order to determine the joint effect of two methods, multiple regression and text categorization, in Automated Essay Scoring (AES) of English writing by Chinese college students, a joint model involving both methods is constructed, applied and evaluated. A … Related articles

Automated Arabic Essay Scoring (AAES) Using Vectors Space Model (VSM) and Latent Semantics Indexing (LSI) AR Abbas, AS Al-qazaz – ABSTRACT Automated Essays Scoring (AES) stands for the ability of computer technologies to evaluate electronic essays written by learner according to previously determined essay. All the previous works and researches were applied to essays written in English language …

The Hebrew Language Project: Automated Essay Scoring & Readability Analysis ABSY Cohen – Automated essay scoring (AES) systems have been in use for the past two decades and have proven to yield reliable and valid measures of writing ability (Shermis& Burstein, 2003; Ben-Simon & Bennett, 2007). In a typical system, a large number of statistical and natural … Related articles All 2 versions

From Computer Adaptive Testing to Automated Scoring in a Senior Secondary School Physics Essay Test in Osun State, Nigeria JG Adewale, OA Etuk-Iren – Abstract Many teachers see teaching as enjoyable but scoring as a task they would like to avoid. This implies that many teachers would prefer automated scoring to manual. Computer- based testing supports the use of multiple-choice, drag-and-drop and fill-in-the-blank tests … Related articles

Automated Versus Human Essay Scoring: A Comparative Study S Toranj, DN Ansari – Theory and Practice in Language …, 2012 – Abstract This study investigated the effects of automated essay scoring (AES) system on writing improvement of Iranian L2 learners. About 60 Iranian intermediate EFL learners were selected on a Standard English proficiency test (Allen 2004). Afterwards, they were … Related articles All 9 versions