Cognitive Engines


See also:

Best Cognitive Architecture Videos | BICA (Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures) | Cognitive Agent that Learns and Organizes (CALO) | Cognitive Architecture & Dialog Systems | Cognitive Architecture Timeline | Cognitive Architectures 2011Cognitive AssistantsCognitive Assistants 2011Cognitive Modeling & Dialog Systems | Cougaar (Cognitive Agent Architecture) | RCS (Real-time Control System) Cognitive Architecture 

Artificial Intelligence Engine (AI Engine) | Boeing Language Understanding Engine (BLUE) | CLE (Core Language Engine) | Dialog Move Engines | Grammar Engines | Inference Engines | JINNI (Java INference Engine and Networked Interactor) | Probabilistic Consistency Engine (PCE) | SME (Structure Mapping Engine) 2011 | Story Engines 


Cognitive engine implementation for wireless multicarrier transceivers TR Newman, BA Barker, AM Wyglinski… – Wireless …, 2007 – Wiley Online Library Abstract This paper presents a genetic-algorithm driven, cognitive radio decision engine that  determines the optimal radio transmission parameters for single and multicarrier systems.  Determining the appropriate radio parameters, given a dynamic wireless channel … Cited by 89 Related articles BL Direct All 22 versions

Development of a case-based reasoning cognitive engine for IEEE 802.22 WRAN applications A He, J Gaeddert, KK Bae, TR Newman… – … Mobile Computing and …, 2009 – dl.acm.org Abstract On Nov. 4 2008, the Federal Communications Commission adopted rules for  unlicensed use of television white spaces. The IEEE 802.22 Wireless Regional Area  Networks (WRAN) standard is the first IEEE standard utilizing cognitive radio (CR) … Cited by 19 Related articles

[PDF] from auburn.edu Utility Function Selection for Streaming Videos with a Cognitive Engine Testbed Y Zhao, S Mao, JH Reed, Y Huang – Mobile Networks and Applications, 2010 – Springer Abstract Cognitive Radio (CR) is a new wireless communication and networking paradigm  that is enabled by the Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology and the recent change in  spectrum regulation policy. As the first commercial application of CR technology, IEEE … Cited by 5 Related articles All 6 versions

Cognitive engine design for link adaptation: an application to multi-antenna systems HI Volos, RM Buehrer – Wireless Communications, IEEE …, 2010 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract In this paper, we present a Cognitive Engine (CE) design for link adaptation and  apply it to a system which can adapt its use of multiple antennas in addition to modulation  and coding. Our design moves forward the state of the art in several ways while having a … Cited by 10 Related articles All 4 versions

Modeling of Learning Inference and Decision-Making Engine in Cognitive Radio Y Huang, J Wang, H Jiang – Networks Security Wireless …, 2010 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … Hong Jiang School of Information Engineering Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan, China hongjiang133@yahoo.com.cn Abstract—Cognitive radio (CR) is an intelligent wireless communication system and the core of it is the cognitive engine. … Cited by 6 Related articles All 4 versions

Design of cognitive radio node engine based on genetic algorithm X Zhang, Y Huang, H Jiang, Y Liu – … Engineering, 2009. ICIE’09 …, 2009 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … decision by taking advantage of the information from previous cognition cycles. This paper focus on the adaptive parameter optimization of cognitive radio nodes, and then an adaptive genetic algorithm is proposed to design the cognitive engine. … Cited by 5 Related articles All 3 versions

[PDF] from ajou.ac.kr Physical layer cognitive engine for multi-antenna systems HI Volos, CI Phelps, RM Buehrer – … Conference, 2008. MILCOM …, 2008 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract In this paper, we propose a two-step cognitive engine that aims to learn its physical  layer capabilities in various channel conditions and optimize the delivery of packets in a  multi-antenna radio. The first step learns the capabilities of the available techniques, and … Cited by 6 Related articles All 3 versions

Development of radio environment map enabled case-and knowledge-based learning algorithms for IEEE 802.22 WRAN cognitive engines Y Zhao, J Gaeddert, L Morales, K Bae… – Cognitive Radio …, 2007 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract The IEEE 802.22 wireless regional area network (WRAN) is the first worldwide  commercial application of cognitive radio (CR) networks in unlicensed television broadcast  bands. With the intent of efficiently occupying under-utilized spectrum, the network must … Cited by 23 Related articles

A Hybrid Cognitive Engine for Improving Coverage in 3G Wireless Networks L Morales-Tirado, JE Suris-Pietri… – … Workshops, 2009. ICC …, 2009 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract Third generation (3G) wireless networks have been well studied and optimized with  traditional radio resource management techniques, but still there is room for improvement.  Cognitive radio (CR) technology can bring significant network improvements by providing … Cited by 2 Related articles

[PDF] from vt.edu [PDF] Cognitive engine architecture for railway communications A Amanna, MJ Price, S Bera, M Gadhiok, JH Reed – LEARNING, 2010 – filebox.vt.edu ABSTRACT This paper discusses a railway specific cognitive radio that builds upon software  defined radio (SDR) platforms to adapt the radio based situational awareness. Cognitive  Radio incorporates artificial intelligence based algorithms with reconfigurable software- … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Cognitive radio testbed: further details and testing of a distributed genetic algorithm based cognitive engine for programmable radios CJ Rieser, TW Rondeau, CW Bostian… – … , 2004. MILCOM 2004 …, 2004 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract This paper provides details of a distributed genetic algorithm (GA) based cognitive  radio engine model for disaster communications and its implementation in a cognitive radio  test bed using programmable radios. Future applications include tactical and covert … Cited by 72 Related articles BL Direct All 3 versions

Cognitive Radio Engine Design Based on Ant Colony Optimization N Zhao, S Li, Z Wu – Wireless Personal Communications, 2012 – Springer … The cognitive engine problem is usually solved by genetic algorithm (GA), however, the GA converges slowly and its performance can still be improved. Hence, MACO algorithm with excellent performance is applied to the cognitive engine in this letter. … Cited by 5 Related articles All 3 versions

A Neural Network based cognitive engine for IEEE 802.11 WLAN Access Point selection B Bojovic, N Baldo, P Dini – Consumer Communications and …, 2012 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract Nowadays IEEE 802.11 WLANs are widely deployed; in spite of this, the issue of  designing an efficient and practical Access Point selection schemes that can provide the  best throughput performance in a variety of link conditions is still open. In this paper we … Related articles

[PDF] from 202.194.20.8 On balancing exploration vs. exploitation in a cognitive engine for multi-antenna systems HI Volos, RM Buehrer – … Telecommunications Conference, 2009 …, 2009 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract In this paper, we define the problem of balancing exploration vs. exploitation in a  cognitive engine controlled multi-antenna communication system in terms of the classical  multi-armed bandit framework. We then employ the e-greedy strategy and Gittins’ indices … Cited by 5 Related articles All 5 versions

Cognitive Radio Decision Engine Based on Adaptive Ant Colony Optimization YY Luo, ZF Sun – Computer Science, 2011 – csa.com … Cognitive decision engine is a key technology in cognitive communication system. Cognitive engine can dynamically configure its working parameters according to the changes of communication environment and users’ requirement. …

Cognitive engine: design aspects for mobile clouds M Höyhtyä, M Palola, M Matinmikko… – Proceedings of the 4th …, 2011 – dl.acm.org Abstract A mobile cloud is a collaborative cluster of wireless devices exploiting their multiple  air interfaces. It operates cognitively, ie, collects information from the operating environment,  from the results of its own operations etc., and then acts based on observations in order to … Cited by 1 Related articles

A Self-Learning Method for Cognitive Engine Based on CBR and Simulated Annealing YJ Liu, LY Chai, JM Liu, BW Li – Advanced Materials Research, 2012 – Trans Tech Publ Abstract The essential difference of cognitive radio from traditional radio lies in its ability to  sense, learn and adapt to the environment. Recently, the research for cognitive radio has  focused on the configuration problems of multi-objective optimization. However, in actual … Related articles

Cognitive Engine with Dynamic Priority Resource Allocation for Wireless Networks CH Jiang, RM Weng – Wireless Personal Communications, 2012 – Springer Abstract A cognitive engine with dynamic priority resource allocation (CE-DPRA) is  proposed for wireless networks by utilizing a maximum likelihood estimation method. The  receiving signal strength (RSS) from an unlicensed cognitive radio (CR) user can be … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

USER BEHAVIOR BASED COGNITIVE ENGINE FOR DATA OBJECTS Z Lifshitz, E Spiegel – US Patent 20,120,254,200, 2012 – freepatentsonline.com Abstract: A method and system for relating data objects according to a numerical cognitive  association based on user behavior in accessing and/or retrieving the data objects. The  resulting associations allow organizing the data objects in non-linear cognitive mappings …

Design and implementation of a cognitive engine functional architecture X Dong, Y Li, SQ Wei – Chinese Science Bulletin, 2012 – Springer Abstract Intelligence is the most important characteristic for cognitive wireless networks. A  cognitive engine built on reconfigurable wireless networks is the key to implementing this  characteristic. The design and implementation of a cognitive engine is important in …

[PDF] from cttc.cat User-driven Call Admission Control for VoIP over WLAN with a Neural Network based cognitive engine N Baldo, P Dini, J Nin-Guerrero – … Information Processing (CIP), …, 2010 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract In this paper we deal with the problem of user-driven Call Admission Control for  Voice over IP communications in a Wireless LAN environment. We argue that state-of-the-art  solutions to this problem are suboptimal, since they leverage on analytical models whose … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Cognitive Radio Decision Engine Based on Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm D Wu, SY Yang, JC Liu – Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2011 – Trans Tech Publ … 1999. [2] Newman TR, Barker BA, Wyglinski AM, et al. Cognitive engine implementation for wireless multicarrier transceivers. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 7:1129-1142. … [2] Newman TR, Barker BA, Wyglinski AM, et al. Cognitive engine implementation … Related articles All 2 versions

[PDF] from 202.194.20.8 Robust Training of a link adaptation cognitive engine HI Volos, RM Buehrer – … CONFERENCE, 2010-MILCOM 2010, 2010 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract In this paper, we provide a new perspective and insight into the process of finding  the maximal performing method using a Cognitive Engine (CE) for link adaptation. It is found  that near maximal performance can be reached relatively fast, even when a small number … Cited by 4 Related articles All 2 versions

Design of Hybrid Cognitive Engine in Cognitive Radios [J] CH Jiao, KR Wang, Y Xu – Telecommunication Engineering, 2010 – en.cnki.com.cn To enhance the performance of cognitive engine (CE) and to better realize the intelligent  parameters adjusting in cognitive radio (CR) system, a hybrid cognitive engine (HCE) is  designed by using multiple artificial intelligent methods synthetically for reasoning, … Related articles All 2 versions

Foundations to the unified psycho-cognitive engine. ML Bernard, AB Bier, GA Backus, SJ Verzi… – 2010 – osti.gov Description/Abstract This document outlines the key features of the SNL psychological  engine. The engine is designed to be a generic presentation of cognitive entities interacting  among themselves and with the external world. The engine combines the most accepted …

Design of cognitive radio engine using artificial bee colony algorithm PM Pradhan – Energy, Automation, and Signal (ICEAS), 2011 …, 2011 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … The cognitive radio engine configures the operational parameters to obtain the best performance with respect to a set of objectives and constraints. The researchers at Virginia Tech [3] have designed the first cognitive engine using genetic algorithm (GA). … Related articles

[PDF] from sandia.gov [PDF] Foundations to the Unified Psycho-Cognitive Engine G Backus, M Bernard, S Verzi, A Bier, M Glickman – 2010 – cfwebprod.sandia.gov Abstract This document outlines the key features of the SNL psychological engine. The  engine is designed to be a generic presentation of cognitive entities interacting among  themselves and with the external world. The engine combines the most accepted theories … Related articles All 2 versions

Coexistence optimized cognitive engine (COCE) K Ahmad, GM Shrestha, U Meier – Emerging Technologies and …, 2010 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Abstract Cognitive radio (CR) is being envisioned as a promising technology to realize new  strategies to combat with coexistence problems in wireless systems. Currently, opportunistic  or dynamic spectrum access and transmission power control are popular coexistence … Related articles All 2 versions

Cognitive Engine Technology L WANG, S WEI – ZTE Communications, 2009 – en.cnki.com.cn Cognitive Radio (CR) is an intelligent wireless communication system, whose intelligence  mostly comes from the cognitive engine. Based on the techniques of the software-defined  radio, with the support of machine reasoning and learning in artificial intelligence, … Cited by 2 Related articles

Applying artificial intelligence to the development of a cognitive radio engine J Gaeddert, K Kim, R Menon, L Morales… – Mobile and Portable …, 2006 – pdf.aminer.org … Signal Power Bandwidth Carrier Frequency … … User Req u irem en t Cognitive Engine Knowledge Base … What is a Cognitive Radio? Sample Learning Technique Application in Cognitive Engine Development Case Based Reasoner Multi-objective Optimizer Event … Cited by 11 Related articles All 7 versions

Design of cognitive engine for CR using the RBF neural network H JIANG, JH MA, YQ HUANG, C WU – Journal of Xidian University(Natural …, 2011 – xdxb.net Abstract: Cognitive radio (CR) is an intelligent wireless communication system, and the  design of a cognitive engine is one of the key issues. The cognitive engine can utilize the  reasoning and learning methods to achieve the perception, adaptation and learning ability … All 3 versions

[PDF] from memberclicks.com [PDF] Initial design of a cognitive engine for mimo systems HI Volos, CI Phelps… – SDR Forum Technical …, 2007 – data.memberclicks.com Abstract Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) techniques can provide significant  performance enhancements in wireless communication systems. However, MIMO  techniques (which include transmit diversity, beamforming, and spatial multiplexing as … Cited by 9 Related articles All 10 versions

Cognitive Radio adaptation decision engine based on binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization J Zhang, Z Zhou, W Gao, Y Ma… – … and Networking in China ( …, 2011 – ieeexplore.ieee.org Page 1. Cognitive Radio Adaptation Decision Engine Based on Binary Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Jing Zhang1,2, Zheng Zhou1, member, IEEE, Wanxin Gao1, Yingjie Ma1,Yabin Ye3 1Key Lab of Universal … Related articles All 3 versions

[CITATION] Optimization, learning, and decision making in a cognitive engine TW Rondeau, B Le, D Maldonado, D Scaperoth… – Proc. SDR Forum, 2006 Cited by 10 Related articles All 4 versions

Application of Case-Based Reasoning in Cognitive Engine WJ FENG, Z LIU, CL QIN – 2011 – en.cnki.com.cn Genetic algorithm can be used to solve the transmission parameters optimization problem in  cognitive engine. As the cognitive user increases, the ascending chromosome results in  long convergence time of genetic algorithm, which can not satisfy the real-time …

[PDF] from hindawi.com Hybrid Experiential-Heuristic Cognitive Radio Engine Architecture and Implementation A Amanna, D Ali, DG Fitch, JH Reed – Journal of Computer Networks …, 2012 – hindawi.com … Initial works defined cognitive engines (CEs) founded on heuristics, such as genetic algorithms (GAs), and case-based reasoning (CBR) experiential learning algorithms. … Currently, the engine implements ?? = ( 1 – ?? ) * F . 4. Configuration Parameters of the Cognitive Engine. … Cited by 2 Related articles All 3 versions

[CITATION] BDevelopment of radio environment map enabled case-and knowledge-based learning algorithms for IEEE 802.22 WRAN cognitive engines,[in Proc. Int. … Y Zhao, J Gaeddert, L Morales, K Bae, JS Um, JH Reed – Orlando, FL, 2007 Cited by 3 Related articles

[PDF] from eurasipjournals.com Cognitive radio engine parametric optimization utilizing Taguchi analysis AE Amanna, D Ali, M Gadhiok, M Price… – EURASIP Journal on …, 2012 – Springer … Keywords: cognitive radio, cognitive engine, design of experiments, Taguchi method, parametric optimization … Architectures for cognitive engines (CE) include rules, meta-heuristics, and experientially based as well as hybrid combinations. … Cited by 1 Related articles All 4 versions

[CITATION] Cognitive Engine development CH Park – 2008 Cognitive Radio workshop, 2008

Design of Learning Engine Based on Support Vector Machine in Cognitive Radio Y Huang, H Jiang, H Hu, Y Yao – … Intelligence and Software …, 2009 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 23(2): pp. 201-220, 2005. [4] Lifeng Wang, Shengqun Wei. “Cognitive Engine Technology”, Zhongxing Ccommunication Technology, vol.15, no. 2, pp.7-9, 2009. [5] Thomas W. Rondeau. … Cited by 6 Related articles

[CITATION] Cognitive engine design for 802.22 WRAN base stations J Gaeddert, L Morales, Y Zhao, K Bae, J Reed – … , VA, June 2007, poster presented at …, 2007 Cited by 2 Related articles

Cognitive Radio Decision Engine Based on Adaptive Ant Colony Optimization LUOYSUN Zhi-feng – Computer Science, 2011 – en.cnki.com.cn Cognitive decision engine is a key technology in cognitive communication system.Cognitive engine can dynamically configure its working parameters according to the changes of communication environment and users’ requirement.An adaptive ant colony optimization(AACO … Related articles

Cognitive radio decision engine based on priori knowledge W Di, W Feng, Y Shengyao – Parallel Architectures, Algorithms …, 2010 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … Fund :China post-doctoral science fund, 20080431142 algorithm for optimization, and applied improved optimization algorithms to cognitive engine. In [5], particle swarm algorithm (PSO) is applied to cognitive radio decision engine. … Cited by 4 Related articles All 4 versions

Development of a cognitive radio decision engine using multi-objective hybrid genetic algorithm AA El-Saleh, M Ismail, MAM Ali… – … (MICC), 2009 IEEE 9th …, 2009 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … The HGA-based CR cognitive engine receives the input parameters that convey the environment information or the transmission channel status, performs optimization processing towards predefined objectives, and finally outputs optimal decisions on the transmitting parameters … Cited by 2 Related articles All 2 versions

Cognitive Decision Engine Based on Co-evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization ZJ Zhao, WW Zhang, Z Peng, CY Xu – Computer Engineering, 2011 – en.cnki.com.cn … ?Co-citations?, Chinese Journal Full-text Database, 6 Hits. 1, JIAO Chuan-hai,WANG Ke-ren,XU Yun(PLA Electronic Engineering Institute,Hefei 230037,China);Design of Hybrid Cognitive Engine in Cognitive Radios[J];Telecommunication Engineering;2010-09. … Related articles All 2 versions

Cognitive Radio Decision Engine Based on CMOPSO Z Teng, Z Li, N Wang, X Li, L Zhao – Proceedings of the 2011 International …, 2012 – Springer … Cognitive engine based on genetic algorithm (GA) is used to achieve basic functions of cognitive radio (CR) (see [1]). Multi-objective GA is used to adjust the radio parameters, verifying the effectiveness of GA (see [2], [3], [4]). Multi-objective optimization is converted to single … Related articles

Cognitive radio engine based on genetic algorithms in a network CJ Rieser, TW Rondeau, C Bostian, WR Cyre… – US Patent …, 2007 – Google Patents Page 1. mi iiiiiii ill mi mi iyijiiiij|iji|j|i mi linn mi mi mi (12) United States Patent Rieser et al. (io) Patent No.: (45) Date of Patent: US 7,289,972 B2 Oct. 30, 2007 (54) COGNITIVE RADIO ENGINE BASED ON GENETIC ALGORITHMS … Cited by 21 Related articles All 4 versions

Cognitive vertical handover engine for vehicular communication S Dhar, A Ray, R Bera – Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, 2012 – Springer … the radio. The context aware intelligent vertical handover algorithm presented in this paper is a step towards the development of a cognitive engine to be implemented in next generation cars. 5 Literature review Vertical handover … Related articles

Cognitive Engine Technology W Lifeng, W Shengqun – ZTE Communications, 2009 – csa.com Cognitive Radio(CR) is an intelligent radio communication system, whose intelligence  mostly comes from the Cognitive Engine(CE). Based on the techniques of software-defined  radio and with the support of machine reasoning and learning in artificial intelligence, … Related articles All 2 versions

Cognitive Engine Design for Cognitive Radio S Bourbia, M Achouri, K Grati… – … of IWCRN 2012, …, 2012 – hal.univ-nantes.fr The work presented in this paper consists of designing a cognitive engine for a cognitive  radio receiver. This engine must provide to the radio receiver the ability to be aware of its  environment and to make decisions about actions of reconfiguration; these actions aim to … All 2 versions

Parameter sensitivity in cognitive radio adaptation engines TR Newman, JB Evans – New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum …, 2008 – ieeexplore.ieee.org … of the communication. The cognitive engine models the environment internally and uses relationships between the transmission parameters and environmental measurements to perform the adaptation. Selecting an appropriate … Cited by 7 Related articles

[CITATION] Minden. Cognitive engine transceiver for multicarrier wireless system T Newman, B Barker, A Wyglinski – Wiley Journey on Wireless Communications …, 2007 Cited by 2 Related articles

[CITATION] BInitial design of a cognitive engine for MIMO systems,[in Proc H Volos, CI Phelps, RM Buehrer – Software Defined Radio Tech. Conf., Denver, CO, 2007 Cited by 2 Related articles

[PDF] from vt.edu Cognitive Radio Engine Design for Link Adaptation HI Volos – 2010 – scholar.lib.vt.edu … 1.2 Cognitive Engine Design Chapter 3 which describes our work in “Cognitive Engine Design” addresses several research challenges that are not sufficiently addressed in the current state of the art. … 1.3 Cognitive Engine Training … Related articles

[PDF] from vt.edu Biologically inspired cognitive radio engine model utilizing distributed genetic algorithms for secure and robust wireless communications and networking CJ Rieser – 2004 – scholar.lib.vt.edu … algorithmic framework to realize the cognition mechanism, developing a cognitive radio simulation toolset for evaluating the behavior the cognitive engine, and using this toolset to analyze the cognitive engine’s performance in different operational scenarios. … Cited by 113 Related articles All 10 versions

Dynamic Self Configuration Engine for Cognitive Networks and Networked Devices B Purushothaman – US Patent App. 13/372,636, 2012 – Google Patents … [0005] Cognitive engine following a cognitive cycle has been proposed in literature for intelligent management of wireless communication links and networks. The cognitive engine is a computational module (software/hardware … All 2 versions

[CITATION] Development of a cognitive engine and analysis of WRAN cognitive radio algorithms phase II JH Reed – Report submitted to ETRI, MPRG, Virginia Tech, 2006 Cited by 3 Related articles

[CITATION] Development of a cognitive engine and analysis of WRAN cognitive radio algorithms JH Reed, C Dietrich, J Gaeddert, K Kim, R Menon… – Mobile and Portable Radio …, 2005 Cited by 4 Related articles

[CITATION] Development of a Cognitive Engine and Analysis of WRAN Cognitive Radio Algorithms J Gaeddert, K Kim, R Menon, L Morales, Y Zhao… – Mobile and Portable Radio …, 2006 Cited by 2 Related articles

[CITATION] Cognitive Engine Implementation Using Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing Z Zhijin, Z Shilian, X Chunyun – WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON …, 2007 – WSEAS PRESS BL Direct

[PDF] from iphy.ac.cn [PDF] A study of cognitive radio decision engine based on quantum genetic algorithm Z Zhi-Jin, Z Shi-Lian, S Jun-Na, K Xian-Zheng – 2007 – wulixb.iphy.ac.cn … Keywords:cognitive radio,quantum genetic algorithm,cognitive engine PACC:9580D !Project supported by the Pre&Research Foundation of Electronics Science Research Institute(Grant No. 41101040102). – E&mail:lianshizheng @ 126 . com 6676 ? ? ? ? 56 ? Cited by 9 Related articles BL Direct All 2 versions