Believable Agents


Notes:

Effort has been made mainly in two approaches, which are modeling emotions for believable virtual characters and capturing user emotions to generate affect-based interactive narrative.

Delsarte went on to develop an acting style that attempted to connect the inner emotional experience of the actor with a systematized set of gestures and movements based upon his own observations of human interaction.

In storytelling systems, characters are perceived as being believable when the actions they execute are motivated by their desires and intentions and these are consistent with the knowledge they possess about the current story world.

  • Autodesk Maya HumanIK (defunct)

Wikipedia:

References:

See also:

100 Best Emotion Recognition Videos | ELIZA effectEmotional Agents 2016 | Robopsychology Meta Guide | Uncanny ValleyUnembodied Artificial Intelligence


Towards a narrative mind: The creation of coherent life stories for believable virtual agents
WC Ho, K Dautenhahn – … Workshop on Intelligent Virtual Agents, 2008 – Springer
This paper describes an approach to create coherent life stories for Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) in order to achieve long-term believability. We integrate a computational autobiographic memory, which allows agents to remember significant past experiences and …

Believable Bots: Can Computers Play Like People?
P Hingston – 2012 – Springer
The idea that we humans would one day share the Earth with a rival intelligence is as old as science fiction. That day is speeding towards us. Our rivals (or will they be our companions?) will not come from another galaxy, but out of our own strivings and imaginings. The bots are …

The challenge of constructing psychologically believable agents
FD Schönbrodt, JB Asendorpf – Journal of Media Psychology, 2011 – econtent.hogrefe.com
Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are designed to provide natural and intuitive communication with a human user. One major current topic in agent design consequently is to enhance their believability, often by incorporating internal models of emotions or …

Believable bot navigation via playback of human traces
IV Karpov, J Schrum, R Miikkulainen – Believable Bots, 2013 – Springer
Imitation is a powerful and pervasive primitive underlying examples of intelligent behaviour in nature. Can we use it as a tool to help build artificial agents that behave like humans do? This question is studied in the context of the BotPrize competition, a Turing-like test where …

The role of social identity, rationality and anticipation in believable agents
R Prada, G Raimundo, J Dimas, C Martinho… – … on Autonomous Agents …, 2012 – dl.acm.org
Agents that interact in complex social situations need to take the social context in consideration in order to perform believably. We argue that social identity is an important factor; therefore, agents should incorporate social identity theory in their behaviour, which …

Building a believable and effective agent for a 3D boxing simulation game
M Mozgovoy, I Umarov – Computer Science and Information …, 2010 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
This paper describes an approach used to build and optimize a practical AI solution for a 3D boxing simulation game. The two main features of the designed AI agent are believability (human-likeness of agent’s behavior) and effectiveness (agent’s capability to reach own …

Building a believable agent for a 3D boxing simulation game
M Mozgovoy, I Umarov – Computer Research and Development …, 2010 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
This paper describes an approach used to build a practical AI solution for a 3D boxing simulation game. The features of the designed AI agent are based on our deliberate concentration on believability, ie human-likeness of agent’s behavior. We show how …

Modeling Autobiographical Memory for Believable Agents.
A Kope, C Rose, M Katchabaw – AIIDE, 2013 – aaai.org
We present a multi-layer hierarchical connectionist network model for simulating human autobiographical memory in believable agents. Grounded in psychological theory, this model improves on previous attempts to model agents’ event knowledge by providing a …

Why can’ta virtual character be more like a human: A mixed-initiative approach to believable agents
J Zhu, JM Moshell, S Ontañón, E Erbiceanu… – … Conference on Virtual …, 2011 – Springer
Believable agents have applications in a wide range of human computer interaction-related domains, such as education, training, arts and entertainment. Autonomous characters that behave in a believable manner have the potential to maintain human users’ suspense of …

WASABI: Affect simulation for agents with believable interactivity
C Becker-Asano – 2008 – books.google.com
Researchers in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) try to gain a deeper understanding of some of the mechanisms underlying human cognition. Traditionally pure rational reasoning has been the main focus of research in AI, starting with the conceptualization of the General …

Training Believable Agents in 3D Electronic Business Environments Using Recursive-Arc Graphs.
A Bogdanovych, SJ Simoff, M Esteva – ICSOFT (PL/DPS/KE), 2008 – researchgate.net
Using 3D Virtual Worlds for commercial activities on the Web and the development of human-like sales assistants operating in such environments are ongoing trends of E-Commerce. The majority of the existing approaches oriented towards the development of such assistants …

The Reactive-Causal Architecture: Towards Development of Believable Agents
AO Ayd?n, MA Orgun, A Nayak – … Workshop on Intelligent Virtual Agents, 2008 – Springer
The most commonly accepted attributes of intelligent agents are autonomy, sit- uatedness, and flexibility [1]. Believable agents should have strong autonomy; since, they are interacting in real time with human actors. To have stronger au- tonomy agents should be capable of learning and …

Personality profiles for generating believable bot behaviors
C Rosenthal, CB Congdon – Computational Intelligence and …, 2012 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
In this work, personality profiles are used to develop parameterized bot behaviors. While the personality profile structure was originally designed as a descriptive tool for human behavior, as used here it is a generative tool, allowing a plurality of different behaviors to …

Behavior capture: Building believable and effective AI agents for video games
M Mozgovoy, I Umarov – … Journal of Arts and Sciences (to …, 2011 – web-ext.u-aizu.ac.jp
Rapid development of complex video games introduces new challenges for the creation of AI agents. Two important problems in this area are believability and effectiveness of agents ‘behavior, ie human-likeness of the characters and their high ability to achieve own goals. In …

Believable and effective AI agents in virtual worlds: Current state and future perspectives
I Umarov, M Mozgovoy – … Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated …, 2012 – igi-global.com
The rapid development of complex virtual worlds (most notably, in 3D computer and video games) introduces new challenges for the creation of virtual agents, controlled by artificial intelligence (AI) systems. Two important subproblems in this topic area which need to be …

I mean it!: detecting user intentions to create believable behaviour for virtual agents in games
E Doirado, C Martinho – … International Conference on Autonomous Agents …, 2010 – dl.acm.org
Autonomous virtual agents generally lack the support to understand a fundamental character in their world—the user’s avatar. This has a negative impact on their behavioural believability. In this paper, we present an approach to detect the intent underlying certain …

The challenge of believability in video games: Definitions, agents models and imitation learning
F Tencé, C Buche, P De Loor, O Marc – arXiv preprint arXiv:1009.0451, 2010 – arxiv.org
In this paper, we address the problem of creating believable agents (virtual characters) in video games. We consider only one meaning of believability,“giving the feeling of being controlled by a player”, and outline the problem of its evaluation. We present several models …

Agents that relate: Improving the social believability of non-player characters in role-playing games
N Afonso, R Prada – International Conference on Entertainment Computing, 2008 – Springer
As the video games industry grows and video games become more part of our lives, we are eager for better gaming experiences. One field in which games still have much to gain is in Non-Player Character behavior in socially demanding games, like Role-Playing Games. In …

Warmth, competence, believability and virtual agents
R Niewiadomski, V Demeure, C Pelachaud – … on Intelligent Virtual Agents, 2010 – Springer
Believability is a key issue for virtual agents. Most of the authors agree that emotional behavior and personality have a high impact on agents’ believability. The social capacities of the agents also have an effect on users’ judgment of believability. In this paper we analyze …

Building character for artificial conversational agents: Ethos, ethics, believability, and credibility.
S Brahnam – PsychNology Journal, 2009 – researchgate.net
Because ethos is an unavoidable component of dialogue and forms the basis for believing and being persuaded by another’s speech, it is an important topic for AI researchers. This paper examines the concept of ethos, especially Aristotle’s notions of situated and invented …

Towards real-time authoring of believable agents in interactive narrative
M Van Velsen – International Workshop on Intelligent Virtual Agents, 2008 – Springer
In this paper we present an authoring tool called Narratoria that allows non-technical experts in the field of digital entertainment to create interactive narratives with 3D graphics and multimedia. Narratoria allows experts in digital entertainment to participate in the generation …

Formalising believability and building believable virtual agents
A Bogdanovych, T Trescak, S Simoff – Australasian Conference on Artificial …, 2015 – Springer
Believability is an important characteristic of intelligent virtual agents, however, very few attempts have been made to define and formalise it. This paper provides a formal analysis of believability, focused on diverse aspects of believability of the agents and the virtual …

Enhancing the believability of embodied conversational agents through environment-, self-and interaction-awareness
K Ijaz, A Bogdanovych, S Simoff – Proceedings of the Thirty-Fourth …, 2011 – dl.acm.org
Research on embodied conversational agents’ reasoning and actions has mostly ignored the external environment. This papers argues that believability of such agents is tightly connected with their ability to relate to the environment during a conversation. This ability …

How is believability of a virtual agent related to warmth, competence, personification, and embodiment?
V Demeure, R Niewiadomski, C Pelachaud – Presence, 2011 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
The term “believability” is often used to describe expectations concerning virtual agents. In this paper, we analyze which factors influence the believability of the agent acting as the software assistant. We consider several factors such as embodiment, communicative …

There’s always hope: Enhancing agent believability through expectation-based emotions
T Bosse, E Zwanenburg – … and Workshops, 2009. ACII 2009. 3rd …, 2009 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
To endow virtual agents with more realistic affective behavior, the notion of expectation-based emotions plays an important role: emotional states of agents should not only be triggered by present stimuli, but also by anticipation on future stimuli, and evaluation of past …

Towards believable crowds: A generic multi-level framework for agent navigation
W van Toll, N Jaklin, R Geraerts – 2015 – dspace.library.uu.nl
Path planning and crowd simulation are important computational tasks in computer games and applications of high social relevance, such as crowd management and safety training. Virtual characters (agents) need to autonomously find a path from their current position to a …

The great deceivers: Virtual agents and believable lies
J Dias, R Aylett, A Paiva, H Reis – Proceedings of the …, 2013 – cloudfront.escholarship.org
This paper proposes a model giving Theory of Mind (ToM) capabilities to artificial agents to allow them to carry out deceptive behaviours. It describes a model supporting an N-level Theory of Mind and reports a study to assess whether equipping agents with a two-level …

Artificial Intelligence approaches for the generation and assessment of believable human-like behaviour in virtual characters
JML Asensio, J Peralta, R Arrabales, MG Bedia… – Expert Systems with …, 2014 – Elsevier
Having artificial agents to autonomously produce human-like behaviour is one of the most ambitious original goals of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and remains an open problem nowadays. The imitation game originally proposed by Turing constitute a very effective …

Believable agents, engagement, and health interventions
CL Lisetti – International Conference on Human-Computer …, 2011 – Springer
In this article we review some of the main contributions that the believable agents community has brought about and we review some of the main believable agent architectures existing to date. We also discuss the enormous potential that believable agents can bring in the …

Simulating the emergence of social relationship networks in groups of believable agents: the X-BARIM model
P Barbosa, D Silva, G Ramalho, P Tedesco – … on Artificial Intelligence, 2010 – Springer
Believable agents are intelligent agents designed to emulate characteristics such as personality, emotions and relatioships in order to exhibit an ilusion of life to human observers. Hence, designers should not only cater for the individual behaviour, but also …

Agent communication for believable human-like interactions between virtual characters
J van Oijen, F Dignum – … AAMAS Workshop on Cognitive Agents for Virtual …, 2012 – Springer
Virtual characters in games or simulations are increasingly required to perform complex tasks in dynamic virtual environments. This includes the ability to communicate in a human-like manner with other characters or a human user. When applying agent technology to …

Enabling motivated believable agents with reinforcement learning
J Forgette, M Katchabaw – Games Media Entertainment (GEM) …, 2014 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
A key challenge in programming video games is to produce agents that are autonomous and capable of action selections that appear believable. In this paper, motivations are used as a basis for learning using reinforcements. With motives driving the decisions of agents …

Believability through psychosocial behaviour: Creating bots that are more engaging and entertaining
C Bailey, J You, G Acton, A Rankin, M Katchabaw – Believable Bots, 2013 – Springer
Creating believable characters or bots in a modern video game is an incredibly challenging and complex task. The requirements for achieving believability are steep, yet the improvements in player engagement, immersion, and overall enjoyment and satisfaction …

Believable Virtual Characters in Human-Computer Dialogs.
Y Jung, A Kuijper, DW Fellner, M Kipp… – Eurographics …, 2011 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
For many application areas, where a task is most naturally represented by talking or where standard input devices are difficult to use or not available at all, virtual characters can be well suited as an intuitive man-machineinterface due to their inherent ability to simulate …

What makes virtual agents believable?
A Bogdanovych, T Trescak, S Simoff – Connection Science, 2016 – Taylor & Francis
In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and …

AI design for believable characters via gameplay design patterns
P Lankoski, A Johansson, B Karlsson… – … Social Dimensions of …, 2011 – igi-global.com
We address the problem of creating human-like, believable behavior for game characters. To achieve character believability in games, the game designer needs to develop that character so that it fulfills as many aspects of believability as possible. With believable  …

Believable judge bot that learns to select tactics and judge opponents
R Thawonmas, S Murakami… – … Intelligence and Games …, 2011 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
This paper describes our believable judge bot ICE-CIG2011 that has an ability to learn tactics from a judge player and an ability to judge an opponent character as a human or a bot. We conjecture that a bot with these two abilities should be considered human-like in a …

Generating believable virtual characters using behavior capture and hidden markov models
R Zhao, D Szafron – Advances in Computer Games, 2011 – Springer
We propose a method of generating natural-looking behaviors for virtual characters using a data-driven method called behavior capture. We describe the techniques for capturing trainer-generated traces, for generalizing these traces, and for using the traces to generate …

Analyzing the believability of game character behavior using the Game Agent Matrix.
H Warpefelt, M Johansson, H Verhagen – DiGRA Conference, 2013 – library.med.utah.edu
In recent years there has been significant improvement in the simpler actions performed by characters in computer games–such as navigating the world and attacking enemies and similar actions. In previous work, the ability of NPCs to adapt to changing circumstances was …

Behavior believability in virtual worlds: agents acting when they need to
N Avradinis, T Panayiotopoulos… – …, 2013 – springerplus.springeropen.com
Believability has been a perennial goal for the intelligent virtual agent community. One important aspect of believability largely consists in demonstrating autonomous behavior, consistent with the agent’s personality and motivational state, as well as the world …

Animation guidelines for believable embodied conversational agent gestures
I Gris, DA Rivera, D Novick – … Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed …, 2015 – Springer
In animating embodied conversational agents (ECAs), run-time blending of animations can provide a large library of movements that increases the appearance of naturalness while decreasing the number of animations to be developed. This approach avoids the need to …

Creating believable and effective AI agents for games and simulations: Reviews and case study
I Umarov, M Mozgovoy – Contemporary Advancements in …, 2014 – books.google.com
The rapid development of complex virtual worlds (most notably, in 3D computer and video games) introduces new challenges for the creation of virtual agents, controlled by Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems. Two important sub-problems in this topic area that need to be …

ConsScale FPS: Cognitive Integration for Improved Believability in Computer Game Bots
R Arrabales, A Ledezma, A Sanchis – Believable bots, 2013 – Springer
ConsScale is a framework for the characterization and measurement of the level of cognitive development in artificial agents. The scale is inspired by an evolutionary perspective of the development of consciousness in biological organisms. In this context, consciousness is …

Nested look-ahead evolutionary algorithm based planning for a believable diplomacy bot
M Kemmerling, N Ackermann, M Preuss – European Conference on the …, 2011 – Springer
With regard to literature, improved estimations for the number of possible moves and placements are provided, showing that the complexity of Diplomacy is enormous, making it a good candidate for machine learning and evolutionary learning techniques. To enhance the …

Teaching autonomous agents to move in a believable manner within virtual institutions
A Bogdanovych, S Simoff, M Esteva… – … on Artificial Intelligence in …, 2008 – Springer
Believability of computerised agents is a growing area of research. This paper is focused on one aspect of believability—believable movements of avatars in normative 3D Virtual Worlds called Virtual Institutions. It presents a method for implicit training of autonomous agents in …

Twig: A Simple, AI-Friendly, Character World for Believable Agents.
I Horswill – AAAI Spring Symposium: Intelligent Narrative …, 2009 – aaai.org
There are a number of pieces of core infrastructure that are missing if we want to build intelligent narrative systems. One is the relative lack of availability of intelligent bodies that support wide behavioral repertoires and dynamic worlds. In this paper, I describe Twig, a …

Believable’Agents Build Relationships on the Web
J Debenham, S Simoff – Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence, 2012 – Springer
In this paper we present the Believable Negotiator—the formalism behind a Web business negotiation technology that treats relationships as a commodity. It supports relationship building, maintaining, evolving, and passing to other agents, and utilises such relationships …

Modelling car drivers as believable autonomous agents for a traffic control training game
L Ter-Isahakyan, JW Jaromczyk – Computer Games (CGAMES) …, 2012 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
In the context of a training game for road traffic controllers, we discuss issues related to representing and implementing car drivers and their interaction with the driving environment to achieve behavior that fits the definition of believable agents. Drivers are implemented as …

The Believability Gene in Virtual Bots.
M Polceanu, AM García, JL Jiménez, C Buche… – FLAIRS Conference, 2016 – aaai.org
Video game development is not only one of the most profitable entertainment industries but also represents a very interesting field of research. Particularly in the area of Artificial Intelligence (AI), it provides many interesting (and hard to tackle) challenges. One of them …

Enhancing Believability through Expectation-Based Emotions in a BDI Agent
E Zwanenburg – 2009 – cs.vu.nl
Within this study, a previous extension of the BDI model by (Castelfranchi & Lorini, 2003), aimed at introducing expectation-based emotions to the model is further elaborated. The formulas for the emotions are specified in greater detail to account for continuous variables …

AI platform for supporting believable combat in role-playing games
M Bernacchia, J Hoshino – Proc. 19th Game Programming …, 2014 – ipsj.ixsq.nii.ac.jp
Character believability is a fundamental component of role-playing games. In video games, characters not controlled by the player are managed by the game itself, and while most of the desired behaviors can be scripted in advance, the combat phase requires the presence …

Affective decision making in artificial intelligence: Making virtual characters with high believability
A Johansson – 2012 – diva-portal.org
Artificial intelligence is often used when creating believable virtual characters in games or in other types of virtual environments. The intelligent behavior these characters show to the player is often flawed, leading to a worse gameplay experience. In particular, there is often …

Believable suspect agents: response and interpersonal style selection for an artificial suspect
M Bruijnes – 2016 – research.utwente.nl
The social skills necessary to properly and successfully conduct a police interrogation can and need to be trained. In the thesis I will describe the steps I took towards a virtual character that can play the role of a suspect in a police interrogation training. Students of the …

Believable team behavior: Towards behavior capture AI for the game of soccer
M Mozgovoy, I Umarov – 8th International Conference on Complex …, 2011 – researchgate.net
This paper describes our approach used to build a practical AI solution for a simplified 2D soccer simulation game. The two main features of the designed AI-controlled team are believability (human-likeness of players’ behavior) and effectiveness (capability of players to …

Believable emotion-influenced perception: The path to motivated rebel agents
A Coman, K Gillespie… – Goal Reasoning: Papers …, 2015 – smartech.gatech.edu
Abstract The new Rebel Agent paradigm is meant to help achieve character believability in various forms of interactive storytelling. Rebel agents may refuse a goal or plan that they assess to be in a conflict with their own dynamic motivation model: we call such conflict …

Beyond believability: quantifying the differences between real and virtual humans
CM de Melo, J Gratch – … Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, 2015 – Springer
Abstract “Believable” agents are supposed to “suspend the audience’s disbelief” and provide the “illusion of life”. However, beyond such high-level definitions, which are prone to subjective interpretation, there is not much more to help researchers systematically create or …

Enhancing believability: evaluating the application of Delsarte’s aesthetic system to the design of virtual humans
M Nixon – 2009 – summit.sfu.ca
Characters play an important role in many interactive entertainment productions, including training simulations and computer and video games. Most current industry methods rely on heavy scripting, where voice acting, cut scene scripting, dialogue scripts, hand-coded …

Motivation discrepancies for rebel agents: Towards a framework for case-based goal-driven autonomy for character believability
A Coman, H Muñoz-Avila – … ) Workshop on Case-based Agents, 2014 – cse.lehigh.edu
Character believability is one of the key requirements of a successful narrative. In order to be believable, characters must appear to act in accordance with personal motivation, which is shaped through events occurring throughout the narrative. Goal-Driven Autonomy (GDA), is …

Believable self-learning ai for world of tennis
M Mozgovoy, M Purgina… – … Intelligence and Games …, 2016 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
We describe a method used to build a practical AI system for a mobile game of tennis. The chosen approach had to support two goals:(1) provide a large number of believable and diverse AI characters, and (2) let the users train AI “ghost” characters able to substitute them …

Evaluating the believability of virtual agents with anticipatory abilities
Q Reynaud, JY Donnart, V Corruble – … agents and multi-agent systems, 2014 – dl.acm.org
In this paper we present an experimental evaluation of a generic model of cognitive process allowing virtual agents to exhibit anticipatory abilities. This model is included in an agent architecture for agent-based simulations of virtual cities. With user experiments, we show …

Creating Believable, Emergent Behaviour in Virtual Agents, Using a ‘Synthetic Psychology’Approach
MM Rosenkind – 2015 – eprints.brighton.ac.uk
Drawing on the fields of robotics, computer games and usability testing, this thesis contextualises the work of cyberneticist Valentino Braitenberg within the current field of game AI and demonstrates how there remain aspects of his propositions that cannot yet be …

An Architecture for Believable Socially Aware Agents
A Dorgoly – 2013 – ir.lib.uwo.ca
The main focus of this thesis is to solve the believability problem in video game agents by integrating necessary psychological and sociological foundations by means of role based architecture. Our design agent also has the capability to reason and predict the decisions of …

Evaluating the believability of agents in virtual worlds
H Warpfelt – 2013 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
This article describes a method that can be used to evaluate the believability of agents in virtual world. The methodology uses observations as well as structured and informal descriptions to elucidate problematic and positive behaviours of agents. The use of the …

Personality and Group Dynamics in Believable Multi-Agent Systems
S Ma, R Prada, APC Silva-Taguspark – 2009 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
Humans interact with computer systems and other humans in similar ways. Researchers identified personality as an important requirement for believable synthetic agents. By modeling a personality system in the agent’s architecture we can bring the illusion of life to …

Improving the believability in the interaction of synthetic virtual agents: Towards Personality in Group Dynamics
MASN Nunes, D Reinert, R Prada, JS Bezerra… – Revista …, 2010 – seer.ufs.br
The interaction among humans and virtual agents should be provided for users like an xperience as natural as possible. Considering the same perspective of interaction found in humans, researchers define Personality as a key role for believable interface in group …

Believable exploration: investigating human exploration behavior to inform the design of believable agents in video games
C Si – 2017 – opus.lib.uts.edu.au
By nature, human beings are curious about their environment. Arriving in a new place, they observe, recognize and interact with their surroundings. People collect information about the new place, and locate objects in that space that help them to make further decisions. This is …

Modeling believable agents using a descriptive approach
T Harris, C Gittens – Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, 2015 – Elsevier
The concept of believable agents in game and simulator design has become increasingly important. This is because the improved realism offered by synthetic agents can lead to the increased popularity and prolonged life of electronic games. This paper offers a model for …

Development of Believable Bots in Videogames Capable of Learning During Runtime
LF Castillo, MG Bedia, G Isaza, J Velez… – … of Artificial Intelligence™, 2014 – aut.upt.ro
In this paper we show that, thanks to the features of Continuous-Time Recurrent Neural Network (CTRNNs), whose neurons act at different activation level of time, the controller of a bot is capable of learning during runtime in the UT2004 videogame environment without …

Learning from Stories: Using Natural Communication to Train Believable Agents
B Harrison, S Banerjee, MO Riedl – cc.gatech.edu
In this work we introduce Quixote, a system that allows non-programmers to train believable virtual agents and robots using the sociocultural knowledge present in stories. Quixote uses a corpus of exemplar stories to engineer a reward function that can be used to train virtual …

Turing’s Test and Believable AI
D Charles, C Fyfe, D Livingstone… – … Artificial Intelligence for …, 2008 – igi-global.com
It is very evident that current progress in developing realistic and believable game AI lags behind that in developing realistic graphical and physical models. For example, in the years between the development of Neverwinter Nights by Bioware and the release of its sequel …

Designing and Testing Believable Agents for Independent Computer Games
JH Kaldma – 2009 – Citeseer
The defining feature of the computer as a medium is interactivity. Yet, todayss computer games are remarkably non) interactive when it comes to the story and the characters in the game. One of the reasons is that it is difficult to create computer game characters that are …

A Composite Strategy for Realizing Believable Agents: Analysis and Implementation
P Rizzo – dfki.de
A major research problem regarding believable agents (also known as\lifelike computer characters”,\synthetic agents”,\virtual actors”, and\animate characters”) is how to develop and execute their behavioral libraries. This work identi es two di erent approaches …

Towards Believable Intelligent Virtual Agents with StateFull Hierarchical Reactive Planning
T Plch – artemis.ms.mff.cuni.cz
Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) deployed within virtual worlds are required to exhibit believable rational behavior. The reactive action selection mechanism represents a popular choice for most Artificial Intelligence (AI) architectures, mainly due to simple implementation …

Learning believable game agents using sensor noise and action histogram
CH Tan, KC Tan, VA Shim – Memetic Computing, 2014 – Springer
A believable game agent can help players to immerse in the game world and maintain their suspension of disbelief, thereby making the game more enjoyable and satisfying. This paper explores the use of two main ideas to acquire believable reactionary behaviours in game …

CHAMELEON: A Learning Virtual Bot For Believable Behaviors In Video Game
F Tencé, L Gaubert, P De Loor… – … on Intelligent Games …, 2012 – hal-imt.archives-ouvertes.fr
The believability of a virtual world can be increased by improving the behavior of the characters in it. Consid-ering literature, we choose a model developed by Le Hy to generate the behaviors by imitation. The model uses probability distributions to find which decision to …

Doing nothing The effect of multiple idle animations on a conversational agent characters believability
A Ros – 2015 – diva-portal.org
Animation synthesizers uses software to among other things generate idle animations for character agents. Some projects do not have the capability or the funds to use such software. To solve the problem the character agent needs a large enough animation library …

Evaluating the impact of anticipation on the efficiency and believability of virtual agents
Q Reynaud, JY Donnart, V Corruble – … on Intelligent Virtual Agents, 2014 – Springer
We propose a model of cognitive process allowing virtual agents to exhibit anticipatory abilities. With user experiments, we show that this mechanism brings about an improvement in the efficiency of the behavior generated, and check that external observers are able to …

Improved Believability in Agent-Based Computer Musical Systems Designed to Study Music Evolution
M Gimenes – researchgate.net
This paper introduces the main design elements implemented in the agent-based interactive music system CoMA (Autonomous Musical Communities), aimed at the study of music evolution in virtual environments. Among these, a 2D representation of the virtual agents’ …

Non-verbal behaviour for believable synthetic agents
J Shearer, P Heslop, P Olivier, M De Boni – AISB Journal, 2010 – eprints.lincoln.ac.uk
Realism for synthetic characters, both in computer games and conversational agentmediated applications, requires both visual and behavioural fidelity. One significantarea of synthetic character behaviour, that has to date received little attention, is …

How to make agents that display believable empathy? An ethological approach to empathic behavior
Á Miklósi – pdfs.semanticscholar.org
The plan to engineer “empathic agents” is very ambitious, specifically because many researchers resist attributing such ability to any animal other than humans. Thus it seems to be paradoxical to have emphatic agents but no empathic animals. This review suggests that …

Learned Behavior: Enabling Believable Virtual Characters through Reinforcement
J Forgette, M Katchabaw – … Architectures into Virtual Character …, 2016 – igi-global.com
A key challenge in programming virtual environments is to produce virtual characters that are autonomous and capable of action selections that appear believable. In this chapter, motivations are used as a basis for learning using reinforcements. With motives driving the …

Believable Virtual Characters for Mixed Reality
J Arroyo-Palacios, R Marks – Mixed and Augmented Reality …, 2017 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
This poster discusses the implementation and technical choices of a proof of concept experience demonstrating interactive virtual characters for immersive mixed reality (MR) applications. Our interactive virtual characters are made believable through their visual …

How Is Believability of a Virtual Agent Related to Warmth, Competence, Personification, and Embodiment?
R Niewiadomski, C Pelachaud – 2012 – academia.edu
The term “believability” is often used to describe expectations concerning virtual agents. In this paper, we analyze which factors influence the believability of the agent acting as the software assistant. We consider several factors such as embodiment, communicative …

Comparing the trade-off of believability and performance of abstract intelligent agents and humans playing Super Mario Bros.
K Papangelis, E Morgan – 2015 – orca.cf.ac.uk
Abstract intelligent agents within many genres of video games are crucial to a player’s enjoyment and immersion in their video game experience. There are two major aspects of abstract intelligent agents; performance and believability (Iskander, et al., 2012). Player …

Believable conversational agents for teaching ancient history and culture in 3D virtual worlds
K Ijaz – 2011 – opus.lib.uts.edu.au
This thesis introduces believable conversational agents as an engaging and motivational learning tool for teaching ancient history and culture in virtual worlds. Traditional approaches are lacking engagement, interactivity and socialisation, features that are of …

Believability Assessment For Fighting Game AI
MB Georgyy, M Mozgovoy, T Ito, T Rikimaru – web-ext.u-aizu.ac.jp
We describe two methods of analyzing human and AI play style patterns in an arcade fighting game. The first is the application of a Turing test to study game characters’ behavior. The second is the calculation of a cosine similarity between “behavior fingerprints” …

Human-like decision making for bots inmobile gaming: A case study in developing believable artificial intelligence for mobile games
V Lundström – 2017 – diva-portal.org
An AI framework for game AI of bots has been developed together with the company Level Eight for their upcoming game PROTOSTRIKE. The primary goal of the thesis is to implement a decision maker in the framework that exhibits human-like behaviours. An …

Comparing the Trade-off of Believability and Performance of Abstract Intelligent Agents and Humans Playing Super Mario Bros
E Morgan, K Papangelis – International Conference on Human-Computer …, 2015 – Springer
In this paper, we will examine how the performance and player believability aspects of abstract intelligent agents within video games interact and affect one another. We will present the study used to assess whether performance and believability do have an effect …

Rumors, Fake News and Social Bots in Conflicts and Emergencies: Towards a Model for Believability in Social Media
C Reuter, MA Kaufhold, R Steinfort – idl.iscram.org
The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life, but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, eg to receive pictures or to assess the general mood …

Investigating the role of social eye gaze in designing believable virtual characters
M Nixon – 2017 – summit.sfu.ca
A crucial issue in computationally modeling believable characters is determining the connection between high-level character attributes and the appropriate non-verbal behaviour such as gestures, head position, eye gaze and facial expressions that would …

Believability and Co-presence in Human-Virtual Character Interaction
E Bevacqua, R Richard… – IEEE computer graphics …, 2017 – ieeexplore.ieee.org
Subtle phenomena rooted in our body dynamics affect the reactive and evolutive parts of every human interaction. The authors’ decision model allows for adaptive physical interactions between a human and a virtual agent. This article presents an evaluation of that …

Empathy in virtual worlds: making characters believable with Laban movement analysis
L Bishko – Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Worlds, 2014 – dl.acm.org
… costumes that don’t move properly with character body motion also limit believability … CHAPTER 13 | EMPATHY IN VIRTUAL WORLDS: MAKING CHARACTERS BELIEVABLE WITH LABAN … characters in interactive experiences, the use of machine learning and AI techniques to …

Towards believable characters in the virtual storyteller
J Bragt – 2010 – essay.utwente.nl
… agents’ in the context of this research implies that the autonomous agents of the VST need to be provided with the means to take on the role of the believable character they … From this perspective, with believability on the one side and autonomous agent architecture on the …

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