How does the chatbot jabberwacky work?

How does the chatbot jabberwacky work?

I’ve previously answered a similar Quora question, “How does Cleverbot work?” [1], and have since blogged “My Cleverbot Tweet-FAQ” [2].  Both Jabberwacky and Cleverbot were created by Rollo Carpenter [3].  Jabberwacky [4] was created first (1997) by his and Cleverbot [5] later (2008) by .  Presumably Rollo is on Twitter at Existor [6].  Notably, Rollo won the Loebner Prize in 2005 and 2006 with Jabberwacky / Icogno technology.  Jabberwacky / Icogno technology is now behind both and .

Supposedly, Cleverbot is a variant of Jabberwacky, but more fuzzy and with deeper context.  As for how Jabberwacky learns, Antonella De Angeli [7] and Sheryl Brahnam [8] published a 2008 academic paper, “I hate you! Disinhibition with virtual partners” [9], essentially an extensive analysis of the Jabberwacky knowledgebase.  They state that “it learns by association, storing replies to inputs in a database”.  For instance, Cleverbot uses (4D v11 SQL).

I have posted a webpage, an informal survey of the past 10 years of academic work mentioning Jabberwacky [10].  Jabberwacky is generally considered to use an AI technique called “contextual pattern matching”.  I have not found evidence of any specific machine learning algorithms used in Jabberwacky; however, Jayen Ashar completed a 2010 PhD thesis entitled, “Online Learning in Conversational Agents” [11], essentially a literature review, which provides an overview of the field.

[1] How does Cleverbot work?