Robopsychology is concerned with the study of the personalities and psychological aspects of intelligent machines, including chatbots, virtual agents, and other forms of artificial intelligence (AI). This includes research on affective computing, or the development of emotional agents that can recognize and respond to human emotions, as well as work on natural language processing (NLP) and the development of chatbots that can simulate human conversation.
There have been many efforts to develop chatbots that can mimic the behaviors and characteristics of human therapists, as well as pathological psychological conditions such as schizophrenia. Robopsychology also involves the study of the psychological impact of AI on humans, including the psychological effects of interacting with believable agents and the role of AI in interactive storytelling and other forms of entertainment. Other areas of focus in robopsychology include the development of artificial moral agents and the psychological considerations of personality archiving or “mind uploading.”
Robopsychology is a broad field that encompasses the study of a wide range of psychological and emotional aspects of human-robot interaction. This includes the study of both positive and negative emotional relations between humans and robots, as well as the psychological effects of interacting with robots.
One concept in the field of robopsychology is the “Uncanny Valley,” which refers to the idea that as robots become increasingly human-like in their appearance and behavior, people may experience feelings of discomfort and revulsion. This phenomenon is thought to be related to the fact that people have an innate tendency to react negatively to things that are almost, but not quite, human.
Another area of study in robopsychology is “lovotics,” or the study of love and romantic relationships between humans and robots. This includes research on the psychological and social implications of people forming emotional attachments to robots and the potential impact of sex robots on human sexuality and relationships.
ELIZA is a pioneering natural language processing computer program developed by Joseph Weizenbaum in the 1960s. It was designed to simulate conversation with a human user by using a set of rules and patterns to parse and respond to user input. ELIZA was not intended to be a true artificial intelligence (AI) system, but rather a demonstration of how simple pattern-matching algorithms could be used to create the illusion of intelligent conversation.
PARRY (short for “Psychiatric Automation: Research, Reasoning, and Yielding”) was a chatterbot developed by psychiatrist and computer scientist Kenneth Colby in the 1970s. It was designed to simulate the conversation of a paranoid schizophrenia patient, and it was based on transcripts of real patient-doctor conversations that Colby had collected. PARRY was intended to be used as a research tool to study the psychological characteristics of paranoid schizophrenia and to test theories about the nature of the disorder.
PARRY was one of the first chatterbots to be developed and was influential in the early development of artificial intelligence (AI) and natural language processing (NLP) technologies. It was able to engage in seemingly coherent and realistic conversation with human users, and it was able to respond to a wide range of inputs in a way that was consistent with the characteristics of paranoid schizophrenia. However, PARRY was not a true AI system and relied on a set of rules and patterns to generate its responses. It was not capable of true understanding or learning in the way that a human being is.
Kalle Kotipsykiatri was a chatterbot developed by Jyrki Kasvi in 1984. Kalle Kotipsykiatri was a Finnish-language chatterbot that was designed to provide psychological counseling and support to users. It was developed as a way to provide psychological assistance to people who might not have access to traditional face-to-face therapy or counseling services. It is not clear how widespread the use of Kalle Kotipsykiatri was or how effective it was in providing psychological support to users. However, it is an early example of how technology has been used to provide psychological services to individuals.
Artificial Psychology Dialog Player with Aging Simulation is a software program that was the subject of a patent application in 2010. The patent application describes the program as a software tool that is capable of simulating human conversation by selecting sentence lines from a pre-defined repertoire according to probabilistic rules and artificial personality states. The patent application suggests that the program is intended to be used as a research tool for studying human psychology and the dynamics of human communication. It is not clear if the software program was ever developed or commercially available.
Chatbots and other forms of artificial intelligence (AI) rely on a combination of algorithms and pre-programmed responses to simulate human conversation. As a result, there is often a significant element of “smoke and mirrors” involved in chatbot interactions, as the chatbot relies on cultural, linguistic, and thematic assumptions and expectations to generate its responses. This can create the illusion of intelligent conversation and may involve a sort of “mind game” in which the chatbot’s responses are influenced by the user’s expectations and assumptions about the nature of the conversation.
Believability in agents, or the extent to which they are able to convincingly simulate human conversation and behavior, is an important consideration in the field of robopsychology. Researchers and developers of chatbots and other AI systems may seek to create agents that are believable in order to improve the user experience and to make the interactions more realistic and engaging. This may involve designing the chatbot to use appropriate language and cultural references, as well as programming the chatbot to respond in ways that are consistent with human conversation patterns and expectations.
The psychological aspects of intelligent tutoring systems, or computer-based systems that provide personalized instruction and feedback to learners, have been the subject of significant research in the field of education. Intelligent tutoring systems are often used in educational settings to provide personalized support to learners, particularly in areas such as language learning, where individualized instruction can be particularly beneficial.
Intelligent tutoring systems have also been used in other fields, such as medicine, where they can be used to simulate virtual patients and provide training to medical students. In the military, intelligent tutoring systems have been used to provide training and support to soldiers, particularly in areas such as language learning and cultural awareness.
Developing interactive artificial companions for senior care requires a high level of psychological sensitivity, as these systems are intended to provide emotional support and companionship to older adults who may be isolated or otherwise in need of support. This may involve programming the artificial companion to recognize and respond to emotions, as well as designing the system to be engaging and easy to use for people of all ages and abilities.
Interactive artificial companions have the potential to provide a range of benefits to older adults, including providing social support, helping to alleviate loneliness and isolation, and promoting cognitive and physical activity. They may also be useful in providing reminders and prompts for tasks such as medication management and helping to promote independence and autonomy.
In addition to research on computational creativity, which involves the study of how artificial intelligence (AI) systems can generate creative and novel ideas, there is also significant work being done in the area of computational humor, or the development of AI systems that are able to recognize, generate, and respond to humor.
Computational humor is a challenging area of research, as it requires the development of AI systems that are able to understand and respond to the complex and often subtle cues that are involved in humor. This may involve programming the AI system to recognize and respond to cultural and linguistic differences in humor, as well as developing algorithms that can generate humorous responses and recognize when a joke has been made.
- BICA (Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures)
- Cognitive Linguistics
- Computational creativity
- Discourse analysis
- Ethics of artificial intelligence
- Kenneth Colby
- Machine ethics
- Social robot
- I, Robopsychologist, Part 1: Why Robots Need Psychologists (2012)
- I, Robopsychologist, Part 2: Where Human Brains Far Surpass Computers (2012)
- A Schizophrenic Approach for Intelligent Conversational Agents (2011)
- Affective Conversational Agents (2011)
- Designing Emotions: An Empirical Approach to Realistic Affect Simulation (2011)
- Human-Robot Personal Relationships (2011)
- Integrating Psychological Behaviors in the Rational Process of Conversational Assistant Agents (2011)
- Psychological and Computational Models of Language Comprehension: In Defense of the Psychological Reality of Syntax (2011)
- The Challenge of Constructing Psychologically Believable Agents (2011)
- Building credible agents: Behaviour influenced by personality and emotional traits (2010)
- Close Engagements with Artificial Companions: Key social, psychological, ethical and design issues (2010)
- Emotional Conversational Agents in Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry (2010)
- Extraction of Agent Psychological Behaviors from Glosses of WordNet Personality Adjectives (2010)
- Psychological research on embodied conversational agents: The case of pedagogical agents (2010)
- Response to a relational agent by hospital patients with depressive symptoms (2010)
- Technological and Psychological Fundamentals of Psychological Customization Systems (2010)
- Towards to Psychological-based Recommenders Systems: A survey on Recommender Systems (2010)
- Can Conversational Agents Express Big Five Personality Traits through Language?: Evaluating a Psychologically-Informed Language Generator (2009)
- Iterative design process for robots with personality (2009)
- Laughter in Social Robotics–no laughing matter (2009)
- Psychological Aspects in lifelike synthetic agents: Towards to the Personality Markup Language (A Brief Survey) (2009)
- Learning to Adapt in Dialogue Systems: Data-driven Models for Personality Recognition and Generation (2008)
- Psychological Facets In A Virtual Pedagogical Agent (2008)
- Computational Modelling of the Neural Systems Involved in Schizophrenia (2007)
- Psychological implications of domestic assistive technology for the elderly (2007)
- Realistic virtual characters in treatments for psychological disorders-an extensive agent architecture (2007)
- Why emotions should be integrated into conversational agents (2007)
- Augmenting interaction and cognition using agent architectures and technology inspired by psychology and social worlds (2006)
- Linguistic Style and Personality of Dialogue Agents (2005)
- The psychology and technology of talking heads: Applications in language learning (2005)
- Designing artificial personalities using Jungian theory (2004)
- Designing Friends (2003)
- Lessons learned in modeling schizophrenic and depressed responsive virtual humans for training (2003)
- Friendship relations with embodied conversational agents: Integrating social psychology in ECA design (2002)
- Getting personal with computers: how to design personalities for agents (1999)
- 100 Best AI Movies
- Agent Persona Instrument
- Anthropomorphism, Turing Test & Uncanny Valley
- Artificial Consciousness
- Artificial Imagination
- Artificial Intuition
- Artificial Moral Agents (AMAs)
- Augmented Intelligence
- Automated Personality
- Avatars & Therapy
- Computational Dreaming Meta Guide
- Consciousness Meta Guide
- ELIZA (Joseph Weizenbaum)
- ELIZA effect
- Ethical Artificial Intelligence
- Human Personality & Computational Models
- Humor Generation
- Hyperreality, Extended Reality & Artificial Intelligence
- Imagination Engines
- Jobs & Artificial Intelligence
- Labyrinths, Extended Reality & Artificial Intelligence
- Loebner Prize
- Machine Consciousness
- Medical Coding
- NSCA (Neural-Symbolic Cognitive Agent)
- Persona Management
- Personality Recognizer (Personality Recogniser)
- Psychographics & Natural Language
- Relational Agents
- Robopsychology Citations
- SAL (Sensitive Artificial Listener)
- Semantic Compaction Systems
- Symbol Dictionaries & Symbol Encyclopedias
- Virtual Nurses
- Virtual Reality Patient
- Virtual Reality Therapy & Artificial Intelligence
- Virtual Reality Treatment