Kenneth M Colby


Kenneth Colby (1920 – 2001)

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[BOOK] Computer models of thought and language RC Schank, KM Colby, A Newell – 1973 – tocs.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de Page 1. COMPUTER MODELS OF THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE Edited by Roger C. Schank Kenneth Mark Colby HW. H. Freeman and Company San Francisco Page 2. Contents Preface One Artificial Intelligence and the Concept of Mind Allen Newell … Cited by 348 Related articles All 2 versions

Modeling a paranoid mind KM Colby – Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1981 – Cambridge Univ Press Abstract Algorithmic model building in artificial intelligence provides a contemporary method for explaining certain kinds of human behavior. The paranoid mode of thought and action represents a kind of pathological behavior that has been well recognized for over twenty … Cited by 230 Related articles All 6 versions

Artificial paranoia KM Colby, S Weber, FD Hilf – Artificial Intelligence, 1971 – Elsevier Abstract A case of artificial paranoid has been synthesized in the form of a computer simulation model. The model and its embodied theory are briefly described. Several excerpts from interviews with the model are presented to illustrate its paranoid input- … Cited by 164 Related articles All 5 versions

A computer method of psychotherapy: preliminary communication. KM Colby, JB Watt, JP Gilbert – The Journal of nervous and mental …, 1966 – journals.lww.com A computer method of therapeutic coin-munication raises psychotherapeutic is-sues regarding conceptions of essential ingredients in individual therapy and Whether such a method can be of any remedial bene?t. The program is designed to communicate an … Cited by 127 Related articles All 4 versions

Turing-like indistinguishability tests for the validation of a computer simulation of paranoid processes KM Colby, FD Hilf, S Weber, HC Kraemer – Artificial Intelligence, 1972 – Elsevier Abstract A computer simulation of paranoid processes in the form of a dialogue algorithm was subjected to a validation study using indistinguishability tests. Judges rated degrees of paranoia present in initial psychiatric interviews of both paranoid patients and of versions … Cited by 96 Related articles

The rationale for computer-based treatment of language difficulties in nonspeaking autistic children KM Colby – Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1973 – Springer Abstract Some principles are described which underlie a computer-based treatment method for language difficulties in nonspeaking autistic children. These children are assumed to be dissymbolic with a primary difficulty in processing any type of symbols, language being the … Cited by 95 Related articles All 11 versions

Psychotherapeutic processes KM Colby – Annual Review of Psychology, 1964 – annualreviews.org Of help in producing this chaos has been the increasing use of tape re cordings for both training and research purposes. As long as what went on in therapeutic sessions remained secret, myths of consensus within paradigms were easily perpetuated. For example, … Cited by 91 Related articles All 3 versions

Handedness in autistic children KM Colby, C Parkison – Journal of autism and childhood schizophrenia, 1977 – Springer Abstract A test of handedness in a sample of 20 autistic children and 25 normal children revealed marked differences. The frequency of non-right-handedness in normal children was 12%, whereas it was 65% in autistic children. The significance of this difference for … Cited by 86 Related articles All 7 versions

Cognitive therapy of paranoid conditions: Heuristic suggestions based on a computer simulation model KM Colby, WS Faught, RC Parkison – Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1979 – Springer By the phrase” paranoid conditions” we are referring to patients who show delusions of persecution and/or grandeur, ideas of self-reference, and hypersensitivity. These conditions can be found in association with other physical and psychiatric disorders or by themselves … Cited by 54 Related articles All 3 versions

A word-finding computer program with a dynamic lexical-semantic memory for patients with anomia using an intelligent speech prosthesis KM Colby, D Christinaz, RC Parkison, S Graham… – Brain and …, 1981 – Elsevier Abstract A computer program for a portable microprocessor has been developed which aids anomic patients in finding words given clues about the target word. Over time the lexical- semantic memory is reorganized automatically depending on the frequency of word usage … Cited by 53 Related articles All 3 versions

Appraisal of four psychological theories of paranoid phenomena. KM Colby – Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1977 – psycnet.apa.org Abstract 1. Four psychological theories of paranoid phenomena, termed the shame- humiliation, homosexual, hostility, and homeostatic theories, are compared for their explanatory power. The shame-humiliation theory is considered preferable because of its … Cited by 50 Related articles All 4 versions

Computer simulation of change in personal belief systems KM Colby – Behavioral Science, 1967 – Wiley Online Library Abstract This paper deals with the following questions and answers: Are models the same as theories? No. Can a computer program serve as a model of human belief systems? Yes. How do humans change their minds? We know little about it. How can models of belief … Cited by 45 Related articles All 4 versions

An on-line computer system for initial psychiatric inventory R Stillman, WT Roth, KM COLBY… – American Journal of …, 1969 – Am Psychiatric Assoc CASE, an on-line computer system, is used to elicit and record mental status, psychometric, and personal history information directly from the patient without the aid of an interviewer. Branching instructions can be programmed to present detailed questions in a particular … Cited by 43 Related articles All 6 versions

Conversational language comprehension using integrated pattern-matching and parsing RC Parkinson, KM Colby, WS Faught – Artificial Intelligence, 1977 – Elsevier Abstract One of the major problems in natural language understanding by computer is the frequent use of patterned or idiomatic phrases in colloquial English dialogue. Traditional parsing methods typically cannot cope with a significant number of idioms. A more general … Cited by 42 Related articles All 2 versions

Experiment on the effects of an observer’s presence on the imago system during psychoanalytic free?association KM Colby – Behavioral Science, 1960 – Wiley Online Library Abstract The psychoanalytic situation, with its private relationship between analyst and patient, is difficult to study experimentally and describe in quantitative terms. The intricacies of the relationship, the responsibilities of the analyst to the patient, and other such … Cited by 40 Related articles All 2 versions

Mind models: an overview of current work KM Colby – Mathematical Biosciences, 1978 – Elsevier … The structure of belief systems. RC Schank, KM Colby (Eds.), Computer Models of Thought and Language, Freeman, San Francisco (1973). 3; P. Achinstein; … 39; KM Colby; Computer Psychotherapists. JB Sidowski (Ed.), Technology in Mental Health Care Delivery Systems (1978) … Cited by 40 Related articles

Some pros and cons of computer-assisted psychotherapy KM COLBY, RL Gould, G Aronson – The journal of nervous and …, 1989 – journals.lww.com 106 colby et al. The program is designed to increase the adult per- spective progressively by showing how childhood thinking is contaminating and interfering with adult decision-making functions. Now let us consider some objections that have been raised by professional … Cited by 36 Related articles All 5 versions

Heuristic methods for computer understanding of natural language in context-restricted on-line dialogues KM Colby, H Enea – Mathematical Biosciences, 1967 – Elsevier Abstract This computer program accepts expressions in natural language as on-line input. It searches each expression for syntactic and semantic patterns. When a pattern match is discovered an appropriate reply is typed out in natural language so that a continuing … Cited by 35 Related articles All 2 versions

Pattern-matching rules for the recognition of natural language dialogue expressions. KM Colby, RC Parkison, WS Faught – 1974 – dl.acm.org Abstract Man-machine dialogues using everyday conversational English present problems for computer processing of natural language. Grammar-based parsers which perform a word- by-word, parts-of-speech analysis are too fragile to operate satisfactorily in real time … Cited by 35 Related articles

Can psychiatrists distinguish a computer simulation of paranoia from the real thing?: The limitations of Turing-like tests as measures of the adequacy of simulations JF Heiser, KM Colby, WS Faught… – Journal of Psychiatric …, 1979 – Elsevier Abstract Five physicians with psychiatric training and experience reached five correct and five incorrect conclusions in deciding whether they were interviewing, by teletype, a paranoid patient or a computer simulation of paranoia. This is the strongest … Cited by 31 Related articles All 3 versions

Experiments with a search algorithm for the data base of a human belief structure KM Colby, L Tesler, H Enea – Proceedings of the 1st international joint …, 1969 – dl.acm.org Abstract A large data base was collected from a human informant. The data consisted of beliefs regarding parent-child relations. A variety of factors in searching the data base were manipulated in an attempt to discover which were the more important in contributing to … Cited by 30 Related articles All 3 versions

On the greater amplifying power of causal-correlative over interrogative inputs on free association in an experimental psychoanalytic situation. KM Colby – The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 1961 – journals.lww.com The general aim of this study was to in-vestigate ways in which persons respond to two classes of verbal statements by another person under certain conditions. The spe-ci?c hypothesis to be tested was that, in an experimental psychoanalytic situation, causal- … Cited by 30 Related articles All 4 versions

Experimental treatment of neurotic computer programs KM COLBY – Archives of general psychiatry, 1964 – archpsyc.jamanetwork.com An academic question is one which is sup-posed to be of little consequence. An aca-demic lecturemay or may not meet this requirement. While this is often an occasion to survey our field and to scold one another for our deficiencies and while I, too, have a number of … Cited by 27 Related articles All 5 versions

A computer program using cognitive therapy to treat depressed patients. KM Colby – Psychiatric Services, 1995 – psycnet.apa.org Abstract 1. Describes a computer program called Overcoming Depression which is designed to provide cognitive therapy for mild to moderate depression. The program consists of a text mode interwoven with a dialogue mode. The text mode provides facts, concepts, and … Cited by 27 Related articles All 4 versions

Machine-mediated interviewing FD Hilf, KM Colby, DC Smith, WK Wittner… – The Journal of nervous …, 1971 – journals.lww.com Abstract Machine-mediated interviewing is a technique of psychiatric interviewing in which patient and interviewer communicate by means of remotely located teletypes. Messages are transmitted from one teletype to another by means of a computer. Advantages of non- … Cited by 26 Related articles All 5 versions

Computer-aided language development in nonspeaking children KM Colby – Archives of General Psychiatry, 1968 – archpsyc.jamanetwork.com Two studies in the literature have indicat¬ ed that poor prognosis for” autistic” chil¬ dren is correlated with absence of speech. Eisenberg and Kanner report a follow-up of 63 cases. 2 Of the children possessing speech after age 5, 16 of 32 patients made a fair to good … Cited by 26 Related articles All 5 versions

Inferences, affects, and intentions in a model of paranoia WS Faught, KM Colby, RC Parkison – Cognitive Psychology, 1977 – Elsevier Abstract Models of psychopathologies can be construed as modifications to the normal purposive behavior of an organism. The particular elements of purposive behavior to be emphasized here are (1) deriving facts about the environment (inferences),(2) attending to … Cited by 25 Related articles All 2 versions

Dialogues between humans and an artificial belief system KM Colby, DC Smith – Proceedings of the 1st international joint …, 1969 – dl.acm.org Abstract An artificial belief system capable of conducting on-line dialogues with humans has been constructed. It accepts information, answers questions and establishes a credibility for the information it acquires and for its human informants. Beginning with beliefs of high … Cited by 22 Related articles All 2 versions

A directed graph representation for computer simulation of belief systems L Tesler, H Enea, KM Colby – Mathematical Biosciences, 1968 – Elsevier A method of representing data structures in the form of a directed graph is described. Such a graph is suitable for the data base of belief systems in particular and of large memory structures in general. … This research is supported by grant PHS MH 06645 from the National … Cited by 21 Related articles All 2 versions

Clinical implications of a simulation model of paranoid processes KM Colby – Archives of general psychiatry, 1976 – archpsyc.jamanetwork.com Kenneth Mark Colby, MD\ s= b\ A shame-humiliation theory of paranoid processes embodied in a successful computer simulation model has clinical implications for the understanding, treatment, management, and prevention of paranoid disorders. The … Cited by 20 Related articles All 6 versions

A suggested exhibition/exposure policy for works of art on paper KM Colby – Disponível no web site da The Lighting Resource: …, 1993 – lightresource.com The establishment of an acceptable exposure period for the exhibition of works of art on paper represents a great source of frustration for many museum professionals, including conservators. An unprecedented surge in the frequency of use of our collections for both … Cited by 19 Related articles All 6 versions

Sex differences in dreams of primitive tribes KM Colby – American Anthropologist, 1963 – Wiley Online Library METHODS From an anthropological collection of 1853 reported dreams of primitive men and women1 a stratified random sampling was made in the following manner. Each of the 75 tribes represented in the collection was taken to represent a stratum. Within each … Cited by 16 Related articles All 2 versions

Human-computer conversation in a cognitive therapy program KM Colby – Machine conversations, 1999 – Springer Abstract I am neither a computational linguist nor an AI linguist nor a linguist of any kind. I am a psychiatrist interested in using computer programs to conduct psychotherapy— traditionally called talk-therapy, harking back to Socrates who remarked “the cure of the … Cited by 16 Related articles All 2 versions

A computer-driven, personal, portable, and intelligent speech prosthesis KM Colby, D Christinaz, S Graham – Computers and Biomedical Research, 1978 – Elsevier Abstract A microprocessor interfaced with a voice synthesizer provides a speech prosthesis for patients unable to speak, particularly those with aphasia. The “intelligent” software infers what the user is trying to say from partial and schematic input information. Cited by 15 Related articles All 5 versions

An objective measurement of nonspeaking children’s performance with a computer-controlled program for the stimulation of language behavior KM Colby, HC Kraemer – Journal of autism and childhood schizophrenia, 1975 – Springer Abstract A method is described for recording a child’s performance with a computer- controlled audio-visual device designed to stimulate language behavior in nonspeaking children. From the recorded data a child’s position can be estimated on a curve derived … Cited by 14 Related articles All 7 versions

Research in psychoanalytic information theory KM COLBY – American scientist, 1961 – JSTOR TT MUST come as a surprise to you, as it does to me, to find, suddenly, a psychoanalyst appearing in this series of lectures which features neurophysiologists, anatomists, animal psychologists and other labora tory investigators. The lectures are entitled Substrates of … Cited by 13 Related articles All 3 versions

Idiolectic Language-Analysis for Understanding Doctor-Patient Dialogues. H Enea, KM Colby, H Moravec – IJCAI, 1973 – ijcai.org ABSTRACT A programming language is described which is designed to simplify the construction of computer programs to analyze English. This system attempts to merge the best features of pattern matchers and the phrase structure approach to language analysis. … Cited by 10 Related articles All 4 versions

Ethics of computer-assisted psychotherapy. KM Colby – Psychiatric Annals, 1986 – psycnet.apa.org Abstract 1. Discusses ethical considerations related to computer-assisted psychotherapy. Presented as a type of adult education in understanding one’s self and one’s problems in living, a computer-assisted method removes much of the stigma still associated in our … Cited by 8 Related articles

Linguistic conceptual-patterns and key-idea profiles as a new kind of property for a taxonomy of neurotic patients KM Colby, R Parkison – Computers in Human Behavior, 1985 – Elsevier Abstract An algorithm analyzing patient descriptions of themselves is described. The algorithm converts natural language expressions into conceptual patterns and key-ideas. A profile of key-ideas for each patient is formed and patients with similar key-idea profiles … Cited by 7 Related articles All 2 versions

Signs and symptoms KM Colby, MT McGuire – The Sciences, 1981 – Wiley Online Library Skip to Main Content. … Cited by 6 Related articles

Dialogues in natural language with GURU, a psychologic inference engine KM Colby, PM Colby, RJ Stoller – Philosophical Psychology, 1990 – Taylor & Francis Abstract The aim of this project was to explore the possibility of constructing a psychologic inference engine that might enhance introspective self?awareness by delivering inferences about a user based on what he said in interactive dialogues about his closest opposite? … Cited by 5 Related articles All 3 versions

Ten criticisms of parry KM Colby – ACM SIGART Bulletin, 1974 – dl.acm.org Abstract Much of the Artificial Intelligence community is now aware of a computer simulation of paranoid processes developed by the Colby group at Stanford. The model (called PARRY) has been available for interviewing on the ARPA network and thousands of … Cited by 5 Related articles All 2 versions

Machine utilization of the natural language word “good” KM Colby, H Enea – Mathematical Biosciences, 1968 – Elsevier Abstract Using the term “good” as an example, the effect of natural language input on an interviewing computer program is described. The program utilizes syntactic and semantic information to generate relevant plausible inferences from which statements for a goal- … Cited by 5 Related articles All 3 versions

The Interaction of Inferences, Affects, and Intentions, in a Model of Paranoia B Faught, KM Colby, RC Parkison – 1974 – DTIC Document Abstract: The analysis of natural language input into its underlying semantic content is but one of the tasks necessary for a system (human or non-human) to use natural language. Responding to natural language input requires performing a number of tasks:(1) deriving … Cited by 5 Related articles All 2 versions

Comments on human-computer conversation KM Colby – Machine conversations, 1999 – Springer Abstract It was heartening to see so many men and women at the Villa Serbelloni eager to work on this seemingly insuperable and hence challenging problem of humancomputer conversation. From the variety of issues, arguments, opinions, jokes, etc., I have selected … Cited by 4 Related articles All 2 versions

A mute patient’s experience with machine-mediated interviewing KM Colby, FD Hilf, WA Hall – 1970 – DTIC Document Abstract: A hospitalized mute patient participated in seven machine-mediated interviews, excerpts of which are presented. After the fifth interview he began to use spoken language for communication. This novel technique is suggested for patients who are unable to … Cited by 4 Related articles

PARRYing KM Colby – Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1981 – Cambridge Univ Press Abstract: Algorithmic model building in artificial intelligence provides a contemporary method for explaining certain kinds of human behavior. The paranoid mode of thought and action represents a kind of pathological behavior that has been well recognized for over … Cited by 3 Related articles All 2 versions

Mind and brain, again KM Colby – Mathematical Biosciences, 1971 – Elsevier Abstract Classical mind-brain questions appear deviant through the lens of an analogy comparing mental processes with computational processes. Problems of reducibility and personal consciousness are also considered in the light of this analogy. Cited by 3 Related articles All 3 versions

[BOOK] Inductive inference by intelligent machines KM Colby, HJ Enea – 1967 – saltworks.stanford.edu By” intelligent machines” we mean modern computers containing a program and input- output connections with an external world. Through these connections a machine can interact with this world by detecting events outside itself, cause effects in the world by its … Cited by 3 Related articles

Limits on the scope of PARRY as a model for paranoia KM Colby – Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1983 – Cambridge Univ Press Abstract of the original article: Algorithmic model building in artificial intelligence provides a contemporary method for explaining certain kinds of human behavior. The paranoid mode of thought and action represents a kind of pathological behavior that has been well … Cited by 3 Related articles All 3 versions

Automated therapy for nonspeaking autistic children DC Smith, MC Newey, KM Colby – Proceedings of the May 16-18, 1972, …, 1972 – dl.acm.org Abstract Earlier publications described our computer method for stimulating language development in nonspeaking children, sketched several case histories (Colby 1968), and gave statistical evidence that our high rate of success (71 percent) was due to our … Cited by 3 Related articles All 2 versions

Reloading a human memory: A new ethical question for artificial intelligence technology KM Colby – AI Magazine, 1985 – aaai.org Abstract With the great amount of attention now being paid by the media to AI, it would be naive, shortsighted, and even self-deceptive to think that there will not be public interest in scrutinizing, monitoring, regulating, and even constraining our efforts. What we do can … Cited by 3 Related articles All 3 versions

Intelligent speech and memory prostheses KM Colby – ACM SIGCAPH Computers and the Physically …, 1984 – dl.acm.org For the past several years at UCLA, we (Daniel Christinaz, Roger Parkinson, and myself) have been working on developing microprocessor-based devices designed to aid the speech-handicapped. This work derived from our earlier attempts to stimulate language in … Cited by 2 Related articles

Psychiatric diagnosis: A double taxonomic swamp KM Colby – Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1982 – Cambridge Univ Press Abstract: Among the many peculiarities of schizophrenics perhaps the most obvious is their tendency to say odd things. Indeed, for most clinicians, the hallmark of schizophrenia is” thought disorder”(which is usually defined tautologically as incoherent speech). Decades … Cited by 2 Related articles All 2 versions

Dialogue Programs I have Known and Loved Over 33 Years KM Colby – Machine Conversations, 1999 – Springer Abstract In the mid-1950s, when I first read about computers, it occurred to me that they might be used to provide some form of talk-therapy for the thousands of mentally ill warehoused in large mental hospitals receiving only custodial care. I envisioned some … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

An Intelligent Speech Prosthesis With A Lexical Memory D Christinaz, KM Colby, S Graham, R Parkison… – Spoken Language …, 1980 – Springer Abstract We have interfaced a microcomputer with a voice synthesizer to produce a personal,(weakly) intelligent, and quick verbal response speech prosthesis useful for people who are unable to speak (Colby, Christinaz, and Graham, 1978). The intelligent speech … Cited by 1 Related articles

Computer as catalyst in the treatment of nonspeaking autistic children KM Colby, DC Smith – 1970 – DTIC Document Abstract: Continued experience with a computer-aided treatment method for nonspeaking autistic children demonstrated improvement effects on thirteen out of a series of seventeen cases. Justification for this conclusion is discussed in detail. Adoption of this method by … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

An intentional-action guiding algorithm in a user-programmable memory prosthesis KM Colby, RC Parkison – Computer programs in biomedicine, 1984 – Elsevier Abstract Patients with memory problems tend to forget what their intentions are in the course of carrying out a series of sequential actions directed towards a desired goal. To aid in this problem, a working memory prosthesis has been designed and implemented on a … Cited by 1 Related articles All 3 versions

A resemblance test for the validation of a computer simulation of paranoid processes KM Colby, FD Hilf, S Weber, HC Kraemer – 1971 – dl.acm.org Abstract A computer simulation of paranoid processes in the form of a dialogue algorithm was subjected to a validation study using an experimental resemblance test in which judges rated degrees of paranoia present in initial psychiatric interviews of both paranoid patients … Cited by 1 Related articles All 2 versions

Experimental validation of a computer simulation of paranoid processes KM Colby, FD Hilf, S Weber, H Kraemer – Mathematical Biosciences, 1972 – Elsevier Abstract A computer simulation of paranoid processes in the form of a dialogue algorithm was subjected to a validation study using an experimental resemblance test in which judges rated degrees of paranoia present in initial psychiatric interviews of both paranoid patients … Related articles

Review of Purposive Explanation in Psychology by Margaret A. Boden, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1972. KM Colby – ACM SIGART Bulletin, 1973 – dl.acm.org Abstract Artificial Intelligence is a type of theoretical psychology studying mental symbol- processing functions in living and nonliving, real and abstract systems. Psychology’s methods have been limited to experimental, survey, mathematical, interview, and …

A Word-Finding Algorithm with a Dynamic Lexical-Semantic Memory for Patients with Anomia Using a Speech Prosthesis. KM Colby, D Christinaz, S Graham, RC Parkison – AAAI, 1980 – aaai.org ABSTRACT Word-finding problems (anomia) are common in brain-damaged patients suffering from various types of aphasia. An algorithm is described which finds words for patients using a portable microprocessor-based speech prosthesis. The datastructures … Related articles All 3 versions

From computational metaphor to consensual algorithms KM Colby – Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1980 – Cambridge Univ Press Abstract: The computational view of mind rests on certain intuitions regarding the fundamental similarity between computation and cognition. We examine some of these intuitions and suggest that they derive from the fact that computers and human organisms … Related articles All 2 versions

Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Memo Aim-244 s _-_-..—‘. STAN-CS-74-457 KM COLBY – 1974 – i.stanford.edu COMPUTER SCIENCE OEPARTMENT REPORT NO. STAN-CS-74-457 … Some major criticisms of a computer simulation of paranoid processes (PARRY) . are revieued and di mussed. … (1) S enior R esearch A ssociate , Oepartment of Computer Science, Stanford University Related articles All 2 versions

Research in psychotherapy. KM Colby – Second Conference on Research in Psychotherapy, …, 1962 – psycnet.apa.org Abstract 1. Comments on papers by HH Strupp (see record 2004-19281-002), BJ Betz (see record 2004-19281-003), and L. Krasner (see record 2004-19281-004) about research problems relating to the psychotherapist’s contribution to the treatment process. KM Colby … All 2 versions

Higher Mental Functions Project KM Colby – profiles.nlm.nih.gov The taxonomy effort is just under way, using the language recognition program which serves as the front end of the paranoid model. This program will have to be added to and modified to serve the purpose of finding and classifying the conceptual patterns appearing in … All 2 versions

The Behavioral and Brain Sciences KM COLBY, J LE MAGNEN – 1981 – Cambridge Univ Press With Commentary by RP Abelson; J. Agassi; JG Carbonell; K. Gunderson; CE Izarci & FA Masterson; M. Kochen; R. Lindsay; PA Magaro & HG Shulman; BA Maher, JR Miller; J. Moor; K Oatley; V. Pinkava; W, H. Reid & JF Riedler; R. Revlin; A. Sloman; DW Swanson; V. … All 2 versions