Unembodied Artificial Intelligence


Unembodied artificial intelligence (AI) refers to AI systems that do not have a physical body or form. These systems are typically software-based and operate on a computer or in the cloud. They are designed to perform tasks that would typically require human intelligence, such as natural language processing, image recognition, decision making, and problem solving. Examples of unembodied AI include virtual assistants, language translation software, and self-driving car algorithms.

Chatbots and voice assistants are examples of unembodied AI. They are software-based systems that are designed to understand and respond to natural language input from users. They can perform a variety of tasks, such as answering questions, providing information, and completing simple commands. They can be integrated into a wide range of platforms, including websites, mobile apps, and smart home devices. The chatbots and voice assistants are designed to mimic human conversation and interaction, but they do not have a physical body.

Phenomenology is a philosophical method and movement that emphasizes the study of conscious experience or perception, rather than objective reality or physical objects. Edmund Husserl, who is considered the founder of phenomenology, believed that by examining the structures of consciousness, one could gain a deeper understanding of the nature of reality and our experience of it. In contrast, the Cartesian method of analysis, which is named after philosopher René Descartes, focuses on breaking down the world into its individual components and studying them in isolation. It emphasizes the study of objective reality and the laws that govern it, rather than subjective experience.

John Haugeland introduced the term “GOFAI” (Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Intelligence) in his 1985 book “Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea” to refer to the symbolic approach to AI, also known as rule-based systems or classical AI. This approach is based on the idea that intelligence can be replicated by creating a set of rules or symbols that can be used to represent knowledge and reasoning.

Together, embodiment, situatedness, and morphology are central concepts in the study of embodied AI, which focuses on the relationship between the physical form and cognitive capabilities of AI systems.

Voice as a form of embodiment refers to the use of voice as a means of providing an AI system with a sense of embodiment or presence. Voice-enabled systems, such as virtual assistants or chatbots, can use natural language to communicate with users and provide a sense of interactivity, even if they don’t have a physical form. Voice can also be used to provide a sense of personality or character to the system, making it more engaging and relatable to users.

Natural language as a form of sensory input refers to the use of natural language, such as spoken or written language, as a way for AI systems to gather information and understand the intentions of users. Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of AI that focuses on the ability of systems to understand and generate human language. The use of natural language as a form of sensory input allows AI systems to interact with users in a more natural and intuitive way.

  • Disembodied refers to a system or entity that does not have a physical body or form. In the context of AI, a disembodied AI system would be one that does not have a physical presence or embodiment, such as a virtual assistant or chatbot.
  • Embodied multimodal fusion refers to the integration of multiple modalities, such as vision, audio, and haptic feedback, into an embodied AI system. An embodied system is one that has a physical presence or embodiment, such as a robot. The integration of multiple modalities allows the robot to gather and process information from different sources, resulting in a more robust and versatile system.
  • Embodiment refers to the idea that an AI system’s intelligence is closely tied to its physical form or embodiment.
  • Interface agents refers to AI systems that act as intermediaries between users and other systems or devices. These agents can be embodied or disembodied, and their main function is to make it easier for users to interact with the underlying system. Examples include virtual assistants, chatbots, or voice-controlled home automation systems. Interface agents can also be used to facilitate interactions between different systems or devices, such as coordinating the actions of multiple robots working in a shared environment.
  • Mixed reality agents refers to AI systems that can seamlessly integrate virtual and real-world environments and objects. These agents can use various forms of mixed reality, such as augmented reality (AR) or virtual reality (VR) to provide users with an immersive experience. Mixed reality agents can be used in a variety of applications, such as gaming, education, and training, and they can be embodied or disembodied.
  • Morphology refers to the physical form or structure of an AI system.
  • Situatedness refers to the idea that an AI system’s intelligence is closely tied to its context or environment.


  • james-project.eu .. joint action for multimodal embodied social systems, 2011-2014



See also:

100 Best Artificial Intelligence Embodiment Videos | Embodiment Meta Guide | HRI (Human-Robot Interaction) & Dialog Systems

Case study—Embodied virtual agents: An analysis on reasons for failure
MSB Mimoun, I Poncin, M Garnier – Journal of Retailing and Consumer …, 2012 – Elsevier
… A second quadrant, low level of anthropomorphism and high level of sophistication, corresponds to non-embodied agents with advanced filtering techniques, as represented by Ralph Lauren example. This non-embodied agent uses hybrid filtering: if customers ask for the …

Combining social strategies and workload: a new design to reduce the negative effects of task interruptions
RAJ de Vries, M Lohse, A Winterboer… – CHI’13 Extended …, 2013 – dl.acm.org
… Research on social strategies for non-embodied agents also focuses on empathy or politeness … Klein et al. [15] showed that non-embodied agents that exhibit empathy could undo some of the negative feelings they caused …

Learning and exploration in action-perception loops
DYJ Little, FT Sommer – Frontiers in neural circuits, 2013 – frontiersin.org
Discovering the structure underlying observed data is a recurring problem in machine learning with important applications in neuroscience. It is also a primary function of the brain. When data can be actively collected in the context of a closed action-perception loop, behavior becomes …

Virtual Sales Agents: The Reasons of Failure
MSB Mimoun, I Poncin, M Garnier – The Customer is NOT Always Right …, 2017 – Springer
… It also reveals critical differences between articles from the three disciplines. In fact, the majority of IS articles (8 out of 9) only studied non-embodied agents and mainly focused on functional aspects of this kind of agent specific process6 …

Learning in embodied action-perception loops through exploration
DY Little, FT Sommer – arXiv preprint arXiv:1112.1125, 2011 – arxiv.org
Page 1. 1 Learning in embodied action-perception loops through exploration Daniel Y. Little and Friedrich T. Sommer Abstract—Although exploratory behaviors are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, their computational underpinnings are still largely unknown …

Novelty and Surprise in Decision Making and Interactive Learning
MJ Faraji – wiki.epfl.ch
… They will use such a random action strategy as a baseline control for learning performance representing a naive explorer. In contrast to embodied agents, one can also consider an unembodied agent that is allowed to arbitrarily relocate to a new state before taking an action …

Session Number: 9.4: Selling with Electronic Media
T Roy, S Bem, M Mimoun, I Poncin, M Garnier, Z Liao – 2011 AMS OFFICERS – Citeseer
… It also reveals critical differences between articles from the three disciplines. In fact, the majority of IS articles (8 out of 9) only studied non-embodied agents and mainly focused on functional aspects of this kind of agent specific process6 …

Evolutionary robotics
JC Bongard – Communications of the ACM, 2013 – dl.acm.org
… Note the emphasis in robotics on “behavior:” the action of a robot generates new sensory stimulation, which in turn affects its future actions. This differs from non-embodied AI algorithms, which have no body with which to affect, or be affected by the environment …

Dynamical Intention: Integrated Intelligence Modeling for Goal-Directed Embodied Agents
E Aaron – Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 2016 – frontiersin.org
… It is not clear, however, that the environment would actually need to be fully represented for successful goal-directed behavior by a non-embodied agent. Perhaps the needed reactivity for a non-embodied agent could be achieved …

The origins of religion: evolved adaptation or by-product?
I Pyysiäinen, M Hauser – Trends in cognitive sciences, 2010 – Elsevier
… Thus, the concept of God is based on extending to non-embodied agents the standard capacity of attributing beliefs and desires to embodied agents [5]. According to this view, religious beliefs are a by-product of evolved cognitive mechanisms …

Virtual proximity and facial expressions of computer agents regulate human emotions and attention
T Vanhala, V Surakka, H Siirtola… – … and Virtual Worlds, 2010 – Wiley Online Library
… Even non-embodied agents can affect a person’s emotional and cognitive processes.1 However, results from several studies suggest that the mere presence of an embodied agent may enhance, for example, learning experiences.2 Further, the current highly proficient work on …

Interacting with an artificial partner: modeling the role of emotional aspects
I Cattinelli, M Goldwurm, NA Borghese – Biological cybernetics, 2008 – Springer
… Moreover, talking about emotions when referring to non- living entities like robots can be misleading, since the phy- siological changes naturally associated with the rise of an emotion cannot be reproduced (and this is particularly true for non-embodied agents); this is not of …

Applying FORR to human/multi-robot teams
SL Epstein, E Schneider, AT Ozgelen… – Human-Agent-Robot …, 2012 – researchgate.net
… communication [11]. Our approach is founded on the notion that, while the robot ultimately makes its own decision about its actions, it can do so based on advice from a human collaborator, other robots or (non-embodied) agents. Just …

Gender, more so than age, modulates positive perceptions of language-based human-robot interactions
M Strait, P Briggs, M Scheutz – … symposium on new frontiers in human …, 2015 – cs.kent.ac.uk
… Intuitively, a non-embodied agent like a navigation sys- tem might get away with syntactically simple, effecient imperatives, while a humanlike embodied robotic agent might have to employ more conventional forms of politeness …

Toward autonomous crowd-powered creation of interactive narratives
B Li, S Lee-Urban, MO Riedl – 5th Workshop on Intelligent Narrative …, 2012 – aaai.org
… another. This responsibility is handled by a Drama Manager (DM), an autonomous, omniscient, non-embodied agent that attempts to maximize a set of author-provided heuristic functions to improve user experiences. Search …

Multi-agent segmentation for 3D medical images
R Moussa, M Beurton-Aimar… – … and Applications in …, 2009 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… new way of performing an image segmentation. A MAS3 is composed of heterogeneous unembodied agents carrying out explicitly assigned tasks, and communicating via symbols. On the contrary, many extremely competent …

Command and control in network-centric operations: trust and robot autonomy
KE Schaefer, AW Evans, SG Hill – … Command and Control …, 2015 – internationalc2institute.org
… We anticipate that future systems may be physically embodied, like robots, or non-embodied intelligent software agents that act autonomously. Yet, with both embodied and non-embodied agents, humans will need to interact with the systems in new ways …

The challenge of robotics for cognitive architectures
A Chella, U Kurup, J Laird, G Trafton… – Proceedings of the …, 2013 – iccm-conference.org
… Indeed, embodiment is a deep and complex challenge. On the one side, there is no such a thing as a “non embodied” agent, since even the most classic AI expert system is implemented as a physical set of instructions running inside a physical device …

On the Intrinsic Limits to Representationally-Adaptive Machine-Learning
D Windridge – arXiv preprint arXiv:1503.02626, 2015 – arxiv.org
… such 1 Page 2. fundamental human perceptual characteristics as the delineation of the world into discrete objects (ie the delineation of entities that are invariant under trans- lation) would not occur to a non-embodied agent. Any …

Automatic Adaptation of Online Language Lessons for Robot Tutoring
L Perlmutter, A Fiannaca, E Kernfeld, S Anand… – … Conference on Social …, 2016 – Springer
… Our robot falls into the autonomous category. Many have demonstrated cognitive learning benefits when material is taught by embodied, autonomous robots as compared with non-embodied agents, computer-based lessons, or paper-based lessons [14, 15, 18] …

Seeing human: Do individual differences modulate the Uncanny Valley?
A Abubshait, A Momen, E Wiese – Proceedings of the Human …, 2017 – journals.sagepub.com
… agent compared to a machine-like, non-embodied agent that was only represented by a voice. Other studies, however, did not find positive effects of physical humanness on cognitive performance. For instance, Martini and …

Evolving Artificial Language through Evolutionary Reinforcement Learning
R Miikkulainen, X Li – Proceedings of the Artificial Life Conference 2016 …, 2016 – MIT Press
… Simulations of language evolution can be divided into situated and non-situated simulations. In a non-situated simulation, an agent’s actions consist solely of sending and receiving signals. Such non-embodied agents perceive objects Page 2 …

Stereovision-Only Based Interactive Mobile Robot for Human-Robot Face-to-Face Interaction
L Chen, Z Dong, S Gao, B Yuan… – … Recognition (ICPR), 2014 …, 2014 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… In [8], [9], [10], computers only relying on visual information automatically detect and track facial features for expression recognition in a realistic environment. However, these systems are virtual or non-embodied agents that lack of mobility …

Crowdsourcing Open Interactive Narrative.
M Guzdial, B Harrison, B Li, M Riedl – FDG, 2015 – boyangli.co
… 11, 22]. Many of these approaches use a Drama Manager (DM), an autonomous, omniscient, non-embodied agent that attempts to maximize a set of author-provided heuristic functions to improve user experiences. Search-based …

A fourth law of robotics? Copyright and the law and ethics of machine co-production
B Schafer, D Komuves, JMN Zatarain… – Artificial Intelligence and …, 2015 – Springer
… means for a computer program to be creative. We will therefore discuss in this paper embodied AI (robots strictu sensu) and unembodied AI together, using “robot” as a term for them both. We follow in this also Bing, who highlighted …

Conception of the Animated Interface Agent for the Concept Map Based Intelligent Knowledge Assessment System
A Anohina-Naumeca, R Lukasenko… – Scientific Journal of Riga …, 2011 – degruyter.com
Interface agents can be implemented as embodied and non- embodied agents. In the first case an agent has some kind of graphical representation. In the second one, it has the form of an algorithm and interacts using a traditional user interface [9] …

Assistant agents to advice users in hybrid structured 3D virtual environments
P Almajano, M Lopez?Sanchez… – … and Virtual Worlds, 2014 – Wiley Online Library
… Finally, assistance has been used to support users’ physical navigation in 3D virtual environments, such as the Virtual Theatre [10], where a non-embodied agent uses environment knowledge to indicate the user places to visit; and the Virtual Museum [11], where a 3D character …

Embodiment, Situatedness, and Morphology for Humanoid Robots Interacting with People
B Miller, D Feil-Seifer – Humanoid Robotics: A Reference, 2016 – Springer
This indicates the need for varied and more extensive research where social and functional differences between embodied and non-embodied agents are distinguished … between a human and a robot have a greater effect on weight loss than using a non- embodied agent [62] …

Artificial Intelligence and the ‘Good Society’: the US, EU, and UK approach
C Cath, S Wachter, B Mittelstadt, M Taddeo… – Science and engineering …, 2018 – Springer
… 68 AI is thus thought of as something that enables autonomy in other technological systems. However, the decision not to include unembodied AI sets the report apart from the other two, and has distinct political and legal consequences. 69 …

The Umbra Simulation and Integration Framework Applied to Emergency Response Training
PL Hamilton, R Britain – 2010 – ntrs.nasa.gov
… Consequently, it lends itself to agent-based simulation and has a large library of routines that can be used for either embodied or non-embodied agents. However, it has not previously been applied to a training situation for a number of reasons …

Which God? What Power? A Response to Andrew H. Gleeson
W Hasker – Sophia, 2010 – Springer
… It is not merely that the power of God is infinitely great, or that God is an unembodied agent … Clearly, neither is at all sympathetic to the notion of God as an embodied being. Gleeson has argued at length that the notion of God as an unembodied agent does not make sense …

A flexible model for real-time crowd simulation
J Rossmann, N Hempe, P Tietjen – Systems, Man and …, 2009 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
… commu- nication [11] and autonomous planning and learning [12]. These methods enable unembodied agents to sense and respond to their virtual environments. However, extensive computing resources are needed to support …

MiRA—mixed reality agents
T Holz, AG Campbell, GMP O’Hare, JW Stafford… – International journal of …, 2011 – Elsevier
… had a number of flaws. As noted by Steels (2000) and Dautenhahn (1999), humans have a tendency to ‘animate’ the world and are unlikely to see an unembodied agent as intelligent. Therefore embodiment has, in recent years …

Machine consciousness: a manifesto for robotics
A Chella, R Manzotti – International Journal of Machine …, 2009 – World Scientific
… Apart from intuitive cases, when is an agent truly embedded? On one hand, there is no such a thing as a \unembodied agent”, since even the most classic AI algorithm has to be implemented as a physical set of instructions running inside a physical device …

An interaction game framework for the investigation of human–agent cooperation
P Kulms, N Mattar, S Kopp – International Conference on Intelligent Virtual …, 2015 – Springer
… The perceived cooperativeness of the decider, then, should relate to the recommender’s willingness to cooperate with him [1]. An experimental study where participants played as recommender and a non-embodied agent acted as decider showed that perceived competence …

On Being a Full-Time Feminist
L McKinnell – Science and the Self: Animals, Evolution, and …, 2015 – books.google.com
… This would be a typical liberal feminist solution, but I believe this is not sufficient, and that it can be shown that Midgley does not think so either. A central theme of her work is that accounts of the self as an isolated (and in some sense unembodied) agent are inherently flawed …

A Bot is Not a Polyglot: Designing Personalities for Multi-Lingual Conversational Agents
A Danielescu, G Christian – Extended Abstracts of the 2018 CHI …, 2018 – dl.acm.org
… Since Radar Pace was an unembodied agent, embodiment played little role in our development of the coach, although it did require that we not use reference to the coach’s body, such as not talking about what a specific motion felt like to them …

Cognitive architectures and autonomy: Commentary and Response
W Duch, AH Tan, S Franklin – Journal of Artificial General …, 2012 – search.proquest.com
… Yet we admit that embodiment is a deep and complex challenge. On one hand, there is no such thing as a non embodied agent, since even the most classic AI system is implemented as a physical set of instructions running inside a physical device …

Human robothuman–robot interaction (hri) interactioninteraction human robot
D Feil-Seifer, MJ Matari? – Encyclopedia of complexity and systems …, 2009 – Springer
The study reported differences between the embodied and non-embodied agents: the robot was more engaging to the user than a simulated agent. Woods et al. [146] studied perception differences between live and video recorded robot performances 

Generalizing GANs: A Turing Perspective
R Groß, Y Gu, W Li, M Gauci – Advances in Neural Information …, 2017 – papers.nips.cc
… or 3 Page 4. Figure 2: In Case Study 1, we consider a non-embodied agent that is subjected to a stimulus, S, which can be either low (L) or high (H). The task is to infer how the agent responds to the stimulus. The discriminator …

Social Maintenance and Psychological Support Using Virtual Worlds
P Wu, J Morie, J Benton, K Haynes, E Chance… – … Conference on Social …, 2014 – Springer
Our own prior work showed that human subjects readily anthropomorphized even non-embodied agents [29], confirming Nass’s findings that humans generalize patterns of conduct and expectations for human-human interaction to human-computer interaction [30] …

A Flexible Framework For General, Multi-Agent Based Real-Time Crowd Simulation
J Rossmann, N Hempe – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
… and autonomous planning and learning [14] has been developed. These methods enable unembodied agents to sense and respond to their virtual environments. However extensive computing resources are required to support …

Application of Information Theory to Modeling Exploration and Detecting Protein Coevolution
DYJ Little – 2013 – search.proquest.com
… As a positive control, I developed an unembodied agent that achieves an upper bound on expected performance … 3.1), learning by an unembodied agent can be optimized by always sampling from the state and action pair with the highest PIG …

Collins’s incorrect depiction of Dreyfus’s critique of artificial intelligence
E Selinger – Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 2008 – Springer
… 4 Thus, while Dreyfus (1992) does not express confidence in the prospects for non-embodied AI, he leaves open the possibility that non-GOFAI computing revolutions have the potential to lead to unprecedented achievements …

How firm a foundation? A response to Justin L. Barrett’s “Is the spell really broken?”
HJ Van Till – Theology and Science, 2008 – Taylor & Francis
… Other agents postulated by HADD, however, are different in significant ways— superhuman unembodied agents (ancestral spirits, gods, God) whose existence and capabilities are the subject of a great deal of conjecture and debate …

Short Journey Through Nearly Everything
H Hamann – Swarm Robotics: A Formal Approach, 2018 – Springer
… switching? 3.8.2 Task: Simulate Collective Decision-Making. Write a little simulation that simulates non-embodied agents moving randomly on a torus and switching states according to the rules we have defined in this chapter …

The Argument from Wholes: A Classical Hindu Design Argument for the Existence of God
J Kronen, S Menssen – Faith and Philosophy, 2013 – pdcnet.org
… (The Nyaya progressed from this sub-conclusion to the further conclusion that the unembodied agent is God, as Aquinas progressed from his sub-conclusion that there is an unmoved mover to the further conclusion that there is a being with a full complement of divine attributes …

Can a swarm be embodied
A Sharkey, N Sharkey – Handbook of cognitive science. An …, 2008 – books.google.com
… embodied. Dautenhahn and her colleagues made a related but different argument about embodiment. For them, there is no such thing as an unembodied agent—under their argument everything is embodied to some degree. They …

Agi and machine consciousness
A Chella, R Manzotti – Theoretical foundations of artificial general …, 2012 – Springer
… Apart from intuitive cases, when is an agent truly embodied? On one hand, there is no such a thing as a non-embodied agent, since even the most classic AI system has to be implemented as a set of instructions running inside a physical device as a computer …

Maintaining psycho-social health on the way to Mars and back
P Wu, J Morie, P Wall, E Chance, K Haynes… – Proceedings of the …, 2015 – dl.acm.org
Our own prior work showed that human subjects readily anthropomorphized even non-embodied agents [50], confirming Nass’s findings that humans generalize patterns of conduct and expectations for human-human interaction to human-computer interaction [51] 

Reinforcement learning in a multi-agent framework for pedestrian simulation
FAM Gil – 2014 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
In non-embodied AI, intelligence is something that arises out of introspection, while in robotics, the belief is that intelligence will arise of ever more complex interactions between the machine and its environment. This idea that intelligence is not just something contained …

The Influence of Conversational Agents on Socially Desirable Responding
RM Schuetzler, JS Giboney… – … of the 51st …, 2018 – scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu
To preclude the possibility of contamination due to a participant in the unembodied condition seeing the embodied agent on a nearby computer screen, each session was randomly assigned to an embodied or unembodied agent condition …

Reinforcement learning in a Multi-agent Framework for Pedestrian Simulation
FA Martinez-Gil – 2014 – search.proquest.com
In the words of Josh C. Bongard in his article (Bongard, 2013). In non-embodied AI, intelligence is something that arises out of introspection, while in robotics, the belief is that intelligence will arise of ever more complex interactions between the machine and its environment 

Image Processing on MR Brain Images Using Social Spiders
M Richard, BA Marie, D Pascal – Multi-Agent Systems-Modeling …, 2011 – intechopen.com
… In this work, we propose to use a MAS2 to realize image segmentation and particularly, a MAS based on social agents. A MAS is composed of heterogeneous unembodied agents carrying out explicitly assigned tasks, and communicating via symbols …

A bellboy robot: Study of the effects of robot behaviour on user engagement and comfort
E Rodriguez-Lizundia, S Marcos, E Zalama… – International Journal of …, 2015 – Elsevier
… Description of the states without the robotic body. In order to evaluate the interaction with a non-embodied agent, Sacarino’s software was removed from its robotic body and placed in a conventional computer, with a touch screen, speakers and the webcam with the microphone …

Computing Technologies for Social Signals
A Vinciarelli – Emotions and Personality in Personalized Services, 2016 – Springer
When the form of embodiment is a robot, it becomes possible to implement proxemic cues (eg the distance with respect to users) or touch behaviours that are not possible with non-embodied agents. 6.5 Open Issues and Challenges …

Robot sex: Social and ethical implications
J Danaher, N McArthur – 2017 – books.google.com
… pass” for humans. Spike Jonze’s movie Her depicts an intense intimate relationship between a man and an unembodied AI. It seems odd from our present standpoint. But is this where our future lies? Will intimate relationships …

Youth and Media–An Outline of Key Developments
R Kühne, SE Baumgartner – Youth and Media, 2018 – nomos-elibrary.de
… Already, embodied agents – such as humanoid and non-humanoid robots – as well as non-embodied agents – such as virtual assistants and chatbots – are available, whose main purpose is to entertain and communicate with people …

More Than Fifty Years Of Speech And Language Processing-The Rise Of Computational Paralinguistics And Ethical Demands
A Batliner, B Schuller – informatik.uni-erlangen.de
… For all these steps, the vision is to substitute humans with computers. The most human-like application is ’embodied conversational agents’; the one which is more or less pure paralinguistics, ie, using only language and speech – are ‘communicative but non-embodied agents’ …

Closing Pandora’s box?: The EU proposal on the regulation of robots
B Schafer – Pandora’s Box, 2016 – search.informit.com.au
By excluding unembodied AI, the committee forgoes the chance to learn from the experience legal systems have made with regulating software agents. The most important of these is maybe that the status of the entity itself is less relevant for the discussion …

Towards addressee recognition in smart robotic environments: an evidence based approach
V Richter, F Kummert – Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Embodied …, 2016 – dl.acm.org
… It uses observations of interactions of naive users to choose an appropriate addressee for a communicative human action. Therefore, it is a good step towards intuitive interaction between humans and embodied and non-embodied agents in smart environments …

Physical Scaffolding Accelerates the Evolution of Robot Behavior
D Buckingham, J Bongard – Artificial life, 2017 – MIT Press
… figure Figure 1. The proposed simulation-to-reality pipeline. (a) A fast yet crude lo-fi simulation hosts non-embodied agents. (b) A slower yet more accurate hi-fi simulation hosts embodied agents. (c) A physical instantiation of one of the embodied agents …

FuturICT—A Knowledge Accelerator to Explore and Manage Our Future in a Strongly Connected World
D Helbing – Arxiv preprint, 2011 – uvm.edu
FuturICT aims at building up non-embodied artificial intelligence and connecting the creativity and intelligence of many brains in the world. FuturICT is promoting global health by building a related Observatory and identifying social ways of spreading healthy behavior …

S/he’s too Warm/Agentic!: The Influence of Gender on Uncanny Reactions to Robots
J Otterbacher, M Talias – Proceedings of the 2017 ACM/IEEE …, 2017 – dl.acm.org
Page 1. S/he’s too Warm/Agentic! The Influence of Gender on Uncanny Reactions to Robots Jahna Otterbacher Program in Social Information Systems Open University of Cyprus PO Box 12794 2252 Latsia CYPRUS jahna.otterbacher@ouc.ac.cy …

Mental Activity and Culture: The Elusive Real World
GJ Hofstede – Advances in Culturally-Aware Intelligent Systems and …, 2018 – Springer
… This model is based on the TRUST AND TRACING GAME [29]. Two intelligent, non-embodied agents from two countries meet and negotiate. If a good is sold that the seller claims is of high quality, the buyer may request a trace to reveal the true quality …

Modeling the formation of language: Embodied experiments
L Steels – Evolution of Communication and Language in …, 2010 – Springer
The experiment also shows that embodied agents are confronted with various issues which non-embodied agents do not have, specifically each participant in an interaction sees the world from their own perspective which forces the communication system to develop ways for expressing perspective

Richard Swinburne’s Inductive Argument for the Existence of God–A Critical Analysis
E Beckman – 2008 – diva-portal.org
Page 1. LINKÖPINGS UNIVERSITET Department of Culture and Communication Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)) Tutor: Bo Petersson Author: Emma Beckman Word count: 46 287 ISRN: LIU-IKK/PF-A-09/001–SE Richard Swinburne’s Inductive …

Comparing Classical and Embodied Multimodal Fusion for Human-Robot Interaction
M Giuliani – 2011 – mediatum.ub.tum.de
Page 1. TECHNISCHE UNIVERSIT¨AT M¨UNCHEN Lehrstuhl für Echtzeitsysteme und Robotik Comparing Classical and Embodied Multimodal Fusion for Human-Robot Interaction Manuel Giuliani Vollständiger Abdruck der …

FuturICT-New science and technology to manage our complex, strongly connected world
D Helbing – arXiv preprint arXiv:1108.6131, 2011 – arxiv.org
Page 1. 1 Dirk Helbing (ETH Zurich) FuturICT – New Science and Technology to Manage Our Complex, Strongly Connected World We have built particle accelerators to understand the forces that make up our physical world …

The withering of shared life through the loss of biodiversity
D Lestel – Social Science Information, 2013 – journals.sagepub.com
The article defends a conception of ecology that considers what ecosystems mean not only in themselves but also for themselves. Each living being is thus a mess…

Unsupervised learning from continuous video in a scalable predictive recurrent network
F Piekniewski, P Laurent, C Petre, M Richert… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2016 – arxiv.org
Page 1. Unsupervised Learning from Continuous Video in a Scalable Predictive Recurrent Network Filip Piekniewski? filip@piekniewski.info Patryk Laurent laurent@braincorporation.com Csaba Petre csaba.petre@gmail.com Micah Richert richert@braincorporation.com …

Robot learners: interactive instance-based learning with social robots
HW Park – 2014 – smartech.gatech.edu
Page 1. ROBOT LEARNERS: INTERACTIVE INSTANCE-BASED LEARNING WITH SOCIAL ROBOTS A Thesis Presented to The Academic Faculty by Hae Won Park In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor …

How morphological development can guide evolution
S Kriegman, N Cheney, J Bongard – arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.07387, 2017 – arxiv.org
Page 1. How morphological development can guide evolution Sam Kriegman1? , Nick Cheney2, Josh Bongard1 1 Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA …

Dialogues about God
C Taliaferro – 2008 – books.google.com
Page 1. DIALOGUES ABOUT GOD Page 2. 0 New . Dialo ues in P ilosophy A series in dialogue form, explicating foundational problems in the philosophy of existence, knowledge, and value Series Editor Professor Dale Jacquette …

Assisted Hybrid Structured 3D Virtual Environments
P Almajano – 2014 – diposit.ub.edu
Page 1. Assisted Hybrid Structured 3D Virtual Environments Pablo Almajano Aquesta tesi doctoral està subjecta a la llicència Reconeixement- NoComercial – CompartirIgual 3.0. Espanya de Creative Commons. Esta tesis doctoral …

Physical engagement as a way to increase emotional rapport in interactions with embodied conversational agents
IG Sepulveda – 2015 – search.proquest.com
… reveal. This is easily observed in non-embodied agents like Apples SIRI, Samsungs Galaxy or Amazons Echo, all of which respond to questions about their names, origins, likes, and desires, albeit in a limited way. Nonverbally …

Introducing a pictographic language for envisioning a rich variety of enactive systems with different degrees of complexity
RK Moore – International Journal of Advanced Robotic …, 2016 – journals.sagepub.com
Notwithstanding the considerable amount of progress that has been made in recent years, the parallel fields of cognitive science and cognitive systems lack a un…

FuturICT: Participatory computing to understand and manage our complex world in a more sustainable and resilient way
D Helbing, S Bishop, R Conte, P Lukowicz… – The European Physical …, 2012 – Springer
Page 1. Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics 214, 11–39 (2012) © The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com DOI: 10.1140/epjst/e2012-01686-y THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL SPECIAL TOPICS Regular Article …

Modelling consciousness-dependent expertise in machine medical moral agents
S Torrance, R Chrisley – Machine Medical Ethics, 2015 – Springer
Again, any non-embodied AI agent, or an agent created with current and foreseeable AI technology, would be unlikely to realize the kind of commonality of embodiment that underlies this kind of human-to-human empathic response …

Social Robots to enhance therapy and interaction for children: From the design to the implementation” in the wild”
A Barco Martelo – tdx.cat
Page 1. Social Robots to enhance therapy and interaction for children: From the design to the implementation “in the wild” Alexandre Barco Martelo http://hdl.handle. net/10803/399675 ADVERTIMENT. L’accés als continguts …

On the evolution of autonomous time-based decision-making and communication in collective robotics
C Ampatzis, M Dorigo, DE Tuci – 2008 – iridia.ulb.ac.be
Page 1. On the evolution of autonomous time-based decision-making and communication in collective robotics by Christos Ampatzis ——– Université Libre de Bruxelles Faculté des Sciences Appliquées IRIDIA CP 194/6, Avenue …

Investigating the role of social eye gaze in designing believable virtual characters
M Nixon – 2017 – summit.sfu.ca
Page 1. Investigating the Role of Social Eye Gaze in Designing Believable Virtual Characters by Michael Nixon M.Sc., Simon Fraser University, 2009 B.Sc., Vancouver Island University, 2004 Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of …

Bidirectional gaze guiding and indexing in human-robot interaction through a situated architecture
NB DePalma – 2017 – dspace.mit.edu
Page 1. Bidirectional gaze guiding and indexing in human-robot interaction through a situated architecture by Nicholas Brian DePalma M.Sc. Computer Science, Georgia Institute of Technology (2010) B.Sc. Computer Science, Georgia Institute of Technology (2005) …

Novel Approaches to Cooperative Coevolution of Heterogeneous Multiagent Systems
JMC Gomes – 2017 – researchgate.net
Page 1. UNIVERSIDADE DE LISBOA FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS Novel Approaches to Cooperative Coevolution of Heterogeneous Multiagent Systems Doutoramento em Informática Especialidade Engenharia Informática Jorge Miguel Carvalho Gomes …

The legitimacy of miracle
RA Larmer – 2013 – books.google.com
Page 1. The Legitimacy of Miracle Robert A. Larmer Page 2. Page 3. The Legitimacy of Miracle Page 4. Page 5. The Legitimacy of Miracle Robert A. Larmer LEXINGTON BOOKS Lanham • Boulder • New York • Toronto • Plymouth, UK Page 6 …

A new metaphysics for Christian demonology: psychodynamic immaterialism
SL Guthrie – 2015 – e-space.mmu.ac.uk

Swarm Robotics: A Formal Approach
H Hamann – 2018 – Springer
Page 1. Heiko Hamann Swarm Robotics: A Formal Approach Page 2. Swarm Robotics: A Formal Approach Page 3. Heiko Hamann Swarm Robotics: A Formal Approach 123 Page 4. Heiko Hamann Institute of Computer Engineering University of Lübeck Lübeck, Germany …

REAL: A REflective Agent Learning environment
X Bai – 2008 – search.proquest.com
REAL: A REflective Agent Learning environment. Abstract. A cognitive framework called REflective Agent Learning environment (REAL) is developed in this study. REAL provides an interactive learning environment that allows …

Online evolution of robot behaviour
FG Silva – 2012 – repositorio.ul.pt
Page 1. Universidade de Lisboa Faculdade de Ciências Departamento de Informática ONLINE EVOLUTION OF ROBOT BEHAVIOUR Fernando Goulart da Silva DISSERTAC¸˜AO MESTRADO EM ENGENHARIA INFORM´ATICA Especializaç˜ao em Interaç˜ao e Conhecimento …

A metaphysics for freedom
H Steward – 2012 – books.google.com
Page 1. OXFORD – – º – a. metaphysics for freedom ELEN STEWARD Page 2. A Metaphysics for Freedom Page 3. This page intentionally left blank Page 4. A Metaphysics for Freedom Helen Steward 1 Page 5. 3 Great Clarendon …

Planetary health in the anthropocene: sharing agency in the body of God
J Greyvenstein – 2018 – scholar.sun.ac.za
Page 1. Planetary Health in the Anthropocene: Sharing Agency in the Body of God By Juanita Greyvenstein Thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Gender, Health and Theology (Systematic Theology) at Stellenbosch University …